148 Works

Data from: Phenotypic and genetic divergence among harbour porpoise populations associated with habitat regions in the North Sea and adjacent seas.

Carlos De Luna Lopez, Simon J. Goodman, Oliver Thatcher, Paul D. Jepson, Liselotte Andersen, Krystal Tolley & Alan R. Hoelzel
Determining the mechanisms that generate population structure is essential to the understanding of speciation and the evolution of biodiversity. Here, we investigate a geographic range that transects two habitat gradients, the North Sea to North Atlantic transition, and the temperate to sub-polar regions. We studied the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), a small odontocete inhabiting both sub-polar and temperate waters. To assess differentiation among putative populations we measured morphological variation at cranial traits (N=462 individuals) and...

Data from: Social effects on foraging behaviour and success depend on local environmental conditions

Harry H. Marshall, Alecia J. Carter, Alexandra Ashford, J. Marcus Rowcliffe & Guy Cowlishaw
In social groups, individuals' dominance rank, social bonds, and kinship with other group members have been shown to influence their foraging behavior. However, there is growing evidence that the particular effects of these social traits may also depend on local environmental conditions. We investigated this by comparing the foraging behavior of wild chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, under natural conditions and in a field experiment where food was spatially clumped. Data were collected from 55 animals...

Data from: The effect of close relatives on unsupervised Bayesian clustering algorithms in population genetic structure analysis

Silvia T. Rodríguez-Ramilo & Jinliang Wang
The inference of population genetic structures is essential in many research areas in population genetics, conservation biology and evolutionary biology. Recently, unsupervised Bayesian clustering algorithms have been developed to detect a hidden population structure from genotypic data, assuming among others that individuals taken from the population are unrelated. Because of this hypothesis, markers in a sample taken from a subpopulation can be considered to be in Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. However, close relatives might be...

Data from: Climate impacts on trans-ocean dispersal and habitat in gray whales from the Pleistocene to 2100

S. Elizabeth Alter, Matthias Meyer, Klaas Post, Paul Czechowski, Peter Gravlund, Cork Gaines, Howard C. Rosenbaum, Kristin Kaschner, Samuel T. Turvey, Johannes Van Der Plicht, Beth Shapiro & Michael Hofreiter
Arctic animals face dramatic habitat alteration due to ongoing climate change. Understanding how such species have responded to past glacial cycles can help us forecast their response to today's changing climate. Gray whales are among those marine species likely to be strongly affected by Arctic climate change, but a thorough analysis of past climate impacts on this species has been complicated by lack of information about an extinct population in the Atlantic. While little is...

Data from: The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organisation

Ben M. Sadd, Seth M. Barribeau, Guy Bloch, Dirk C. De Graaf, Peter Dearden, Christine Elsik, Jurgen Gadau, Cornelius Grimmelikhuijzen, Martin Hasselmann, Jeffrey Lozier, Hugh Robertson, Guy Smagghe, Eckart Stolle, Matthias Van Vaerenbergh, Robert Waterhouse, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Steffan Klasberg, Anna Bennett, Francisco Camara, Roderic Guigo, Katharina Hoff, Marco Mariotti, Monica Munos-Torres, Terence Murphy, Didac Santesmasses … & Kim C. Worley
Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome...

Data from: Testing hypotheses of mitochondrial gene-tree paraphyly: unraveling mitochondrial capture of the Streak-breasted Scimitar Babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis) by the Taiwan Scimitar Babbler (P. musicus)

Feng Dong, Fa-Sheng Zou, Fu-Min Lei, Wei Liang, Shou-Hsien Li & Xiao-Jun Yang
Species-level paraphyly inferred from mitochondrial gene trees is a prevalent phenomenon in taxonomy and systematics, but there are several potential causes that are not easily explained by currently used methods. The present study aims to test the underlying causes behind the observed paraphyly of Streak-breasted Scimitar Babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis) via statistical analyses of four mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nine nuclear (nuDNA) genes. Mitochondrial gene trees show paraphyly of P. ruficollis with respect to the Taiwan Scimitar...

Data from: Segregated water observed in a putative fish embryo cryopreservative

Oleg Kirichek, Alan K. Soper, Boris Dzyuba & William V. Holt
Development of new cryopreservation strategies has major potential in medicine and agriculture and is critical to the conservation of endangered species that currently cannot be preserved. A critical property of any potential cryopreservative solution is its ability to prevent cell-damaging ice formation during cooling and subsequent heating. This study focuses on the freezing behaviour of promising model cryoprotective solutions. We perform neutron scattering analysis, combined with computer modelling, of the water structure after quench cooling...

Data from: Information use and resource competition: an integrative framework

Alexander E. G. Lee, James P. Ounsley, Timothy Coulson, J. Marcus Rowcliffe, Guy Cowlishaw & Tim Coulson
Organisms may reduce uncertainty regarding how best to exploit their environment by collecting information about resource distribution. We develop a model to demonstrate how competition can facilitate or constrain an individual’s ability to use information when acquiring resources. Since resource distribution underpins both selection on information use and the strength and nature of competition between individuals, we demonstrate interdependencies between the two that should be common in nature. Individuals in our model can search for...

Data from: Tree phylogenetic diversity promotes host–parasitoid interactions

Michael Staab, Helge Bruelheide, Walter Durka, Stefan Michalski, Oliver Purschke, Chao-Dong Zhu & Alexandra-Maria Klein
Evidence from grassland experiments suggests that a plant community's phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a strong predictor of ecosystem processes, even stronger than species richness per se. This has, however, never been extended to species-rich forests and host–parasitoid interactions. We used cavity-nesting Hymenoptera and their parasitoids collected in a subtropical forest as a model system to test whether hosts, parasitoids, and their interactions are influenced by tree PD and a comprehensive set of environmental variables, including...

Data from: Genome-wide analyses suggest parallel selection for universal traits may eclipse local environmental selection in a highly mobile carnivore

Astrid Vik Stronen, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska, Cino Pertoldi, Ditte Demontis, Ettore Randi, Magdalena Niedziałkowska, Tomasz Borowik, Vadim E. Sidorovich, Josip Kusak, Ilpo Kojola, Alexandros A. Karamanlidis, Janis Ozolins, Vitalii Dumenko & Sylwia D. Czarnomska
Ecological and environmental heterogeneity can produce genetic differentiation in highly mobile species. Accordingly, local adaptation may be expected across comparatively short distances in the presence of marked environmental gradients. Within the European continent, wolves (Canis lupus) exhibit distinct north–south population differentiation. We investigated more than 67-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for signatures of local adaptation in 59 unrelated wolves from four previously identified population clusters (northcentral Europe n = 32, Carpathian Mountains n =...

Data from: Patterns of mammalian population decline inform conservation action

Martina M. I. Di Fonzo, Ben Collen, Alienor L. M. Chauvenet & Georgina M. Mace
1. Evaluations of wildlife population dynamics have the potential to convey valuable information on the type of pressure affecting a population and could help predict future changes in the population's trajectory. Greater understanding of different patterns of population declines could provide a useful mechanism for assessing decline severity in the wild and identifying those populations that are more likely to exhibit severe declines. 2. We identified 93 incidences of decline within 75 populations of mammalian...

Data from: Supporting local diversity of habitats and species on farmland: a comparison of three wildlife-friendly schemes

Chloe J. Hardman, Dominic P. G. Harrison, Pete J. Shaw, Tim D. Nevard, Brin Hughes, Simon G. Potts, Ken Norris & Dominic P.G. Harrison
Restoration and maintenance of habitat diversity have been suggested as conservation priorities in farmed landscapes, but how this should be achieved and at what scale are unclear. This study makes a novel comparison of the effectiveness of three wildlife-friendly farming schemes for supporting local habitat diversity and species richness on 12 farms in England. The schemes were: (i) Conservation Grade (Conservation Grade: a prescriptive, non-organic, biodiversity-focused scheme), (ii) organic agriculture and (iii) a baseline of...

Data from: Anthropogenic extinction dominates Holocene declines of West Indian mammals

Siobhán B. Cooke, Liliana M. Dávalos, Alexis M. Mychajliw, Samuel T. Turvey & Nathan S. Upham
The extensive postglacial mammal losses in the West Indies provide an opportunity to evaluate extinction dynamics, but limited data have hindered our ability to test hypotheses. Here, we analyze the tempo and dynamics of extinction using a novel data set of faunal last-appearance dates and human first-appearance dates, demonstrating widespread overlap between humans and now-extinct native mammals. Humans arrived in four waves (Lithic, Archaic, Ceramic, and European), each associated with increased environmental impact. Large-bodied mammals...

Data from: Maternal food availability affects offspring performance and survival in a viviparous lizard

Yang Wang, Shu-Ran Li, Zhi-Gao Zeng, Liang Liang & Wei-Guo Du
1. Whether maternal effects are adaptive or not has been a long standing topic of discussion in evolutionary ecology. The effects of maternal diet on offspring has been addressed by several studies on diverse organisms, but results are typically conflicting or inconclusive. 2. In this study, we conducted food manipulation experiments with a factorial design (high and low maternal food conditions × high and low offspring food conditions) in a viviparous lacertid lizard (Eremias multiocellata)...

Data from: Risk of cache pilferage determines hoarding behavior of rodents and seed fate

Lin Cao, Bo Wang, Chuan Yan, Zhenyu Wang, Hongmao Zhang, Yuanzhao Geng, Jin Chen & Zhibin Zhang
Cache pilferage by competitors is thought to drive the evolution of hoarding behavior in animals, which plays significant roles in tree regeneration and formation of mutualisms between trees and animals. However, little is known how cache pilferage risk among seeds of different tree species or years affects hoarding behavior and seed dispersal by animals. We hypothesized that scatter-hoarding rodents could adjust hoarding behavior according to variation in cache pilferage risk among seeds and years to...

Data from: Molecular phylogeny and dating reveal a terrestrial origin in the early Carboniferous for ascaridoid nematodes

Liang Li, Liang Lü, Steven A. Nadler, David I. Gibson, Lu-Ping Zhang, Hui-Xia Chen, Wen-Ting Zhao & Yan-Ning Guo
Ascaridoids are among the commonest groups of zooparasitic nematodes (roundworms) and occur in the alimentary canal of all major vertebrate groups, including man. They have an extremely high diversity and are of major socio-economic importance. However, their evolutionary history remains poorly known. Here we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Ascaridoidea. Our results divided the Ascaridoidea into six monophyletic major clades, i.e. the Heterocheilidae, Acanthocheilidae, Anisakidae, Ascarididae, Toxocaridae and Raphidascarididae, among which the Heterocheilidae,...

Data from: Routine habitat switching alters the likelihood and persistence of infection with a pathogenic parasite

David R. Daversa, Andrea Manica, Jaime Bosch, Jolle W. Jolles & Trenton W. J. Garner
1.Animals switch habitats on a regular basis, and when habitats vary in suitability for parasitism, routine habitat switching alters the frequency of parasite exposure and may affect post-infection parasite proliferation. However, the effects of routine habitat switching on infection dynamics are not well understood. 2.We performed infection experiments, behavioural observations, and field surveillance to evaluate how routine habitat switching by adult alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) influences infection dynamics of the pathogenic parasite, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)....

Data from: Demographic drivers of a refugee species: large-scale experiments guide strategies for reintroductions of hirola

Abdullahi H. Ali, Matthew J. Kauffman, Rajan Amin, Amos Kibara, Juliet King, David Mallon, Charles Musyoki & Jacob R. Goheen
Effective reintroduction strategies require accurate estimates of vital rates and the factors that influence them. We estimated vital rates of hirola (Beatragus hunteri) populations exposed to varying levels of predation and rangeland quality from 2012 to 2015, and then built population matrices to estimate the finite rate of population change (λ) and demographic sensitivities. Mean survival for all age classes and population growth was highest in the low predation/high-rangeland quality setting (λ = 1.08 ±...

Data from: The niches of nuthatches affect their lineage evolution differently across latitude

Yu-Chi Chen, Masoud Nazarizadeh, Fu‐Min Lei, Xiao‐Jun Yang, Cheng‐Te Yao, Feng Dong, Lu Dong, Fa‐Sheng Zou, Sergei V. Drovetski, Yang Liu, Chun-Cheng Huang, Chih-Ming Hung, Fu-Min Lei, Yu‐Chi Chen, Chun‐Cheng Huang & Chih‐Ming Hung
Ecological niche evolution can promote or hinder the differentiation of taxa and determine their distribution. Niche‐mediated evolution may differ among climatic regimes, and thus species that occur across a wide latitudinal range offer a chance to test these heterogeneous evolutionary processes. In this study, we examine (1) how many lineages have evolved across the continent‐wide range of the Eurasian nuthatch (Sitta europaea), (2) whether the lineages’ niches are significantly divergent or conserved, and (3) how...

Data from: Signatures of human-commensalism in the house sparrow genome

Mark Ravinet, Tore Oldeide Elgvin, Cassandra Trier, Mansour Aliabadian, Andrey Gavrilov & Glenn-Peter Sætre
House sparrows (Passer domesticus) are a hugely successful anthrodependent species; occurring on nearly every continent. Yet, despite their ubiquity and familiarity to humans, surprisingly little is known about their origins. We sought to investigate the evolutionary history of the house sparrow and identify the processes involved in its transition to a human-commensal niche. We used a whole genome resequencing dataset of 120 individuals from three Eurasian species, including three populations of Bactrianus sparrows, a non-commensal,...

Data from: Can threatened species adapt in restored habitat? No expected evolutionary response in lay date for the New Zealand hihi

Pierre De Villemereuil, Alexis Rutschmann, John G. Ewen, Anna W. Santure, Patricia Brekke & Pierre Villemereuil
Many bird species have been observed shifting their laying date to earlier in the year in response to climate change. However the vast majority of these studies were performed on non-threatened species, less impacted by reduced genetic diversity (which is expected to limit evolutionary response) as a consequence of genetic bottlenecks, drift and population isolation. Here we study the relationship between lay date and fitness, as well as its genetic basis, to understand the evolutionary...

Data from: Effect of culling on individual badger Meles meles behaviour: potential implications for bovine tuberculosis transmission

Cally Ham, Christl A. Donnelly, Kelly L. Astley, Seth Y. B. Jackson & Rosie Woodroffe
1. Culling wildlife as a form of disease management can have unexpected and sometimes counterproductive outcomes. In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are culled in efforts to reduce badger-to-cattle transmission of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB). However, culling has previously been associated with both increased and decreased incidence of M. bovis infection in cattle. 2. The adverse effects of culling have been linked to cull-induced changes in badger ranging, but such...

Data from: Shark movement strategies influence poaching risk and can guide enforcement decisions in a large, remote Marine Protected Area

David Jacoby, Francesco Ferretti, Robin Freeman, Aaron Carlisle, Taylor Chapple, David Curnick, Jonathan Dale, Robert Schallert, David Tickler & Barbara Block
Large, remote marine protected areas (MPAs) containing both reef and pelagic habitats, have been shown to offer considerable refuge to populations of reef-associated sharks. Many large MPAs are, however, impacted by illegal fishing activity conducted by unlicensed vessels. While enforcement of these reserves is often expensive, it would likely benefit from the integration of ecological data on the mobile animals they are designed to protect. Consequently, shark populations in some protected areas continue to decline,...

Polygenic basis for adaptive morphological variation in a threatened Aotearoa | New Zealand bird, the hihi (Notiomystis cincta)

Laura Duntsch, Barbara Tomotani, Pierre De Villemereuil, Patricia Brekke, Kate Lee, John Ewen & Anna Santure
To predict if a threatened species can adapt to changing selective pressures, it is crucial to understand the genetic basis of adaptive traits, especially in species historically affected by severe bottlenecks. We estimated the heritability of three hihi (Notiomystis cincta) morphological traits known to be under selection: nestling tarsus length, body mass and head-bill length, using 523 individuals and 39,699 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a 50K Affymetrix SNP chip. We then examined the genetic...

Immigrant males’ memory acts to reduce ranging overlap and mating competition in wild baboons

Julien Collet, Nathalie Pettorelli, Alice Baniel, Alecia Carter, Elise Huchard, Andrew King, Alexander Lee, Harry Marshall & Guy Cowlishaw
Mechanistic models suggest that information acquired by animals (“knowledge”) could shape home range patterns and dynamics, and how neighbours share space. In social species this would suggest that immigrants could bring new knowledge into social groups, potentially affecting the dynamics of home range overlap. We tested this “immigrant knowledge hypothesis” in a wild population of chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). We used data collected between 2005 and 2013 on two neighbouring troops in Namibia, comprising GPS...

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