190 Works

Data from: Gigapixel big data movies provide cost‐effective seascape scale direct measurements of open‐access coastal human use such as recreational fisheries

David J. H. Flynn, Tim P. Lynch, Neville S. Barrett, Lincoln S. C. Wong, Carlie Devine & David Hughes
Collecting data on unlicensed open‐access coastal activities, such as some types of recreational fishing, has often relied on telephone interviews selected from landline directories. However, this approach is becoming obsolete due to changes in communication technology such as a switch to unlisted mobile phones. Other methods, such as boat ramp interviews, are often impractical due to high labor cost. We trialed an autonomous, ultra‐high‐resolution photosampling method as a cost effect solution for direct measurements of...

Data from: Herbivores safeguard plant diversity by reducing variability in dominance

Brent Mortensen, Brent Danielson, Stan W. Harpole, Juan Alberti, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Marc W. Cadotte, John M. Dwyer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Pablo Luis Peri, Eric W. Seabloom & W. Stanley Harpole
1. Reductions in community evenness can lead to local extinctions as dominant species exclude subordinate species; however, herbivores can prevent competitive exclusion by consuming otherwise dominant plant species, thus increasing evenness. While these predictions logically result from chronic, gradual reductions in evenness, rapid, temporary pulses of dominance may also reduce species richness. Short pulses of dominance can occur as biotic or abiotic conditions temporarily favor one or a few species, manifested as increased temporal variability...

Data from: An environmental DNA-based method for monitoring spawning activity: a case study, using the endangered Macquarie perch (Macquaria australasica)

Jonas Bylemans, Elise M. Furlan, Christopher M. Hardy, Prudence McGuffie, Mark Lintermans & Dianne M. Gleeson
Determining the timing and location of reproductive events is critical for efficient management of species. However, methods currently used for aquatic species are costly, time intensive, biased and often require destructive or injurious sampling. Hence, developing a non-invasive sampling method to accurately determine the timing and location of reproduction for aquatic species would be extremely valuable. We conducted an experimental and field study to determine the influence of spawning, and the mass release of spermatozoa...

Data from: Understanding age-specific dispersal in fishes through hydrodynamic modelling, genetic simulations and microsatellite DNA analysis

Oliver Berry, Philip England, Ross J. Marriot, Stephen J. Newman & Christopher P. Burridge
Many marine species have vastly different capacities for dispersal during larval, juvenile and adult life stages, and this has the potential to complicate the identification of population boundaries and the implementation of effective management strategies such as marine protected areas. Genetic studies of population structure and dispersal rarely disentangle these differences and usually provide only lifetime-averaged information that can be considered by managers. We address this limitation by combining age-specific autocorrelation analysis of microsatellite genotypes,...

Data from: The inverted U-shaped effect of urban hotspots spatial compactness on urban economic growth

Weipan Xu, Haohui Chen, Enrique Frias-Martinez, Manuel Cebrian & Xun Li
The compact city, as a sustainable concept, is intended to augment the efficiency of urban function. However, previous studies have concentrated more on morphology than on structure. The present study focuses on urban structural elements, i.e., urban hotspots consisting of high-density and high-intensity socioeconomic zones, and explores the economic performance associated with their spatial structure. We use nighttime luminosity (NTL) data and the Loubar method to identify and extract the hotspot and ultimately draw two...

Data from: Predicting community rank-abundance distributions under current and future climates

James K. McCarthy, Karel Mokany, Simon Ferrier & John M. Dwyer
Understanding influences of environmental change on biodiversity requires consideration of more than just species richness. Here we present a novel framework for understanding possible changes in species’ abundance structures within communities under climate change. We demonstrate this using comprehensive survey and environmental data from 1,748 woody plant communities across southeast Queensland, Australia, to model rank-abundance distributions (RADs) under current and future climates. Under current conditions, the models predicted RADs consistent with the region’s dominant vegetation...

Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe

Emily A. Martin, Matteo Dainese, Yann Clough, András Báldi, Riccardo Bommarco, Vesna Gagic, Michael Garratt, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Lorenzo Marini, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Diab Al Hassan, Matthias Albrecht, Georg K. S. Andersson, Josep Asis, Stephanie Aviron, Mario Balzan, Laura Baños-Picón, Ignasi Bartomeus, Peter Batary, Françoise Burel, Berta Caballero-López, Elena D. Concepcion … & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with...

Data from: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs

Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Eric Harvey, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Martin Schütz, Yvonne M. Buckley, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew M. MacDougall, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Erica Porter, Emma Ladouceur, Charlotte Allen, Karine H. Moromizato, John W. Morgan, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Nico Eisenhauer, Justin P. Wright, Peter B. Adler, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker … & Anita C. Risch
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus...

Data from: Sensitivity of global soil carbon stocks to combined nutrient enrichment

Thomas W. Crowther, Charlotte Riggs, Eric M. Lind, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Sarah E. Hobbie, E. R. Jasper Wubs, Peter B. Adler, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Johannes M. H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens & Devin Routh
Soil stores approximately twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and fluctuations in the size of the soil carbon pool directly influence climate conditions. We used the Nutrient Network global change experiment to examine how anthropogenic nutrient enrichment might influence grassland soil carbon storage at a global scale. In isolation, enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorous had minimal impacts on soil carbon storage. However, when these nutrients were added in combination with potassium and micronutrients, soil...

Data from: Avian mitochondrial genomes retrieved from museum eggshell

Alicia Grealy, Michael Bunce & Clare Holleley
Avian eggshell is a bio-ceramic material with exceptional properties for preserving DNA within its crystalline structure, presenting an opportunity to retrieve genomic information from extinct or historic populations of birds. However, intracrystalline DNA has only been recovered from the large, thick eggshell of palaeognaths; members of their more-diverse sister group (neognaths) lay smaller, thinner eggs that may not exhibit the same propensity for DNA preservation. Here, we use three 40-60 year-old museum eggshell specimens of...

Data from: Changing landscapes of Southeast Asia and rodent-borne diseases: decreased diversity but increased transmission risks

Serge Morand, Kim Blasdell, Frédéric Bordes, Philippe Buchy, Bernard Carcy, Kittipong Chaisiri, Yannick Chaval, Julien Claude, Jean-François Cosson, Marc Desquesnes, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Tawisa Jiyipong, Anamika Karnchanabanthoen, Pumhom Pornpan, Jean-Marc Rolain & Annelise Tran
The reduction in biodiversity through land use changes due to urbanization and agricultural intensification, appears linked to major epidemiological changes in many human diseases. Increasing disease risks and the emergence of novel pathogens appear to result from increased contact between wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. We investigate how increasing human domination of the environment may favor generalist and synanthropic rodent species and affect the diversity and prevalence of rodent-borne pathogens in Southeast Asia, a hotspot...

Data from: Adaptation services of floodplains and wetlands under transformational climate change

Matthew J. Colloff, Sandra Lavorel, Russell M. Wise, Michael Dunlop, Ian C. Overton & Kristen J. Williams
Adaptation services are the ecosystem processes and services that benefit people by increasing their ability to adapt to change. Benefits may accrue from existing but newly-used services where ecosystems persist, or from novel services supplied following ecosystem transformation. Ecosystem properties that enable persistence or transformation are important adaptation services because they support future options. The adaptation services approach can be applied to decisions on trade-offs between currently valued services and benefits from maintaining future options....

Data from: When to monitor and when to act: value of information theory for multiple management units and limited budgets

Joseph R. Bennett, Sean L. Maxwell, Amanda E. Martin, Iadine Chadès, Lenore Fahrig & Benjamin Gilbert
1.The question of when to monitor and when to act is fundamental to applied ecology, and notoriously difficult to answer. Value of information (VOI) theory holds great promise to help answer this question for many management problems. However, VOI theory in applied ecology has only been demonstrated in single-decision problems, and has lacked explicit links between monitoring and management costs. 2.Here, we present an extension of VOI theory for solving multi-unit decisions of whether to...

