232 Works

Data from: Selection against recombinant hybrids maintains reproductive isolation in hybridizing Populus species despite F1 fertility and recurrent gene flow

Camille Christie, Kai N. Stölting, Luisa Bresadola, Barbara Fussi, Berthold Heinze, Daniel Wegmann, Christian Lexer & Camille Christe
Natural hybrid zones have proven to be precious tools for understanding the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation (RI) and therefore species. Most available genomic studies of hybrid zones using whole- or partial-genome resequencing approaches have focused on comparisons of the parental source populations involved in genome admixture, rather than exploring fine-scale patterns of chromosomal ancestry across the full admixture gradient present between hybridizing species. We have studied three well-known European ‘replicate’ hybrid zones of...

Data from: Light availability impacts structure and function of phototrophic stream biofilms across domains and trophic levels

Mia M. Bengtsson, Karoline Wagner, Clarissa Schwab, Tim Urich & Tom J. Battin
Phototrophic biofilms are ubiquitous in freshwater and marine environments where they are critical for biogeochemical cycling, food webs and in industrial applications. In streams, phototrophic biofilms dominate benthic microbial life and harbor an immense prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial biodiversity with biotic interactions across domains and trophic levels. Here, we examine how community structure and function of these biofilms respond to varying light availability, as the crucial energy source for phototrophic biofilms. Using metatranscriptomics, we found...

Data from: BsRADseq: screening DNA methylation in natural populations of non-model species

Emiliano Trucchi, Anna B. Mazzarella, Gregor D. Gilfillan, Maria T. Lorenzo, Peter Schönswetter & Ovidiu Paun
Epigenetic modifications are expected to occur at a much faster rate than genetic mutations, potentially causing isolated populations to stochastically drift apart, or if they are subjected to different selective regimes, to directionally diverge. A high level of genome-wide epigenetic divergence between individuals occupying distinct habitats is therefore predicted. Here, we introduce bisulfite-converted restriction site associated DNA sequencing (bsRADseq), an approach to quantify the level of DNA methylation differentiation across multiple individuals. This reduced representation...

Data from: Differentiating self-projection from simulation during mentalizing: evidence from fMRI

Matthias Schurz, Christoph Kogler, Thomas Scherndl, Martin Kronbichler & Anton Kühberger
We asked participants to predict which of two colors a similar other (student) and a dissimilar other (retiree) likes better. We manipulated if color-pairs were two hues from the same color-category (e.g. green) or two conceptually different colors (e.g. green versus blue). In the former case, the mental state that has to be represented (i.e., the percept of two different hues of green) is predominantly non-conceptual or phenomenal in nature, which should promote mental simulation...

Data from: Studying developmental variation with Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis (GMIA)

Christine Mayer, Brian D. Metscher, Gerd B. Müller & Philipp Mitteroecker
The ways in which embryo development can vary across individuals of a population determine how genetic variation translates into adult phenotypic variation. The study of developmental variation has been hampered by the lack of quantitative methods for the joint analysis of embryo shape and the spatial distribution of cellular activity within the developing embryo geometry. By drawing from the strength of geometric morphometrics and pixel/voxel-based image analysis, we present a new approach for the biometric...

Data from: The utility of cranial ontogeny for phylogenetic inference: a case study in crocodylians using geometric morphometrics

Akinobu Watanabe & Dennis E. Slice
The degree to which the ontogeny of organisms could facilitate our understanding of phylogenetic relationships has long been a subject of contention in evolutionary biology. The famed notion that ‘ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny’ has been largely discredited, but there remains an expectation that closely related organisms undergo similar morphological transformations throughout ontogeny. To test this assumption, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometric methods to characterize the cranial morphology of 10 extant crocodylian species and construct allometric trajectories...

Data from: Evolution of body shape in sympatric versus non-sympatric Tropheus populations of Lake Tanganyika

Michaela Kerschbaumer, Philipp Mitteroecker & Christian Sturmbauer
Allopatric speciation often yields ecologically equivalent sister species, so that their secondary admixis enforces competition. The shores of Lake Tanganyika harbor about 120 distinct populations of the cichlid genus Tropheus, but only some are sympatric. When alone, Tropheus occupies a relatively broad depth zone, but in sympatry, fish segregate by depth. To assess the effects of competition, we studied the partial co-occurrence of Tropheus moorii ‘Kaiser’ and ‘Kirschfleck’ with Tropheus polli. A previous study demonstrated...

