40 Works

Morphometric variation at different spatial scales: coordination and compensation in the emergence of organismal form

Philipp Mitteroecker, Silvester Bartsch, Nicole Grunstra, Anne Le Maitre, Fred Bookstein & Corinna Erkinger
It is a classic aim of quantitative and evolutionary biology to infer genetic architecture and potential evolutionary responses to selection from the variance-covariance structure of measured traits. But a meaningful genetic or developmental interpretation of raw covariances is difficult, and classic concepts of morphological integration do not directly apply to modern morphometric data. Here we present a new morphometric strategy based on the comparison of morphological variation across different spatial scales. If anatomical elements vary...

Data from: The effectiveness of pseudomagic traits in promoting divergence and enhancing local adaptation

Maria R. Servedio & Bürger Reinhard
The first file contains the code necessary to generate figures in the style of Fig 1 of the associated manuscript. These figures show the divergence between both ecological traits and mating traits by the strength of mating preference. Different panels correspond to different rates of recombination between these loci that control these types of traits. Files S1 and S2 are Mathematica versions of the corresponding files in the Supplementary Information of the paper.

Data from: Mosses reduce soil nitrogen availability in a subarctic birch forest via effects on soil thermal regime and sequestration of deposited nitrogen

Marianne Koranda & Anders Michelsen
In high-latitude ecosystems, bryophytes are important drivers of ecosystem functions. Alterations in abundance of mosses due to global change may thus strongly influence carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and hence cause feedback on climate. The effects of mosses on soil microbial activity are, however, still poorly understood. Our study aims at elucidating how and by which mechanisms bryophytes influence microbial decomposition processes of soil organic matter and thus soil nutrient availability. We present results...

Unobtrusive tracking of interpersonal orienting and distance predicts the subjective quality of social interactions

Juha M Lahnakoski, Paul AG Forbes, Cade McCall & Leonhard Schilbach
Interpersonal coordination of behavior is essential for smooth social interactions. Measures of interpersonal behavior, however, often rely on subjective evaluations, invasive measurement techniques or gross measures of motion. Here, we constructed an unobtrusive motion tracking system that enables detailed analysis of behavior at the individual and interpersonal levels, which we validated using wearable sensors. We evaluate dyadic measures of joint orienting and distancing, synchrony and gaze behaviors to summarize data collected during natural conversation and...

Native biodiversity collapse in the Eastern Mediterranean

Paolo G. Albano, Jan Steger, Marija Bošnjak, Beata Dunne, Zara Guifarro, Elina Turapova, Quan Hua, Darrell Kaufman, Gil Rilov & Martin Zuschin
Global warming causes the poleward shift of the trailing edges of marine ectotherm species distributions. In the semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea, continental masses and oceanographic barriers do not allow natural connectivity with thermophilic species pools: as trailing edges retreat, a net diversity loss occurs. We quantify this loss on the Israeli shelf, among the warmest areas in the Mediterranean, by comparing current native molluscan richness with the historical one obtained from surficial death assemblages. We recorded...

Data from: ‘In and out of’ the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Himalayas: centers of origin and diversification compared across five clades of Eurasian montane and alpine passerine birds

Martin Päckert, Adrien Favre, Jan Schnitzler, Jochen Martens, Yue-Hua Sun, Dieter Thomas Tietze, Frank Hailer, Ingo Michalak & Patrick Strutzenberger
Encompassing some of the major hotspots of biodiversity on Earth, large mountain systems have long held the attention of evolutionary biologists. The region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is considered a biogeographic source for multiple colonization events into adjacent areas including the northern Palearctic. The faunal exchange between the QTP and adjacent regions could thus represent a one-way street (‘out of’ the QTP). However, immigration into the QTP region has so far received only little...

Atmospheric transport is a major pathway of microplastics to remote regions

Nikolaos Evangeliou, Henrik Grythe, Zbigniew Klimont, Chris Heyes, Sabine Eckhardt, Susana Lopez-Aparicio & Andreas Stohl
In the recent years, a large attention has been given to pollution from plastic products as a major environmental problem. Plastics degrade into smaller particles in the environment via photodegradation, physical abrasion, hydrolysis and biodegradation. Microplastics (1 um to 5 mm size particles) have been reported to affect coral reefs, marine and terrestrial animals, as well as humans. It has been reported that about 30% of microplastics in freshwater and oceanic ecosystems are tire wear...