Data from: Biological introduction threats from shipping in a warming Arctic

Chris Ware, Jørgen Berge, Anders Jelmert, Steffen M. Olsen, Loïc Pellissier, Mary Wisz, Darren Kriticos, Georgy Semenov, Slawomir Kwasniewski & Inger G. Alsos
Several decades of research on invasive marine species have yielded a broad understanding of the nature of species invasion mechanisms and associated threats globally. However, this is not true of the Arctic, a region where ongoing climatic changes may promote species invasion. Here, we evaluated risks associated with non-indigenous propagule loads discharged with ships' ballast water to the high-Arctic archipelago, Svalbard, as a case study for the wider Arctic. We sampled and identified transferred propagules...

Data from: DNA metabarcoding for diet analysis and biodiversity: A case study using the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea)

Tina E. Berry, Sylvia K. Osterrieder, Dáithí C. Murray, Megan L. Coghlan, Anthony J. Richardson, Alicia K. Grealy, Michael Stat, Lars Bejder & Michael Bunce
The analysis of apex predator diet has the ability to deliver valuable insights into ecosystem health, and the potential impacts a predator might have on commercially relevant species. The Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) is an endemic apex predator and one of the world's most endangered pinnipeds. Given that prey availability is vital to the survival of top predators, this study set out to understand what dietary information DNA metabarcoding could yield from 36 sea...

Data from: A novel approach to determining dynamic nitrogen thresholds for seagrass conservation

Milena B. Fernandes, Jos Van Gils, Paul L. A. Erftemeijer, Rob Daly, Dennis Gonzalez & Karen Rouse
1. Seagrass decline is often related to eutrophication, with sudden and drastic losses attributed to tipping points in nutrient loads. The identification of these threshold loads is an important step in the sustainable management of nutrient discharges. 2. In this study, a novel methodological approach is presented to simulate the spatial and temporal dynamics of coastal nitrogen loads, and its relationship to seagrass loss. The analysis allows the identification of nitrogen thresholds associated with the...

Data from: Controlled comparison of species- and community-level models across novel climates and communities

Kaitlin Clare Maguire, Diego Nieto-Lugilde, Jessica Blois, Matthew Fitzpatrick, John Williams, Simon Ferrier & David Lorenz
Species distribution models (SDMs) assume species exist in isolation and do not influence one another's distributions, thus potentially limiting their ability to predict biodiversity patterns. Community-level models (CLMs) capitalize on species co-occurrences to fit shared environmental responses of species and communities, and therefore may result in more robust and transferable models. Here, we conduct a controlled comparison of five paired SDMs and CLMs across changing climates, using palaeoclimatic simulations and fossil-pollen records of eastern North...

Data from: Inter-group variability in seed dispersal by white-handed gibbons in mosaic forest

Suchada Phiphatsuwannachai, David A. Westcott, Adam McKeown & Tommaso Savini
Seed dispersers, like white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar), can display wide inter-group variability in response to distribution and abundance of resources in their habitat. In different home ranges, they can modify their movement patterns along with the shape and scale of seed shadow produced. However, the effect of inter-group variability on the destination of dispersed seeds is still poorly explained. In this study, we evaluate how seed dispersal patterns of this arboreal territorial frugivore varies between...

Data from: Larval settlement: the role of surface topography for sessile coral reef invertebrates

Steve Whalan, Muhammad A. Abdul Wahab, Susanne Sprungala, Andrew J. Poole & Rocky De Nys
For sessile marine invertebrates with complex life cycles, habitat choice is directed by the larval phase. Defining which habitat-linked cues are implicated in sessile invertebrate larval settlement has largely concentrated on chemical cues which are thought to signal optimal habitat. There has been less effort establishing physical settlement cues, including the role of surface microtopography. This laboratory based study tested whether surface microtopography alone (without chemical cues) plays an important contributing role in the settlement...

Data from: A phylogenetic analysis of macroevolutionary patterns in fermentative yeasts

Rocío Paleo-López, Julian Fernando Quintero-Galvis, Jaiber J. Solano-Iguaran, Angela M. Sanchez-Salazar, Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Roberto F. Nespolo & Juan D. Gaitan-Espitia
When novel sources of ecological opportunity are available, physiological innovations can trigger adaptive radiations. This could be the case of yeasts (Saccharomycotina), in which an evolutionary novelty is represented by the capacity to exploit simple sugars from fruits (fermentation). During adaptive radiations, diversification and morphological evolution are predicted to slow-down after early bursts of diversification. Here, we performed the first comparative phylogenetic analysis in yeasts, testing the “early burst” prediction on species diversification and also...

Data from: Predicting the effects of parasite co-infection across species boundaries

Joanne Lello, Susan J. McClure, Kerri Tyrrell & Mark E. Viney
It is normal for hosts to be coinfected by parasites. Interactions among coinfecting species can have profound consequences, including changing parasite transmission dynamics, altering disease severity, and confounding attempts at parasite control. Despite the importance of coinfection, there is currently no way to predict how different parasite species may interact with one another, nor the consequences of those interactions. Here we demonstrate a method that enables such prediction by identifying two nematode parasite groups based...

Data from: Experimental habitat fragmentation disrupts nematode infections in Australian skinks

Julian Resasco, Matthew E. Bitters, Saul A. Cunningham, Hugh I. Jones, Valerie J. McKenzie & Kendi F. Davies
Habitat conversion and fragmentation threaten biodiversity and disrupt species interactions. While parasites are recognized as ecologically important, the impacts of fragmentation on parasitism are poorly understood relative to other species interactions. This lack of understanding is in part due to confounding landscape factors that accompany fragmentation. Fragmentation experiments provide the opportunity to fill this knowledge gap by mechanistically testing how fragmentation affects parasitism while controlling landscape factors. In a large-scale, long-term experiment, we asked how...

Data from: How much is new information worth? Evaluating the financial benefit of resolving management uncertainty.

Sean L. Maxwell, Jonathan R. Rhodes, Michael C. Runge, Hugh P. Possingham, Chooi Fei Ng & Eve McDonald-Madden
1. Conservation decision-makers face a trade-off between spending limited funds on direct management action, or gaining new information in an attempt to improve management performance in the future. Value-of-information analysis can help to resolve this trade-off by evaluating how much management performance could improve if new information was gained. Value-of-information analysis has been used extensively in other disciplines, but there are only a few examples where it has informed conservation planning, none of which have...

Data from: Merino and Merino-derived sheep breeds: a genome-wide intercontinental study

Elena Ciani, Emiliano Lasagna, Mariasilvia D’Andrea, Ingrid Alloggio, Fabio Marroni, Simone Ceccobelli, Juan Vicente Delgado Bermejo, Francesca Maria Sarti, James Kijas, Johannes A. Lenstra, Fabio Pilla & International Sheep Genomics Consortium
Background: Merino and Merino-derived sheep breeds have been widely distributed across the world, both as purebred and admixed populations. They represent an economically and historically important genetic resource which over time has been used as the basis for the development of new breeds. In order to examine the genetic influence of Merino in the context of a global collection of domestic sheep breeds, we analyzed genotype data that were obtained with the OvineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina)...

Data from: Local origin of global contact numbers in frictional ellipsoid packings

Fabian M. Schaller, Max Neudecker, Mohammad Saadatfar, Gary W. Delaney, Gerd E. Schröder-Turk & Matthias Schröter
In particulate soft matter systems the average number of contacts Z of a particle is an important predictor of the mechanical properties of the system. Using x-ray tomography, we analyze packings of frictional, oblate ellipsoids of various aspect ratios α, prepared at different global volume fractions ϕg. We find that Z is a monotonically increasing function of ϕg for all α. We demonstrate that this functional dependence can be explained by a local analysis where...

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