190 Works

Data from: Sensitivity of global soil carbon stocks to combined nutrient enrichment

Thomas W. Crowther, Charlotte Riggs, Eric M. Lind, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Sarah E. Hobbie, E. R. Jasper Wubs, Peter B. Adler, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Johannes M. H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens & Devin Routh
Soil stores approximately twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and fluctuations in the size of the soil carbon pool directly influence climate conditions. We used the Nutrient Network global change experiment to examine how anthropogenic nutrient enrichment might influence grassland soil carbon storage at a global scale. In isolation, enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorous had minimal impacts on soil carbon storage. However, when these nutrients were added in combination with potassium and micronutrients, soil...

Data from: DNA metabarcoding for diet analysis and biodiversity: A case study using the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea)

Tina E. Berry, Sylvia K. Osterrieder, Dáithí C. Murray, Megan L. Coghlan, Anthony J. Richardson, Alicia K. Grealy, Michael Stat, Lars Bejder & Michael Bunce
The analysis of apex predator diet has the ability to deliver valuable insights into ecosystem health, and the potential impacts a predator might have on commercially relevant species. The Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) is an endemic apex predator and one of the world's most endangered pinnipeds. Given that prey availability is vital to the survival of top predators, this study set out to understand what dietary information DNA metabarcoding could yield from 36 sea...

Data from: Inter-group variability in seed dispersal by white-handed gibbons in mosaic forest

Suchada Phiphatsuwannachai, David A. Westcott, Adam McKeown & Tommaso Savini
Seed dispersers, like white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar), can display wide inter-group variability in response to distribution and abundance of resources in their habitat. In different home ranges, they can modify their movement patterns along with the shape and scale of seed shadow produced. However, the effect of inter-group variability on the destination of dispersed seeds is still poorly explained. In this study, we evaluate how seed dispersal patterns of this arboreal territorial frugivore varies between...

Coral restoration – a systematic review of current methods, successes, failures and future directions

Lisa Boström-Einarsson, Russell C. Babcock, Elisa Bayraktarov, Daniela Ceccarelli, Nathan Cook, Sebastian C. A. Ferse, Boze Hancock, Peter Harrison, Margaux Hein, Elizabeth Shaver, Adam Smith, David Suggett, Phoebe J. Stewart-Sinclair, Tali Vardi & Ian M. McLeod
Coral reef ecosystems have suffered an unprecedented loss of habitat-forming hard corals in recent decades. While marine conservation has historically focused on passive habitat protection, demand for and interest in active restoration has been growing in recent decades. However, a disconnect between coral restoration practitioners, coral reef managers and scientists has resulted in a disjointed field where it is difficult to gain an overview of existing knowledge. To address this, we aimed to synthesise the...

Genetic barcoding of museum eggshell improves data integrity of avian biological collections

Alicia Grealy, Naomi Langmore, Leo Joseph & Clare Holleley
Natural history collections are often plagued by missing or inaccurate metadata for collection items, particularly for specimens that are difficult to verify or rare. Avian eggshell in particular can be challenging to identify due to extensive morphological ambiguity among taxa. Species identifications can be improved using DNA extracted from museum eggshell; however, the suitability of current methods for use on small museum eggshell specimens has not been rigorously tested, hindering uptake. In this study, we...

Western Australian distribution of Acacia saligna

Trevor Booth
Comments were presented on an article published in October 2020 in Ecology and Evolution (“Predictive ability of a process-based versus a correlative species distribution model”) by Higgins et al. This analyzed natural distributions of Australian eucalypt and acacia species and assessed the adventive range of selected species outside Australia. Unfortunately, inappropriate variables were used with the example MaxEnt species distribution model of Acacia saligna when applied outside Australia, so that large climatically suitable areas in...

Data from: The history of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype C: the first known extinct serotype?

David Paton, Antonello Di Nardo, Nick Knowles, Jemma Wadsworth, Edviges Pituco, Ottorino Cosivi, Alejandro Rivera, Labib Kassimi, Emiliana Brocchi, Kris De Clercq, Consuelo Carrillo, Francois Maree, Raj Singh, Wilna Vosloo, Min-Kyung Park, Keith Sumption, Anna Ludi & Donald King
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious animal disease caused by an RNA virus subdivided into seven serotypes that are unevenly distributed in Asia, Africa and South America. Despite the challenges of controlling FMD, since 1996 there have been only two outbreaks attributed to serotype C, in Brazil and in Kenya, in 2004. This review describes the historical distribution and origins of serotype C and its disappearance. The serotype was first described in Europe in...

Nitrogen budget data

Tan Zou, Xin Zhang, Luis Lassaletta, Nathaniel Mueller, Francesco Tubiello, Matthew Lisk, Chaoqun Lu, Richard Conant, Christopher Dorich, James Gerber, Hanqin Tian, Tom Bruulsema, Tai Maaz, Kazuya Nishina, Benjamin Bodirsky, Alexander Popp, Lex Bouwman, Arthur Beusen, Jinfeng Chang, Petr Havlík, David Leclère, Josep Canadell, Robert Jackson, Patrick Heffer, Nathan Wanner … & Eric Davidson
Input-output estimates of nitrogen (N) on cropland are essential for improving N management and better understanding the global N cycle. Here, we compare 13 N budget datasets covering 115 countries and regions over 1961-2015. Though most datasets showed similar spatiotemporal patterns, some annual estimates varied widely among them, resulting in large ranges and uncertainty. In 2010, global medians (in Tg N yr-1) and associated min-max ranges were 73 (64-84) for global harvested crop N; 161...

Self-compatible blueberry cultivars require fewer floral visits to maximise fruit production than a partially self-incompatible cultivar

Liam K. Kendall, Vesna Gagic, Lisa Evans, Brian Cutting, Jessica Scalzo, Yolanda Hanusch, Jeremy Jones, Maurizio Rocchetti, Carolyn Sonter, Matthew Keir & Romina Rader
Effective pollination is a complex phenomenon determined by the outcome of the interaction between pollen transfer and a plants’ pollinator dependency, yet most studies investigate pollinator effectiveness without consideration of plant mating system differences. We investigated pollinator effectiveness in three types of blueberry that differed in their degree of pollinator dependency as measured by plant mating system: two self-compatible highbush cultivars and one partially self-incompatible rabbiteye cultivar. We quantified pollinator effectiveness as a function of...

High elevation increases the risk of Y chromosome loss in Alpine skink populations with sex reversal

Arthur Georges, Duminda Dissanayake, Clare Holleley & Janine Deakin
The view genotypic sex determination (GSD) and environmental sex determination (ESD) are mutually exclusive states has been contradicted by the discovery that chromosomal sex and environmental influences can co-exist within the same species, hinting at a continuum of intermediate states. Systems where genes and the environment interact to determine sex present the opportunity for sex reversal to occur, where the phenotypic sex is the opposite of that predicted by their sex chromosome complement. The skink...

Data from: Resilience of an integrated crop-livestock system to climate change: a simulation analysis of cover crop grazing in southern Brazil

Caitlin Peterson, Lindsay Bell, Paulo Carvalho & Amelie Gaudin
Integrated crop-livestock systems are a form of sustainable intensification of agriculture that rely on synergistic relationships between plant and animal components to bolster critical agroecosystem processes. We simulated cash crop and cover crop productivity dynamics in an integrated beef-soybean cover crop grazing system typical of southern Brazil to gain a better understanding of the impacts of livestock integration on system performance. Long-term historical simulations in APSIM showed that the integrated system resulted in greater system-wide...

Oligocene divergence of frogmouth birds (Podargidae) across Wallace’s line

Paul Oliver, Holly Heiniger, Andrew Hugall, Leo Joseph & Kieren Mitchell
Wallace’s Line demarcates the transition between the differentiated regional faunas of Asia and Australia. However, while patterns of biotic differentiation across these two continental landmasses and the intervening island groups (“Wallacea”) have been extensively studied, patterns of long-term dispersal and diversification across this region are less well understood. Frogmouths (Aves: Podargidae) are a relictual family of large nocturnal birds represented by three extant genera occurring respectively in Asia, “Sahul” (Australia and New Guinea), and the...

Data from: One panel to rule them all: DArTcap genotyping for population structure, historical demography, and kinship analyses, and its application to a threatened shark

Pierre Feutry, Floriaan Devloo-Delva, Adrien Tran Lu Y, Stefano Mona, Rasanthi Gunasekera, Grant Johnson, Richard Pillans, Damian Jaccoud, Andrzej Kilian, David Morgan, Thor Saunders, Nicholas Bax & Peter Kyne
With recent advances in sequencing technology, genomic data are changing how important conservation management decisions are made. Applications such as Close-Kin Mark-Recapture demand large amounts of data to estimate population size and structure, and their full potential can only be realised through ongoing improvements in genotyping strategies. Here we introduce DArTcap, a cost-efficient method that combines DArTseq and sequence capture, and illustrate its use in a high resolution population analysis of Glyphis garricki, a rare,...

Data from: Capturing open ocean biodiversity: comparing environmental DNA metabarcoding to the continuous plankton recorder

Leonie Suter, Andrea Polanowski, Laurence Clarke, John Kitchener & Bruce Deagle
Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding is emerging as a novel, objective tool for monitoring marine metazoan biodiversity. Zooplankton biodiversity in the vast and important open ocean is currently monitored through continuous plankton recorder (CPR) surveys, using ship-based bulk plankton sampling and morphological identification. We assessed whether eDNA metabarcoding (2 L filtered seawater) could capture similar Southern Ocean biodiversity as conventional CPR bulk sampling (~1500 L filtered seawater per CPR sample). We directly compared eDNA metabarcoding with...

Data from: The inverted U-shaped effect of urban hotspots spatial compactness on urban economic growth

Weipan Xu, Haohui Chen, Enrique Frias-Martinez, Manuel Cebrian & Xun Li
The compact city, as a sustainable concept, is intended to augment the efficiency of urban function. However, previous studies have concentrated more on morphology than on structure. The present study focuses on urban structural elements, i.e., urban hotspots consisting of high-density and high-intensity socioeconomic zones, and explores the economic performance associated with their spatial structure. We use nighttime luminosity (NTL) data and the Loubar method to identify and extract the hotspot and ultimately draw two...

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