32 Works

Data from: Zinc is a potent and specific inhibitor of IFN-λ3 signalling

Scott A. Read, Kate S. O'Connor, Vijay Suppiah, Chantelle L. E. Ahlenstiel, Stephanie Obeid, Kristina M. Cook, Anthony Cunningham, Mark W. Douglas, Philip J. Hogg, David Booth, Jacob George & Golo Ahlenstiel
Lambda interferons (IFNL, IFN-λ) are pro-inflammatory cytokines important in acute and chronic viral infection. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917 within the IFNL gene locus predict hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance, as well as inflammation and fibrosis progression in viral and non-viral liver disease. The underlying mechanism, however, is not defined. Here we show that the rs12979860 CC genotype correlates with increased hepatic metallothionein expression through increased systemic zinc levels. Zinc interferes with IFN-λ3 binding to...

Evidence Base and Practice Variation in Acute Care Processes for Knee and Hip Arthroplasty Surgeries

Justine Naylor
The dataset contains the frequency of use of various acute-care interventions used for TKA or THA surgeries. The data are the raw data plus derived caterpillar plots

Data from: Interactions between rainfall, fire and herbivory drive resprouter vital rates in a semi-arid ecosystem

Katherine M. Giljohann, Michael A. McCarthy, David A. Keith, Luke T. Kelly, Mark G. Tozer & Tracey J. Regan
1. Global change is threatening ecosystems and biodiversity worldwide, creating a pressing need to understand how climate and disturbance regimes interact and influence the persistence of species. We quantify how three ecosystem drivers– rainfall, fire and herbivory – influence vital rates in the perennial resprouting graminoid, Triodia scariosa, a foundation species of semi-arid Australia. 2. We used an 11 year data set from a fire and herbivore exclosure experiment, to model flowering, post-fire recruitment and...

Data from: Sneeze to leave: African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) use variable quorum thresholds facilitated by sneezes in collective decisions.

Reena H. Walker, Andrew J. King, John Weldon McNutt & Neil R. Jordan
In despotically driven animal societies, one or a few individuals tend to have a disproportionate influence on group decision-making and actions. However, global communication allows each group member to assess the relative strength of preferences for different options amongst their group-mates. Here, we investigate collective decisions by free-ranging African wild dog packs in Botswana. African wild dogs exhibit dominant-directed group living and take part in stereotyped social rallies: high energy greeting ceremonies that occur before...

Data from: Particle-association lifestyle is a phylogenetically conserved trait in bathypelagic prokaryotes

Guillem Salazar Guiral, Francisco Cornejo-Castillo, Encarna Borrull, Cristina Díez-Vives, Elena Lara, Dolors Vaqué, Jesús Arrieta, Carlos Duarte, Josep Gasol & Silvia Acinas
The free-living (FL) and particle-attached (PA) marine microbial communities have repeatedly been proved to differ in their diversity and composition in the photic ocean and also recently in the bathypelagic ocean at a global scale. However, although high taxonomic ranks have been proved to exhibit preferences for a PA or FL mode of life, it remains poorly understood whether two clear lifestyles do exist and how these are distributed across the prokaryotic phylogeny. We studied...

Data from: Livestock grazing reinforces the competitive exclusion of small-bodied birds by large aggressive birds

James Val, David J. Eldridge, Samantha K. Travers & Ian Oliver
1.Grazing by domestic livestock is sometimes promoted as a management tool to benefit biodiversity. In many situations, however, it can produce negative outcomes. 2.Here we examine the impacts of recent and historic livestock grazing on bird communities in the semi-arid woodlands in eastern Australia, testing the notion that grazing removes the suppressive effect of structurally complex vegetation on miners, thereby reducing the richness and abundance of small birds. 3.We used time- and area-limited searches of...

Data from: Evidence that fertility trades off with early offspring fitness as males age

Sheri L. Johnson, Sylvia Zellhuber-McMillan, Joanne Gillum, Jessica Dunleavy, Jonathan P. Evans, Shinichi Nakagawa & Neil J. Gemmell
Models of aging predict that sperm function and fertility should decline with age as sperm are exposed to free radical damage and mutation accumulation. However, theory also suggests that mating with older males should be beneficial for females because survival to old age is a demonstration of a male’s high genetic and/or phenotypic quality. Consequently, declines in sperm fitness may be offset by indirect fitness benefits exhibited in offspring. While numerous studies have investigated age-based...

Data from: Gliding lizards use the position of the sun to enhance social display

Danielle A. Klomp, Devi Stuart-Fox, Indraneil Das & Terry J. Ord
Effective communication requires animal signals to be readily detected by receivers in the environments in which they are typically given. Certain light conditions enhance the visibility of colour signals and these conditions can vary depending on the orientation of the sun and the position of the signaller. We tested whether Draco sumatranus gliding lizards modified their position relative to the sun to enhance the conspicuousness of their throat-fan (dewlap) during social display to conspecifics. The...