Source pools and disharmony of the world’s island floras

Christian König, Patrick Weigelt, Amanda Taylor, Anke Stein, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Petr Pysek, Mark Van Kleunen, Marten Winter, Cyrille Chatelain, Jan Wieringa, Pavel Krestov & Holger Kreft
Island disharmony refers to the biased representation of higher taxa on islands compared to their mainland source regions and represents a central concept in island biology. Here, we develop a generalizable framework for approximating these source regions and conduct the first global assessment of island disharmony and its underlying drivers. We compiled vascular plant species lists for 178 oceanic islands and 735 mainland regions. Using mainland data only, we modelled species turnover as a function...

Glucocorticoids link forest type to local abundance in tropical birds

Simone Messina, David Edwards, Valeria Marasco, Virginie Canoine, Cindy Cosset, Suzanne Tomassi, Suzan Benedick, Marcel Eens & David Costantini
Selective logging is a major driver of environmental changes in the tropics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in understanding which traits make bird species resilient or vulnerable to such changes. Physiological stress mediated by the steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) might underlie changes in local abundance of species because it regulates a range of body functions and behaviours to maintain homeostasis in changing environments. We conducted a three-year study to assess: (i) the variation in...

Data from: Ecological regime shift preserved in the Anthropocene stratigraphic record

Adam Tomasovych, Paolo Albano, Tomas Fuksi, Ivo Gallmetzer, Alexandra Haselmair, Michal Kowalewski, Rafał Nawrot, Vedrana Nerlovic, Daniele Scarponi & Martin Zuschin
Paleoecological data are unique historical archives that extend back far beyond the last several decades of ecological observations. However, the fossil record of continental shelves has been perceived as too coarse and incomplete to detect processes occurring at decadal scales relevant to ecology and conservation. Here we show that the youngest (Anthropocene) fossil record on a continental shelf of the Adriatic Sea provides decadal-scale temporal resolution that is adequate for documenting an abrupt ecological shift...

Detecting phylogenetic signal and adaptation in papionin cranial shape by decomposing variation at different spatial scales

Nicole Grunstra, Anne Le Maítre, Silvester Bartsch & Philipp Mitteroecker
Phylogenetic reconstruction based on morphometric data is hampered by homoplasies. For example, many similarities in cranial form between primate taxa more strongly reflect ecological similarities rather than phylogenetic relatedness. However, the way in which the different cranial bones constitute cranial form is, if at all, of less functional relevance and thus largely hidden from selection. We propose that these “constructional details” are better indicators of phylogenetic history than any large-scale shape feature or raw form...

Data from: A unique hybodontiform skeleton provides novel insights into Mesozoic chondrichthyan life

Sebastian Stumpf, Faviel A. López-Romero, René Kindlimann, Frederic Lacombat, Burkhard Pohl & Jürgen Kriwet
Asteracanthus apparently was one of the most common Mesozoic hybodontiform chondrichthyans, as remains traditionally referred to this genus have been reported almost worldwide from Middle Triassic to Late Cretaceous strata so far. Asteracanthus was erected by Louis Agassiz for Late Jurassic fin spines with stellate tubercles. Later, Arthur Smith Woodward synonymized Strophodus, originally introduced by Agassiz for distinctive crushing teeth of Triassic to Cretaceous age, with Asteracanthus based on associated teeth and spines from the...

Learned predators enhance biological control via organizational upward and trophic top-down cascades

Peter Schausberger, Demet Cekin & Alena Litin
1. Learning is a behavioral change based on memory of previous experiences and a ubiquitous phenomenon in animals. Learning effects are commonly life stage- and age-specific. In many animals, early life experiences lead to pervasive and persistent behavioral changes. 2. There is broad consensus that learning has far-reaching implications to biological control. Proximate and ultimate factors of individual learning by parasitoids and true predators are relatively well understood, yet the consequences of learning to higher...

Nitrogen isotope fractionation during archaeal ammonia oxidation: coupled estimates from measurements of residual ammonium and accumulated nitrite

Wolfgang Wanek & Maria Mooshammer
The naturally occurring nitrogen (N) isotopes, 15N and 14N, exhibit different reaction rates during many microbial N transformation processes, which results in N isotope fractionation. Such isotope effects are critical parameters for interpreting natural stable isotope abundances as proxies for biological process rates in the environment across scales. The kinetic isotope effect of ammonia oxidation (AO) to nitrite (NO2-), performed by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), is generally ascribed to the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase...

Data from: VolcanoFinder: genomic scans for adaptive introgression

Derek Setter, Sylvain Mousset, Xiaoheng Cheng, Rasmus Nielsen, Michael DeGiorgio & Joachim Hermisson
Recent research shows that introgression between closely-related species is an important source of adaptive alleles for a wide range of taxa. Typically, detection of adaptive introgression from genomic data relies on comparative analyses that require sequence data from both the recipient and the donor species. However, in many cases, the donor is unknown or the data is not currently available. Here, we introduce a genome-scan method---VolcanoFinder---to detect recent events of adaptive introgression using polymorphism data...

ThunderSeis Seismo-Acoustic Network

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This is a multi-component short term network deployed for approximately 6 weeks to measure thunder-induced ground motion and infrasound at the Gaisberg mountain in Salzburg, Austria. Data is from ~ 100 FairField Gen2 3C 5Hz seismic nodes, several traditional short period sensors and several seismically-decoupled Hyperion infrasound sensors. Data was aquired from a multi-geometry array, made of four small-aperture arrays, seismic lines and a kilometer-scale irregular ring.

Data from: Four myriapod relatives – but who are sisters? No end to debates on relationships among the four major myriapod subgroups

Nikolaus U. Szucsich, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Blanke, Alexander Böhm, Alexander Donath, Makiko Fukui, Simon Grove, Shanlin Liu, Oliver Macek, Ryuichiro Machida, Bernhard Misof, Yasutaka Nakagaki, Lars Podsiadlowski, Kaoru Sekiya, Shigekazu Tomizuka, Björn M. Von Reumont, Robert M. Waterhouse, Manfred Walzl, Guanliang Meng, Xin Zhou, Günther Pass & Karen Meusemann
Background: Phylogenetic relationships among the myriapod subgroups Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Symphyla and Pauropoda are still not robustly resolved. The first phylogenomic study covering all subgroups resolved phylogenetic relationships congruently to morphological evidence but is in conflict with most previously published phylogenetic trees based on diverse molecular data. Outgroup choice and long-branch attraction effects were stated as possible explanations for these incongruencies. In this study, we addressed these issues by extending the myriapod and outgroup taxon sampling...

The environmental factors limiting the distribution of shallow-water terebratulid brachiopods

Diego A. García-Ramos, Stjepan Coric, Michael M. Joachimski & Martin Zuschin
The Cenozoic genus Terebratula seems to be an exception to the Post-Permian trend in brachiopod retreat to offshore habitats because it was species-rich and numerically abundant in warm-temperate shallow-water environments in the Mediterranean and the Paratethys realms. This was so despite the general dominance of bivalves and the pervasive bioturbation and predation pressure during the Neogene. Terebratula, however, went extinct in the Calabrian (Pleistocene). The optimal environmental conditions for Terebratula during its prime are poorly...

Data from: Why do zoos attract crows? A comparative study from Europe and Asia

László Kövér, Szabolcs Lengyel, Makiko Takenaka, Alice Kirchmeir, Florian Uhl, Rachel Miller & Christine Schwab
Crows have successfully colonized many cities and urban zoos have been important in this process. To evaluate why zoos attract crows, we quantified crow numbers and behaviour in three zoos in Europe (Debrecen, Edinburgh, Vienna) and one in Asia (Sapporo). Data were collected in 445 surveys over 297 days in summer 2014 and winter 2014-15. We found that crow numbers were highest in Vienna, intermediate in Debrecen and Edinburgh and lowest in Sapporo, increased significantly...

Data from: Evolutionary relationships among bullhead sharks (Chondrichthyes: Heterodontiformes)

Tiffany S. Slater, Kate Ashbrook & Jürgen Kriwet
The evolution of modern sharks, skates and rays (Elasmobranchii) is largely enigmatic due to their possession of a labile cartilaginous skeleton; consequently, taxonomic assignment often depends on isolated teeth. Bullhead sharks (Heterodontiformes) are a group of basal neoselachians, thus their remains and relationships are integral to understanding elasmobranch evolution. Here we fully describe †Paracestracion danieli – a bullhead shark from the Late Jurassic plattenkalks of Eichstätt, Germany (150–154 Ma) – for its inclusion in cladistic...

Allometric modelling of plant biomass from drone-acquired photographs: drone images, ground control marker coordinates and biomass data from 36 sites, 2016-2020

A. Cunliffe, K. Anderson, F. Boschetti, H. Graham, R. Brazier, I. Myers-Smith, T. Astor, M. Boer, L. Calvo, P. Clark, M. Cramer, M. Encinas-Lara, S. Escarzaga, J. Fernández-Guisuraga, A. Fisher, K. Gdulová, B. Gillespie, A. Griebel, N. Hanan, M. Hanggito, S. Haselberger, C. Havrilla, W. Ji, J. Karl, M. Kirchhoff … & R. Wojcikiewicz
This dataset contains RGB photographs acquired from drone surveys. There are 741 harvest plots from 38 surveys at 36 sites around the world. Each site was approximately 1 ha in area. Included with the photographic images are the coordinates of ground control markers, biomass, taxonomic and location data for harvest plots and ancillary metadata. The observations can be used to obtain allometric size-biomass models. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award...

Sex-specific effects of cooperative breeding and colonial nesting on prosociality in corvids

Lisa Horn, Thomas Bugnyar, Michael Griesser, Marietta Hengl, Ei-Ichi Izawa, Tim Oortwijn, Christiane Rössler, Clara Scheer, Martina Schiestl, Masaki Suyama, Alex H. Taylor, Lisa-Claire Vanhooland, Auguste M. P. Von Bayern, Yvonne Zürcher & Jorg J. M. Massen
The investigation of prosocial behavior is of particular interest from an evolutionary perspective. Comparisons of prosociality across non-human animal species have, however, so far largely focused on primates, and their interpretation is hampered by the diversity of paradigms and procedures used. Here we present the first systematic comparison of prosocial behavior across multiple species in a taxonomic group outside the primate order, namely the bird family Corvidae. We measured prosociality in 8 corvid species, which...

Transgressing Wallace´s Line brings hyperdiverse weevils down to earth

Harald Letsch, Michael Balke, Emmanuel Toussaint, Pramesa Narakusumo, Konrad Fiedler & Alexander Riedel
Wallace´s Line, located in the heart of the Indo-Australian archipelago, has historically been hypothesized to strongly inhibit dispersal. Taxa crossing this barrier are confronted with different biota of Asian or Australian origin, respectively, but the extent to which these conditions have affected the evolution of the colonizing lineages remains largely unknown. We examined the potential correlations of body size, lifestyle and biogeographical distribution in the weevil genus Trigonopterus. These beetles are highly diverse both on...

Light and temperature measurements and untargeted proteomic measurements

Kristin Tessmar-Raible
The right timing of animal physiology and behavior ensures the stability of populations and ecosystems. In order to predict anthropogenic impacts on these timings, more insight is needed into the interplay between environment and molecular timing mechanisms. This is particularly true in marine environments. Using high-resolution, long-term daylight measurements from a habitat of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, we find that temporal changes in UVA/deep violet intensities, more than longer wavelengths, can provide annual time...

Genomic signatures of domestication in Old World camels

Robert Fitak, Elmira Mohandesan, Jukka Corander, Adiya Yadamsuren, Battsetseg Chuluunbat, Omer Abdelhadi, Abdul Raziq, Peter Nagy, Chris Walzer, Bernard Faye & Pamela Burger
Domestication begins with the selection of animals showing less fear of humans. In most domesticates, selection signals for tameness have been superimposed by intensive breeding for economical or other desirable traits. Old World camels, conversely, have maintained high genetic variation and lack these secondary bottlenecks associated with breed development. By re-sequencing multiple genomes from dromedaries, Bactrian camels, and their endangered wild relatives, we show that positive selection for candidate genes underlying traits collectively referred to...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Vienna
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • Research Institute for Nature and Forest
  • Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Freiburg
  • Northern Arizona University
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences