151 Works

Data from: Best practices for justifying fossil calibrations

James F. Parham, Philip C. J. Donoghue, Christopher J. Bell, Tyler D. Calway, Jason J. Head, Patricia A. Holroyd, Jun G. Inoue, Randall B. Irmis, Walter G. Joyce, Daniel T. Ksepka, José S. L. Patané, Nathan D. Smith, James E. Tarver, Marcel Van Tuinen, Ziheng Yang, Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Jenny M. Greenwood, Christy A. Hipsley, Jacobs Louis, Peter J. Makovicky, Johannes Müller, Krister T. Smith, Jessica M. Theodor, Rachel C. M. Warnock, Michael J. Benton … & Louis Jacobs
Our ability to correlate biological evolution with climate change, geological evolution, and other historical patterns is essential to understanding the processes that shape biodiversity. Combining data from the fossil record with molecular phylogenetics represents an exciting synthetic approach to this challenge. The first molecular divergence dating analysis (Zuckerkandl and Pauling 1962) was based on a measure of the amino acid differences in the hemoglobin molecule; with replacement rates established (calibrated) using inaccurate paleontological age estimates...

Data from: An introduced parasitic fly may lead to local extinction of Darwin's finch populations

Jennifer A. H. Koop, Peter S. Kim, Sarah A. Knutie, Frederick Adler, Dale H. Clayton & Fred Adler
Introduced pathogens and other parasites are often implicated in host population-level declines and extinctions. However, such claims are rarely supported by rigorous real-time data. Indeed, the threat of introduced parasites often goes unnoticed until after host populations have declined severely. The recent introduction of the parasitic nest fly, Philornis downsi, to the Galápagos Islands provides an opportunity to monitor the current impact of an invasive parasite on endemic land bird populations, including Darwin's finches. In...

Data from: Does allopreening control avian ectoparasites?

Scott M. Villa, Graham B. Goodman, James S. Ruff & Dale H. Clayton
For birds, the first line of defence against ectoparasites is preening. The effectiveness of self-preening for ectoparasite control is well known. By contrast, the ectoparasite control function of allopreening—in which one birds preens another—has not been rigorously tested. We infested captive pigeons with identical numbers of parasitic lice, and then compared rates of allopreening to the abundance of lice on the birds over time. We documented a negative relationship between rates of allopreening and the...

Data from: Anaesthetic interventions for prevention of awareness during surgery

Anthony G. Messina, Michael Wang, Marshall J. Ward, Chase C. Wilker, Brett B. Smith, Daniel P. Vezina, Nathan Pace & Nathan Leon Pace
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is usually associated with unconsciousness. 'Awareness' is when patients have postoperative recall of events or experiences during surgery. 'Wakefulness' is when patients become conscious during surgery, but have no postoperative recollection of the period of consciousness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of two types of anaesthetic interventions in reducing clinically significant awareness: - anaesthetic drug regimens; and - intraoperative anaesthetic depth monitors. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled...

Data from: Size matters for lice on birds: coevolutionary allometry of host and parasite body size

Andrea Harnos, Zsolt Lang, Dóra Petrás, Sarah E. Bush, Krisztián Szabó & Lajos Rozsa
Body size is one of the most fundamental characteristics of all organisms. It influences physiology, morphology, behavior, and even interspecific interactions such as those between parasites and their hosts. Host body size influences the magnitude and variability of parasite size according to Harrison's Rule (HR: positive relationship between host and parasite body sizes) and Poulin’s Increasing Variance Hypothesis (PIVH: positive relationship between host body size and the variability of parasite body size). We analyzed parasite-host...

Data from: The flashing Brownian ratchet and Parrondo’s paradox

Stewart N. Ethier & Jiyeon Lee
A Brownian ratchet is a one-dimensional diffusion process that drifts towards a minimum of a periodic asymmetric sawtooth potential. A flashing Brownian ratchet is a process that alternates between two regimes, a one-dimensional Brownian motion and a Brownian ratchet, producing directed motion. These processes have been of interest to physicists and biologists for nearly 25 years. The flashing Brownian ratchet is the process that motivated Parrondo’s paradox, in which two fair games of chance, when...

Data from: Ambient temperature-mediated changes in hepatic gene expression of a mammalian herbivore (Neotoma lepida)

Patrice Kurnath Connors, Jael R. Malenke & M. Denise Dearing
Herbivores regularly ingest natural toxins produced by plants as a defence against herbivory. Recent work suggests that compound toxicity is exacerbated at higher ambient temperatures. This phenomenon, known as temperature-dependent toxicity (TDT), is the likely result of decreased liver function at warmer temperatures; however, the underlying cause of TDT remains speculative. In the present study, we compared the effects of temperature and dietary plant toxins on differential gene expression in the liver of an herbivorous...

Data from: Cytochrome P450 diversification and hostplant utilization patterns in specialist and generalist moths: birth, death, and adaptation

Bernarda Calla, Katherine Noble, Reed M. Johnson, Kimberly K. O. Walden, Mary A. Schuler, Hugh M. Robertson & May R. Berenbaum
Across insect genomes, the size of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) gene superfamily varies widely. CYPome size variation has been attributed to reciprocal adaptive radiations in insect detoxification genes in response to plant biosynthetic gene radiations driven by coevolution between herbivores and their chemically defended hostplants. Alternatively, variation in CYPome size may be due to random “birth and death” processes, whereby exponential increase via gene duplications is limited by random decay via gene death or...

Data from: Plant water potential improves prediction of empirical stomatal models

William R. L. Anderegg, Stephen Pacala, John S. Sperry, Brendan Choat, Daniel J. Chmura, Thomas Kolb, Frederick Meinzer, Pilar Pita, Víctor Resco De Dios & Brett T. Wolfe
Climate change is expected to lead to increases in drought frequency and severity, with deleterious effects on many ecosystems. Stomatal responses to changing environmental conditions form the backbone of all ecosystem models, but are based on empirical relationships and are not well-tested during drought conditions. Here, we use a dataset of 34 woody plant species spanning global forest biomes to examine the effect of leaf water potential on stomatal conductance and test the predictive accuracy...

Data from: The acacia ants revisited: convergent evolution and biogeographic context in an iconic ant/plant mutualism

Philip S. Ward & Michael G. Branstetter
Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses can enhance our understanding of multispecies interactions by placing the origin and evolution of such interactions in a temporal and geographical context. We use a phylogenomic approach—ultraconserved element sequence capture—to investigate the evolutionary history of an iconic multispecies mutualism: Neotropical acacia ants (Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group) and their associated Vachellia hostplants. In this system, the ants receive shelter and food from the host plant, and they aggressively defend the plant against herbivores...

Data from: Cough frequency during treatment associated with baseline cavitary volume and proximity to the airway in pulmonary TB

Alvaro Proaño, David P. Bui, José W. López, Nancy M. Vu, Marjory A. Bravard, Gwenyth O. Lee, Brian H. Tracey, Ziyue Xu, Germán Comina, Eduardo Ticona, Daniel J. Mollura, Jon S. Friedland, David A. J. Moore, Carlton A. Evans, Philip Caligiuri, Robert H. Gilman & Tuberculosis Working Group In Peru
Background: Cough frequency, and its duration, is a lab-free biomarker that can be used in low-resource settings and has been associated with transmission and treatment response. Radiological characteristics associated with increased cough frequency may be important in understanding transmission. The relationship between cough frequency and cavitary lung disease has never been studied. Methods: We analyzed 41 human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults with culture-confirmed, drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis throughout treatment. Cough recordings were based on the Cayetano Cough...

Data from: The spatial structure of phylogenetic and functional diversity in the United States and Canada: an example using the sedge family (Cyperaceae)

Daniel Spalink, Jocelyn Pender, Marcial Escudero, Andrew L. Hipp, Eric H. Roalson, Julian R. Starr, Marcia J. Waterway, Lynn Bohs & Kenneth J. Sytsma
Systematically quantifying diversity across landscapes is necessary to understand how clade history and ecological heterogeneity contribute to the origin, distribution, and maintenance of biodiversity. Here, we chart the spatial structure of diversity among all species in the sedge family (Cyperaceae) throughout the USA and Canada. We first identify areas of remarkable species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional trait diversity, and highlight regions of conservation priority. We then test predictions about the spatial structure of this...

Data from: Ultra-Conserved Element phylogenomics of new world Ponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) illuminates the origin and phylogeographic history of the endemic exotic ant Ponera exotica

Michael G. Branstetter & John T. Longino
The genus Ponera is a lineage of leaf litter ants, with a center of diversity in the Indo-Australian region. Two species occur in the New World; however, uncertainty exists with regard to their biogeographic origins and species limits, especially for isolated cloud forest populations in Middle America. We investigate the geographic distribution, phylogeny, and phylogeography of these two species to better characterize the American ant fauna and to gain insight into the biogeography of taxa...

Data from: Drought legacies are dependent on water table depth, wood anatomy, and drought timing across the eastern U.S.

Steven A. Kannenberg, Justin T. Maxwell, Neil Pederson, Loïc D'Orangeville, Darren L. Ficklin & Richard P. Phillips
Severe droughts can impart long-lasting legacies on forest ecosystems through lagged effects that hinder tree recovery and suppress whole-forest carbon uptake. However, the local climatic and edaphic factors that interact to affect drought legacies in temperate forests remain unknown. Here, we pair a dataset of 143 tree ring chronologies across the mesic forests of the eastern U.S. with historical climate and local soil properties. We found legacy effects to be widespread, the magnitude of which...

Data from: Differences in epiphyte biomass and community composition along landscape and within-crown spatial scales

Autumn Amici, Nalini Nadkarni, Cameron Williams & Sybil Gotsch
Vascular epiphytes contribute to the structural, compositional, and functional complexity of tropical montane cloud forests because of their high biomass, diversity, and ability to intercept and retain water and nutrients from atmospheric sources. However, human-caused climate change and forest-to-pasture conversion are rapidly altering tropical montane cloud forests. Epiphyte communities may be particularly vulnerable to these changes because of their dependence on direct atmospheric inputs and host trees for survival. In Monteverde, Costa Rica, we measured...

Data from: Temporal stability versus community matrix measures of stability and the role of weak interactions

Amy Downing, Craig Jackson, Claire Plunkett, Jayne Lockhart & Shannon Schlater
Relationships between different measures of stability are not well understood in part because empiricists and theoreticians tend to measure different aspects and most studies only explore a single form of stability. Using time-series data from experimental plankton communities, we compared temporal stability typically measured by empiricists (coefficient of variation of biomass) to stability measures typically measured by theoreticians derived from the community matrix (asymptotic resilience, initial resilience, and intrinsic stochastic invariability) using first-order multivariate autoregressive...

Osteology of the late Triassic bipedal archosaur Poposaurus gracilis (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia) from Western North America

Emma R. Schachner, Randall B. Irmis, Adam K. Huttenlocker, Kent Sanders, Robert L. Cieri & Sterling J. Nesbitt
Poposaurus gracilis is a bipedal pseudosuchian archosaur that has been poorly understood since the discovery of the holotype fragmentary partial postcranial skeleton in 1915. Poposaurus. gracilis is a member of Poposauroidea, an unusually morphologically divergent clade of pseudosuchians containing taxa that are bipedal, quadrupedal, toothed, edentulous, and some individuals with elongated thoracic neural spines (i.e., sails). In 2003, a well preserved, fully articulated, and nearly complete postcranial skeleton of P. gracilis was discovered with some...

Genetic diversity and connectivity of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) found in the Brazil and Chile–Peru wintering grounds and the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur) feeding ground

Emma L Carroll, Paulo Ott, Louise McMillan, Bárbara Galletti Vernazzani, Petra Neveceralova, Els Vermeulen, Oscar Gaggiotti, Artur Andriolo, C. Scott Baker, Connor Bamford, Peter Best, Elsa Cabrera, Susannah Calderan, Andrea Chirife, Rachel M. Fewster, Paulo A. C. Flores, Timothy Frasier, Thales R. O. Freitas, Karina Groch, Pavel Hulva, Amy Kennedy, Russell Leaper, Mathew S. Leslie, Michael Moore, Larissa Oliviera … & Jennifer A Jackson
As species recover from exploitation, continued assessments of connectivity and population structure are warranted to provide information for conservation and management. This is particularly true in species with high dispersal capacity, such as migratory whales, where patterns of connectivity could change rapidly. Here we build on a previous long-term, large-scale collaboration on southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) to combine new (nnew) and published (npub) mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite genetic data from all major wintering grounds...

Did shell-crushing predators drive the evolution of ammonoid septal shape?

Erynn Johnson, Briana DiMarco, David Peterman, Aja Carter & Warren Allmon
For centuries, paleontologists have sought functional explanations for the uniquely complex internal walls (septa) of ammonoids, extinct shelled cephalopods. Ammonoid septa developed increasingly complex fractal margins, unlike any modern shell morphologies, throughout more than 300 million years of evolution. Some have suggested these morphologies provided increased resistance to shell-crushing predators. We perform the first physical compression experiments on model ammonoid septa using controlled, theoretical morphologies generated by computer-aided design and 3D printing. These biomechanical experiments...

Parasitic cnidarians (Myxozoa) do not retain key oxygen-sensing and homeostasis tool-kit genes: Transcriptome assemblies

Allie Graham & Felipe Barreto
For aerobic organisms, both the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) pathway and the mitochondrial genomes are key players in regulating oxygen homeostasis. However, recent work has suggested that these mechanisms are not as highly conserved as previously thought, prompting more thorough surveys across animal higher taxonomic levels, which would in turn permit testing of hypotheses about the ecological conditions that may have facilitated evolutionary loss of such genes. The phylum Cnidaria is known to harbor wide variation...

Out of the temperate zone: a phylogenomic test of the biogeographical conservatism hypothesis in a contrarian clade of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Stenammini)

Michael G. Branstetter, John T. Longino, Joaquín Reyes-López, Seán G. Brady & Ted R. Schultz
Aim: The standard latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), in which species richness decreases from equator to pole, is a pervasive pattern observed in most organisms. Some lineages, however, exhibit inverse LDGs. Seemingly problematic, documenting and studying contrarian groups can advance understanding of LDGs generally. Here, we identify the ant tribe Stenammini as a contrarian clade and use a historical approach to evaluate alternative hypotheses that might explain the group’s atypical diversity pattern. We focus on the...

Atmospheric pollutant concentrations and leaf chemistry variables collected along gradients of median household income and traffic density in Salt Lake Valley, UT

LaShaye Cobley, Diane Pataki, Frederick Adler & Sarah Jack Hinners
We utilize traffic density and Convolvulus arvensis leaf chemistry to understand spatial patterns linking atmospheric pollution and household income in the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, USA. We hypothesize that traffic density will explain variation in atmospheric NOx and O3 concentrations. In addition, we expect foliar %N and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) to be elevated and carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) to be depleted on high traffic density roads. These hypotheses were supported: we found the...

Data from: The Oxytricha trifallax macronuclear genome: a complex eukaryotic genome with 16,000 tiny chromosomes

Estienne C. Swart, John R. Bracht, Vincent Magrini, Patrick Minx, Xiao Chen, Yi Zhou, Jaspreet S. Khurana, Aaron D. Goldman, Mariusz Nowacki, Klaas Schotanus, Seolkyoung Jung, Robert S. Fulton, Amy Ly, Sean McGrath, Kevin Haub, Jessica L. Wiggins, Donna Storton, John C. Matese, Lance Parsons, Wei-Jen Chang, Michael S. Bowen, Nicholas A. Stover, Thomas A. Jones, Sean R. Eddy, Thomas G. Doak … & Laura F. Landweber
The macronuclear genome of the ciliate Oxytricha trifallax displays an extreme and unique eukaryotic genome architecture with extensive genomic variation. During sexual genome development, the expressed, somatic macronuclear genome is whittled down to the genic portion of a small fraction (~5%) of its precursor “silent” germline micronuclear genome by a process of “unscrambling” and fragmentation. The tiny macronuclear “nanochromosomes” typically encode single, protein-coding genes (a small portion, 10%, encode 2–8 genes), have minimal noncoding regions,...

Data from: Pulmonary anatomy in the Nile crocodile and the evolution of unidirectional airflow in Archosauria.

Emma R. Schachner, John R. Hutchinson, C. G. Farmer & CG Farmer
The lungs of birds have long been known to move air in only one direction during both inspiration and expiration through most of the tubular gas-exchanging bronchi (parabronchi). Recently a similar pattern of airflow has been observed in American alligators, a sister taxon to birds. The pattern of flow appears to be due to the arrangement of the primary and secondary bronchi, which, via their branching angles, generate inspiratory and expiratory aerodynamic valves. Both the...

Data from: Small-mammal isotope ecology tracks climate and vegetation gradients across western North America

Tara M. Smiley, Jennifer M. Cotton, Catherine Badgley & Thure E. Cerling
Stable carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes have been used to infer aspects of species ecology and environment in both modern ecosystems and the fossil record. Compared to large mammals, stable isotopic studies of small-mammal ecology are limited; however, high species and ecological diversity within small mammals presents several advantages for quantifying resource use and organism–environment interactions using stable isotopes over various spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from two...

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  • University of Utah
  • Utah State University
  • University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
  • Princeton University
  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • Harvard University
  • The University of Texas at Austin
  • University of California System
  • University of Buenos Aires
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor