226 Works

Data from: Evolutionary relationships among bullhead sharks (Chondrichthyes: Heterodontiformes)

Tiffany S. Slater, Kate Ashbrook & Jürgen Kriwet
The evolution of modern sharks, skates and rays (Elasmobranchii) is largely enigmatic due to their possession of a labile cartilaginous skeleton; consequently, taxonomic assignment often depends on isolated teeth. Bullhead sharks (Heterodontiformes) are a group of basal neoselachians, thus their remains and relationships are integral to understanding elasmobranch evolution. Here we fully describe †Paracestracion danieli – a bullhead shark from the Late Jurassic plattenkalks of Eichstätt, Germany (150–154 Ma) – for its inclusion in cladistic...

Data from: Chimpanzee intellect: personality, performance and motivation with touchscreen tasks

Drew M. Altschul, Emma K. Wallace, Ruth Sonnweber, Masaki Tomonaga, Alex Weiss & Alexander Weiss
Human intellect is characterized by intercorrelated psychological domains, including intelligence, academic performance and personality. Higher openness is associated with higher intelligence and better academic performance, yet high performance among individuals is itself attributable to intelligence, not openness. High conscientiousness individuals, although not necessarily more intelligent, are better performers. Work with other species is not as extensive, yet animals display similar relationships between exploration- and persistence-related personality traits and performance on cognitive tasks. However, previous studies...

Meta-analysis of glucose tracing studies

Kevin Geyer, Joerg Schnecker, Stuart Grandy, Andreas Richter & Serita Frey
A longstanding assumption of glucose tracing experiments is that all glucose is microbially utilized during short incubations of ≤2 days to become microbial biomass or carbon dioxide. Carbon use efficiency (CUE) estimates have consequently ignored the formation of residues (non-living microbial products) although such materials could represent an important sink of glucose that is prone to stabilization as soil organic matter. We examined the dynamics of microbial residue formation from a short tracer experiment with...

Datasets used for the publication: State-dependence explains individual variation in nest defence behaviour in a long-lived bird

Margje E. De Jong, Marion Nicolaus, Rienk W. Fokkema & Maarten J.J.E. Loonen
The uploaded datasets were used to test if variation in states predicts nest defence behaviour (a ‘risky’ behaviour) in a long-lived species, the barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis). Repeated measures of nest defence towards a human intruder (flight initiation distance or FID) of females of known age were collected during 15 breeding seasons. Increasing values of FID represent increasing shyness. Adaptive models have predicted that an individual’s residual reproductive value or ‘asset’ is an important state...

A reversal in sensory processing accompanies ongoing ecological divergence and speciation in Rhagoletis pomonella

Cheyenne Tait, Hinal Kharva, Marco Schubert, Daniel Kritsch, Andy Sombke, Jürgen Rybak, Jeffrey Feder & Shannon Olsson
Changes in behavior often drive rapid adaptive evolution and speciation. However, the mechanistic basis for behavioral shifts is largely unknown. The tephritid fruit fly Rhagoletis pomonella is an example of ecological specialization and speciation in action via a recent host plant shift from hawthorn to apple. These flies primarily utilize specific odors to locate fruit, and because they mate only on or near host fruit, changes in odor preference for apples versus hawthorns translate directly...

Global maps of current (1979-2013) and future (2061-2080) habitat suitability probability for 1,485 European endemic plant species

Robin Pouteau, Idoia Biurrun, Caroline Brunel, Milan Chytrý, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Trevor Fristoe, Rense Haveman, Carsten Hobohm, Florian Jansen, Holger Kreft, Jonathan Lenoir, Bernd Lenzner, Carsten Meyer, Jesper Erenskjold Moeslund, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Jens-Christian Svenning, Wilfried Thuiller, Patrick Weigelt, Thomas Wohlgemuth, Qiang Yang & Mark Van Kleunen
Aims: The rapid increase in the number of species that have naturalized beyond their native range is among the most apparent features of the Anthropocene. How alien species will respond to other processes of future global changes is an emerging concern and remains largely misunderstood. We therefore ask whether naturalized species will respond to climate and land-use change differently than those species not yet naturalized anywhere in the world. Location: Global Methods: We investigated future...

Cytoplasmic incompatibility between Old and New World populations of a tramp ant

Çigdem Ün, Eva Schultner, Alejandro Manzano-Marín, Laura V. Flórez, Bernhard Seifert, Antonia Klein, Jürgen Heinze & Jan Oettler
Reproductive manipulation by endosymbiotic Wolbachia can cause unequal inheritance, allowing the manipulator to spread and potentially impacting evolutionary dynamics in infected hosts. Tramp and invasive species are excellent models to study the dynamics of host-Wolbachia associations because introduced populations often diverge in their microbiomes after colonizing new habitats, resulting in infection polymorphisms between native and introduced populations. Ants are the most abundant group of insects on earth, and numerous ant species are classified as highly...

Testosterone amplifies the negative valence of an agonistic gestural display by exploiting receiver perceptual bias

Nigel K. Anderson, Martina Grabner, Lisa A. Mangiamele, Doris Preininger & Matthew J. Fuxjager
Many animals communicate by performing elaborate displays that are incredibly extravagant and wildly bizarre. So, how do these displays evolve? One idea is that innate sensory biases arbitrarily favor the emergence of certain display traits over others, leading to the design of an unusual display. Here, we study how physiological factors associated with signal production influence this process, a topic that has received almost no attention. We focus on a tropical frog, whose males compete...

Data from: The comparative genomic landscape of adaptive radiation in Crater Lake cichlid fishes

Peiwen Xiong, C. Darrin Hulsey, Carmelo Fruciano, Wai Y. Wong, Alexander Nater, Andreas F. Kautt, Oleg Simakov, Martin Pippel, Shigehiro Kuraku, Axel Meyer & Paolo Franchini
Factors ranging from ecological opportunity to genome composition might explain why only some lineages form adaptive radiations. While being rare, particular systems can provide natural experiments within an identical ecological setting where the factors promoting increased species numbers and phenotypic divergence in two closely related lineages is notably different. We investigated one such natural experiment using two de novo assembled and 40 re-sequenced genomes and asked why two closely related Neotropical cichlid fish lineages, the...

Supplementary code for: Polygenic local adaptation in metapopulations: a stochastic eco-evolutionary model

Eniko Szep, Himani Sachdeva & Nick Barton
This paper analyzes the conditions for local adaptation in a metapopulation with infinitely many islands under a model of hard selection, where population size depends on local fitness. Each island belongs to one of two distinct ecological niches or habitats. Fitness is influenced by an additive trait which is under habitat-dependent directional selection. Our analysis is based on the diffusion approximation and accounts for both genetic drift and demographic stochasticity. By neglecting linkage disequilibria, it...

A masculinizing supergene underlies an exaggerated male reproductive morph in a spider

Frederik Hendrickx, Zoë De Corte, Gontran Sonet, Steven M Van Belleghem, Stephan Köstlbacher & Carl Vangestel
In many species, individuals can develop into strikingly different morphs, which are determined by a simple Mendelian locus. How selection shapes loci that control complex p henotypic differences remains poorly understood. In the spider gibbosus, males either develop into a ‘hunched’morph with conspicuous head structures or as a fast developing ‘flat’morph with a female- like appearance. We show that the hunched differs from the f lat-determinin g allele by a hunch-specific genomic fragment of approximately...

Light and temperature measurements and untargeted proteomic measurements

Kristin Tessmar-Raible
The right timing of animal physiology and behavior ensures the stability of populations and ecosystems. In order to predict anthropogenic impacts on these timings, more insight is needed into the interplay between environment and molecular timing mechanisms. This is particularly true in marine environments. Using high-resolution, long-term daylight measurements from a habitat of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, we find that temporal changes in UVA/deep violet intensities, more than longer wavelengths, can provide annual time...

Data from: Probing the ecology and climate of the Eocene Southern Ocean with sand tiger sharks Striatolamia macrota

Sora Kim, Sarah Zeichner, Albert Colman, Howie Scher, Jürgen Kriwet & Thomas Mörs
During the Eocene, the Earth climate system transitioned from greenhouse to icehouse conditions. Central to many explanations is the Southern Ocean—where tectonic configurations influenced oceanic gateways, ocean circulation reduced heat transport, and/or greenhouse gas declines prompted glaciation. To date, few studies have explored the implications of this climate transition on high latitude, marine vertebrates. Seymour Island near the Antarctic Peninsula preserves a rich, diverse fossil assemblage in the Tertiary Eocene La Meseta (TELM) Formation (Fm)....

Sex-specific effects of cooperative breeding and colonial nesting on prosociality in corvids

Lisa Horn, Thomas Bugnyar, Michael Griesser, Marietta Hengl, Ei-Ichi Izawa, Tim Oortwijn, Christiane Rössler, Clara Scheer, Martina Schiestl, Masaki Suyama, Alex H. Taylor, Lisa-Claire Vanhooland, Auguste M. P. Von Bayern, Yvonne Zürcher & Jorg J. M. Massen
The investigation of prosocial behavior is of particular interest from an evolutionary perspective. Comparisons of prosociality across non-human animal species have, however, so far largely focused on primates, and their interpretation is hampered by the diversity of paradigms and procedures used. Here we present the first systematic comparison of prosocial behavior across multiple species in a taxonomic group outside the primate order, namely the bird family Corvidae. We measured prosociality in 8 corvid species, which...

Transgressing Wallace´s Line brings hyperdiverse weevils down to earth

Harald Letsch, Michael Balke, Emmanuel Toussaint, Pramesa Narakusumo, Konrad Fiedler & Alexander Riedel
Wallace´s Line, located in the heart of the Indo-Australian archipelago, has historically been hypothesized to strongly inhibit dispersal. Taxa crossing this barrier are confronted with different biota of Asian or Australian origin, respectively, but the extent to which these conditions have affected the evolution of the colonizing lineages remains largely unknown. We examined the potential correlations of body size, lifestyle and biogeographical distribution in the weevil genus Trigonopterus. These beetles are highly diverse both on...

Data from: An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola)

Alexandros Vasilikopoulos, Bernhard Misof, Karen Meusemann, Doria Lieberz, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G. Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Ralph S. Peters, Alexander Donath, Lars Podsiadlowski, Christoph Mayer, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Böhm, Shanlin Liu, Paschalia Kapli, Carola Greve, James E. Jepson, Xingyue Liu, Xin Zhou, Horst Aspöck & Ulrike Aspöck
Background The latest advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have facilitated the resolution of the phylogeny of insects, yet parts of the tree of Holometabola remain unresolved. The phylogeny of Neuropterida has been extensively studied, but no strong consensus exists concerning the phylogenetic relationships within the order Neuroptera, and the timeline of diversification of thelineages of Neuropterida. Here, we assembled a novel transcriptomic dataset to address previously unresolved issues in the phylogeny of Neuropterida and to...

Genomic signatures of domestication in Old World camels

Robert Fitak, Elmira Mohandesan, Jukka Corander, Adiya Yadamsuren, Battsetseg Chuluunbat, Omer Abdelhadi, Abdul Raziq, Peter Nagy, Chris Walzer, Bernard Faye & Pamela Burger
Domestication begins with the selection of animals showing less fear of humans. In most domesticates, selection signals for tameness have been superimposed by intensive breeding for economical or other desirable traits. Old World camels, conversely, have maintained high genetic variation and lack these secondary bottlenecks associated with breed development. By re-sequencing multiple genomes from dromedaries, Bactrian camels, and their endangered wild relatives, we show that positive selection for candidate genes underlying traits collectively referred to...

Host-symbiont stress response to lack-of-sulfide in the giant ciliate mutualism

Salvador Espada-Hinojosa, Judith Drexel, Julia Kesting, Edwin Kniha, Iason Pifeas, Lukas Schuster, Jean-Marie Volland, Helena C. Zambalos & Monika Bright
The mutualism between the thioautotrophic bacterial ectosymbiont Candidatus Thiobius zoothamnicola and the giant ciliate Zoothamnium niveum thrives in a variety of shallow-water marine environments with highly fluctuating sulfide emissions. To persist over time, both partners must reproduce and ensure the transmission of symbionts before the sulfide stops, which enables carbon fixation of the symbiont and nourishment of the host. We experimentally investigated the response of this mutualism to depletion of sulfide. We found that colonies...

Introduction history mediates naturalization and invasiveness of cultivated plants

Nicole Kinlock, Katharina Dehnen-Schmutz, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Holger Kreft, Patrick Weigelt, Qiang Yang & Mark Van Kleunen
Aim: Species characteristics and cultivation are both associated with alien plant naturalization and invasiveness. Particular species characteristics are favored for cultivation, obscuring the relationship between traits and naturalization success. We sought to better understand the drivers of naturalization and invasiveness by analyzing relationships with species characteristics and cultivation and by disentangling the direct effects of characteristics from the indirect effects mediated by cultivation. Location: Great Britain Time period: c. 1000–present Major taxa studied: Seed plants...

mRNA editing analysis of Doryteuthis pealeii

Sofia Medina Ruiz, Caroline Albertin, Therese Mitros, Hannah Schmidbaur, Gustavo Sanchez, Z.Y. Wang, Jane Grimwood, Joshua Rosenthal, Clifton Ragsdale, Oleg Simakov & Daniel Rokhsar
Cephalopods are known for their large nervous systems, complex behaviors and morphological innovations. To investigate the genomic underpinnings of these features, we assembled the chromosomes of the Boston market squid Doryteuthis (Loligo) pealeii and the California two-spot octopus, Octopus bimaculoides, and compared them with those of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The genomes of the soft-bodied (coleoid) cephalopods are highly rearranged relative to other extant molluscs, indicating an intense, early burst of genome restructuring....

Database PCA: A middle Pleistocene Homo from Nesher Ramla, Israel

Hila May, Israel Hershkovitz, Rachel Sarig, Ariel Pokhojaev, Dominique Grimaud-Hervé, Emiliano Bruner, Cinzia Fornai, Rolf Quam, Juan-Luis Arsuaga, Viktoria A. Krenn, Maria Martinón-Torres, José María Bermúdez De Castro, Laura Martín-Francés, Viviane Slon, Lou Albessard-Ball, Amélie Vialet, Tim Schüler, Giorgio Manzi, Antonio Profico, Fabio Di Vincenzo, Gerhard W. Weber & Yossi Zaidner
It has long been believed that Neanderthals originated and flourished on the European continent. However, recent morphological and genetic studies have suggested that they may have received a genetic contribution from a yet unknown non-European group. Here we report on the recent discovery of archaic Homo fossils from the site of Nesher Ramla, Israel, which we dated to 140,000 to 120,000 years ago. Comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analyses of the parietal bones, mandible, and lower...

Data from: Historical divergence versus contemporary gene flow: evolutionary history of the calcicole Ranunculus alpestris group (Ranunculaceae) in the European Alps and the Carpathians

Peter Schönswetter, Andreas Tribsch, Ovidiu Paun & Manuela Winkler
Although many species have similar total distributional ranges, they might be restricted to very different habitats and might have different phylogeographic histories. In the European Alps, our excellent knowledge of the evolutionary history of silicate-dwelling plants is contrasted by a virtual lack of data from limestone-dwelling plants. These two categories are expected to differ strongly with respect to their glacial history. The calcicole Ranunculus alpestris group comprises three diploid species of alpine habitats. Analyses of...

Data from: The promiscuous and the chaste: frequent allopolyploid speciation and its genomic consequences in American daisies (Melampodium sect. Melampodium; Asteraceae)

Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss, Cordula Blöch, Barbara Turner, José L. Villaseñor, Tod F. Stuessy & Gerald M. Schneeweiss
Polyploidy, an important factor in eukaryotic evolution, is especially abundant in angiosperms, where it often acts in concert with hybridization to produce allopolyploids. The application of molecular phylogenetic techniques has identified the origins of numerous allopolyploids, but little is known on genomic and chromosomal consequences of allopolyploidization, despite their important role in conferring divergence of allopolyploids from their parental species. Here, using several plastid and nuclear sequence markers, we clarify the origin of tetra- and...

Data from: Interploidal hybridization and mating patterns in the Sphagnum subsecundum complex

Mariana Ricca, P. Szövényi, Matthew G Johnson, A Jonathan Shaw & Eva M. Temsch
Polyploidization is thought to result in instant sympatric speciation, but several cases of hybrid zones between one of the parental species and its polyploid derivative have been documented. Previous work showed that diploid Sphagnum lescurii is an allopolyploid derived from the haploids S. lescurii (maternal progenitor) and S. subsecundum (paternal progenitor). Here we report the results from analyses of a population where allodiploid and haploid S. lescurii co-occur and produce sporophytes. We tested (1) whether...

Data from: Altered gene expression and ecological divergence in sibling allopolyploids of Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae)

Ovidiu Paun, Richard M. Bateman, Michael F. Fay, Javier A. Luna, Justin Moat, Mikael Hedrén & Mark W Chase
Background: Hybridization and polyploidy are potent forces that have regularly stimulated plant evolution and adaptation. Dactylorhiza majalis s.s., D. traunsteineri s.l. and D. ebudensis are three allopolyploid species of a polyploid complex formed through unidirectional (and, in the first two cases, recurrent) hybridization between the widespread diploids D. fuchsii and D. incarnata. Differing considerably in geographical extent and ecological tolerance, the three allopolyploids together provide a useful system to explore genomic responses to allopolyploidization and...

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