Data from: Drivers shaping the diversity and biogeography of total and active bacterial communities in the South China Sea

Yao Zhang, Zihao Zhao, Minhan Dai, Nianzhi Jiao & Gerhard J. Herndl
To test the hypothesis that different drivers shape the diversity and biogeography of the total and active bacterial community, we examined the bacterial community composition along two transects, one from the inner Pearl River estuary to the open waters of the South China Sea (SCS) and the other from the Luzon Strait to the SCS basin, using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene (V1-3 regions) and thereby, characterizing the active and...

Data from: Massive structural redundancies in species composition patterns of floodplain forest moths

Christine Truxa & Konrad Fiedler
Terrestrial arthropod communities usually consist of very large species numbers. Data from experiments or long time-series would be required to ascertain the functional significance of individual species. Both are largely unavailable for species-rich natural communities. Recognising structural redundancies in species composition allows for an alternative approach to address how strong functional redundancy might be in natural assemblages, if structural and functional redundancies are related to each other. Determining structural redundancies is a regular topic in...

Data from: The EGA+GNM framework: an integrative approach to modelling behavioural syndromes

Jordan S. Martin, Jorg J. M. Massen, Vedrana Šlipogor, Thomas Bugnyar, Adrian V. Jaeggi & Sonja E. Koski
1. Behavioural syndromes refer to correlated suites of behavioural traits exhibiting consistent among-individual variation, i.e. personality. Factor analysis (FA) is currently the dominant method for modelling behavioural syndromes in humans and animals. Although FA is useful for inferring the latent causes underlying trait correlations, it does not account for pairwise behavioural interactions that also contribute to syndrome structure. Given that latent factors and pairwise interactions are likely ubiquitous causes of trait covariation, both should be...

Data from: Genetic differentiation and admixture between sibling allopolyploids in the Dactylorhiza majalis complex

Ovidiu Paun, Francisco Balao, Maria Tannhäuser, Maria Teresa Lorenzo & Mikael Hedrén
Allopolyploidization often happens recurrently, but the evolutionary significance of its iterative nature is not yet fully understood. Of particular interest are the gene flow dynamics and the mechanisms that allow young sibling polyploids to remain distinct while sharing the same ploidy, heritage and overlapping distribution areas. By using eight highly variable nuclear microsatellites, newly reported here, we investigate the patterns of divergence and gene flow between 386 polyploid and 42 diploid individuals, representing the sibling...

Data from: Reciprocal transplantations reveal strong niche differentiation among ploidy-differentiated species of the Senecio carniolicus aggregate (Asteraceae) in the easternmost Alps

Karl Hülber, Michaela Sonnleitner, Julian Haider, Martin Schwentenwein, Manuela Winkler, Gerald M. Schneeweiss & Peter Schönswetter
Phenotypic changes conferred by polyploidisation likely alter the ecological niche of polyploids, coming along with differences in performance compared to their diploid ancestors. However, it is largely unknown, whether these performance differences remain constant during the life history of plants. Diploid S. noricus, tetraploid S. disjunctus and hexaploid S. carniolicus s. str. of the autopolyploid species-complex of Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) from the easternmost Alps were reciprocally transplanted to address the following questions: Are there differences...

Data from: Modeling site heterogeneity with posterior mean site frequency profiles accelerates accurate phylogenomic estimation

Huai-Chun Wang, Bui Quang Minh, Edward Susko & Andrew J. Roger
Proteins have distinct structural and functional constraints at different sites that lead to site-specific preferences for particular amino acid residues as the sequences evolve. Heterogeneity in the amino acid substitution process between sites is not modeled by commonly used empirical amino acid exchange matrices. Such model misspecification can lead to artefacts in phylogenetic estimation such as long-branch attraction. Although sophisticated site-heterogeneous mixture models have been developed to address this problem in both Bayesian and maximum...

Data from: Relatedness within and between leks of golden-collared manakin differ between sexes and age classes

Leonida Fusani, Julia Barske, Chiara Natali, Guido Chelazzi & Claudio Ciofi
Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the evolution of leks, a mating system in which males aggregate at display sites where females choose their mates. Only a small proportion of males obtain copulations, and why other males join the lek remains unexplained. One hypothesis has called kin selection into play: if juvenile males join leks where their relatives display and contribute to attract females to the lek, they can gain indirect fitness benefits. We...

Data from: Scale and direction of adaptive introgression between black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera)

Adriana Suarez-Gonzalez, Charles A. Hefer, Christian Lexer, Quentin C.B. Cronk, Carl J. Douglas & Quentin C. B. Cronk
Introgression can introduce novel genetic variation at a faster rate than mutation alone, and result in adaptive introgression when adaptive alleles are maintained in the recipient genome over time by natural selection. A previous study from our group demonstrated adaptive introgression from Populus balsamifera into P. trichocarpa in a target genomic region. Here we expanded our local ancestry analysis to the whole genome of both parents to provide a comprehensive, unbiased view of introgression patterns...

Data from: Genetic structure of phenotypic robustness in the Collaborative Cross mouse diallel panel

Paula N. Gonzalez, Mihaela Pavlicev, Philipp Mitteroecker, Fernando Pardo-Manuel De Villena, Richard Spritz, Ralph Marcucio & Benedikt Hallgrimsson
Developmental stability and canalization describe the ability of developmental systems to minimize phenotypic variation in the face of stochastic micro-environmental effects, genetic variation and environmental influences. Canalization is the ability to minimize the effects of genetic or environmental effects, while developmental stability is the ability to minimize the effects of micro-environmental effects within individuals. Despite much attention, the mechanisms that underlie these two components of phenotypic robustness remain unknown. We investigated the genetic structure of...

Data from: Ancient DNA reveals differences in behaviour and sociality between brown bears and extinct cave bears

Gloria Gonzalez-Fortes, Aurora Grandal-D'Anglade, Ben Kolbe, Daniel Fernandes, Ioana N. Meleg, Ana Garcia-Vazquez, Ana C. Pinto-Llona, Silviu Constantin, Trino J. De Torres, Jose E. Ortiz, Christine Frischauf, Gernot Rabeder, Michael Hofreiter, Axel Barlow & Gloria G. Fortes
Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized the study of extinct species and populations, providing insights on phylogeny, phylogeography, admixture and demographic history. However, inferences on behaviour and sociality have been far less frequent. Here, we investigate the complete mitochondrial genomes of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears and middle Holocene brown bears that each inhabited multiple geographically proximate caves in northern Spain. In cave bears, we find that, although most caves were occupied simultaneously, each cave almost...

Data from: Genetic Allee effects and their interaction with ecological Allee effects

Meike J. Wittmann, Hanna Stuis & Dirk Metzler
1. It is now widely accepted that genetic processes such as inbreeding depression and loss of genetic variation can increase the extinction risk of small populations. However, it is generally unclear whether extinction risk from genetic causes gradually increases with decreasing population size or whether there is a sharp transition around a specific threshold population size. In the ecological literature, such threshold phenomena are called “strong Allee effects” and they can arise for example from...

Data from: The rediscovery of a long described species reveals additional complexity in speciation patterns of poeciliid fishes in sulfide springs

Maura Palacios, Lenin Arias-Rodrigues, Martin Plath, Constanze Eifert, Hannes Lerp, Anton Lamboj, Gary Voelker, Michael Tobler & Lenin Arias-Rodriguez
The process of ecological speciation drives the evolution of locally adapted and reproductively isolated populations in response to divergent natural selection. In Southern Mexico, several lineages of the freshwater fish species of the genus Poecilia have independently colonized toxic, hydrogen sulfide-rich springs. Even though ecological speciation processes are increasingly well understood in this system, aligning the taxonomy of these fish with evolutionary processes has lagged behind. While some sulfide spring populations are classified as ecotypes...

An explicit test of Pleistocene survival in peripheral versus nunatak refugia in two high mountain plant species

Da Pan, Wolfgang Willner, Karl Hülber & Gerald M. Schneeweiss
Pleistocene climate fluctuations had profound influence on the biogeographic history of many biota. As large areas in higher latitudes and high mountain ranges were covered by glaciers, biota were forced either to peripheral refugia (and possibly beyond to lowland refugia) or to interior refugia (nunataks), but nunatak survival remains controversial as it solely relies on correlative genetic evidence. Here, we test the nunatak hypothesis using two high alpine plant species of contrasting pollination modes (insect-pollinated...

Data from: Convergence of soil nitrogen isotopes across global climate gradients

Joseph M. Craine, Andrew J. Elmore, Lixin Wang, Laurent Augusto, W. Troy Baisden, E. N. J. Brookshire, Michael D. Cramer, Niles J. Hasselquist, Erik A. Hobbie, Ansgar Kahmen, Keisuke Koba, J. Marty Kranabetter, Michelle C. Mack, Erika Marin-Spiotta, Jordan R. Mayor, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Anders Michelsen, Gabriela B. Nardoto, Rafael S. Oliveira, Steven S. Perakis, Pablo L. Peri, Carlos A. Quesada, Andreas Richter, Louis A. Schipper, Bryan A. Stevenson … & Bernd Zeller
Quantifying global patterns of terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling is central to predicting future patterns of primary productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient fluxes to aquatic systems, and climate forcing. With limited direct measures of soil N cycling at the global scale, syntheses of the 15N:14N ratio of soil organic matter across climate gradients provide key insights into understanding global patterns of N cycling. In synthesizing data from over 6000 soil samples, we show strong global relationships among...

Data from: Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Simon Watson, Manoli Photakis, Silvia Abril, Alan N. Andersen, Elena Angulo, Inge Armbrecht, Xavier Arnan, Fabricio B. Baccaro, Tom R. Bishop, Raphael Boulay, Cristina Castracani, Israel Del Toro, Thibaut Delsinne, Mireia Diaz, David A. Donoso, Martha L. Enríquez, Tom M. Fayle, Donald H. Feener, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Crisanto Gómez, Donato A. Grasso, Sarah Groc … & C. Gomez
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction...

Data from: Exploring actinobacteria associated with rhizosphere and endosphere of the native Alpine medicinal plant Leontopodium nivale Subspecies alpinum

Martina Oberhofer, Jaqueline Hess, Marlene Leutgeb, Florian Gössnitzer, Thomas Rattei, Christoph Wawrosch & Sergey B. Zotchev
The rhizosphere of plants is enriched in nutrients facilitating growth of microorganisms, some of which are recruited as endophytes. Endophytes, especially Actinobacteria, are known to produce a plethora of bioactive compounds. We hypothesized that Leontopodium nivale subsp. alpinum (Edelweiss), a rare alpine medicinal plant, may serve as yet untapped source for uncommon Actinobacteria associated with this plant. Rhizosphere soil of native Alpine plants was used, after physical and chemical pretreatments, for isolating Actinobacteria. Isolates were...

Data from: The effectiveness of pseudomagic traits in promoting divergence and enhancing local adaptation

Maria R. Servedio & Bürger Reinhard
The first file contains the code necessary to generate figures in the style of Fig 1 of the associated manuscript. These figures show the divergence between both ecological traits and mating traits by the strength of mating preference. Different panels correspond to different rates of recombination between these loci that control these types of traits. Files S1 and S2 are Mathematica versions of the corresponding files in the Supplementary Information of the paper.

Unobtrusive tracking of interpersonal orienting and distance predicts the subjective quality of social interactions

Juha M Lahnakoski, Paul AG Forbes, Cade McCall & Leonhard Schilbach
Interpersonal coordination of behavior is essential for smooth social interactions. Measures of interpersonal behavior, however, often rely on subjective evaluations, invasive measurement techniques or gross measures of motion. Here, we constructed an unobtrusive motion tracking system that enables detailed analysis of behavior at the individual and interpersonal levels, which we validated using wearable sensors. We evaluate dyadic measures of joint orienting and distancing, synchrony and gaze behaviors to summarize data collected during natural conversation and...

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