Data from: Surface-water dynamics and land use influence landscape connectivity across a major dryland region

Robbi Bishop-Taylor, Mirela G. Tulbure & Mark Broich
Landscape connectivity is important for the long-term persistence of species inhabiting dryland freshwater ecosystems, with spatiotemporal surface-water dynamics (e.g., flooding) maintaining connectivity by both creating temporary habitats and providing transient opportunities for dispersal. Improving our understanding of how landscape connectivity varies with respect to surface-water dynamics and land use is an important step to maintaining biodiversity in dynamic dryland environments. Using a newly available validated Landsat TM and ETM+ surface-water time series, we modelled landscape...

Data from: Removal of an apex predator initiates a trophic cascade that extends from herbivores to vegetation and the soil nutrient pool

Timothy Morris & Mike Letnic
It is widely assumed that organisms at low trophic levels, particularly microbes and plants, are essential to basic services in ecosystems, such as nutrient cycling. In theory, apex predators' effects on ecosystems could extend to nutrient cycling and the soil nutrient pool by influencing the intensity and spatial organization of herbivory. Here, we take advantage of a long-term manipulation of dingo abundance across Australia's dingo-proof fence in the Strzelecki Desert to investigate the effects that...

Data from: Plant traits of propagule banks and standing vegetation reveal flooding alleviates impacts of agriculture on wetland restoration

Samantha K. Dawson, David I. Warton, Richard T. Kingsford, Peter Berney, David A. Keith & Jane A. Catford
1. Restoration of degraded plant communities requires understanding of community assembly processes. Human land use can influence plant community assembly by altering environmental conditions and species’ dispersal patterns. Flooding, including from environmental flows, may counteract land use effects on wetland vegetation. We examined the influence of land use history and flood frequency on the functional composition of wetland plant communities along a regulated river. 2. We applied fourth corner modelling to determine species’ trait-based responses...

Data from: HIV dynamics linked to memory CD4+ T cell homeostasis

John M. Murray, John Zaunders, Sean Emery, David A. Cooper, William J. Hey-Nguyen, Kersten K. Koelsch & Anthony D. Kelleher
The dynamics of latent HIV is linked to infection and clearance of resting memory CD4+ T cells. Infection also resides within activated, non-dividing memory cells and can be impacted by antigen-driven and homeostatic proliferation despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated whether plasma viral level (pVL) and HIV DNA dynamics could be explained by HIV’s impact on memory CD4+ T cell homeostasis. Median total, 2-LTR and integrated HIV DNA levels per μL of peripheral blood,...

Data from: Manipulation of habitat isolation and area implicates deterministic factors and limited neutrality in community assembly

Terry J. Ord, Jack Emblen, Mattias Hagman, Ryan Shofner & Sara Unruh
Theory predicts deterministic and stochastic factors will contribute to community assembly in different ways: environmental filters should regulate those species that establish in a particular area resulting in the ecological requirements of species being the primary driver of species distributions, while chance and dispersal limitation should dictate the likelihood of species reaching certain areas with the ecology of species being largely neutral. These factors are specifically relevant for understanding how the area and isolation of...

Data from: Seagrass on the brink: decline of threatened seagrass Posidonia australis continues following protection

Suzanna M. Evans, Kingsley J. Griffin, Ray A. J. Blick, Alistair G. B. Poore & Adriana Verges
Seagrasses are in decline globally due to sustained pressure from coastal development, water quality declines and the ongoing threat from climate change. The result of this decline has been a loss of coastal productivity, a reduction in critical fisheries habitat and increased erosion. Attempts to slow this decline have included legislative protection of habitat and direct restoration efforts. Monitoring the success of these approaches requires tracking changes in the abundance of seagrasses, but such monitoring...

Data from: Ontogenetic timing as a condition-dependent life history trait: high-condition males develop quickly, peak early and age fast

Amy K. Hooper, Foteini Spagopoulou, Zachariah Gilmer Wylde, Alexei A. Maklakov, Russell Bonduriansky & Zachariah Wylde
Within-population variation in ageing remains poorly understood. In males, condition-dependent investment in secondary sexual traits may incur costs which limit ability to invest in somatic maintenance. Moreover, males often express morphological and behavioural secondary sexual traits simultaneously, but the relative effects on ageing of investment in these traits remain unclear. We investigated the condition-dependence of male life history in the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis. Using a fully factorial design, we manipulated male early-life condition by...

Data from: Microbial richness and composition independently drive soil multifunctionality

Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Pankaj Trivedi, Chanda Trivedi, David J. Eldridge, Peter B. Reich, Thomas C. Jeffries & Brajesh K. Singh
Soil microbes provide multiple ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling, decomposition and climate regulation. However, we lack a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of microbial richness and composition in controlling multifunctionality. This knowledge gap limits our capacity to understand the influence of biotic attributes in the provision of services and functions on which humans depend. We used two independent approaches (i.e. experimental and observational), and applied statistical modeling to identify the role and relative...

Data from: Heritability and social brood effects on personality in juvenile and adult life-history stages in a wild passerine

Isabel S. Winney, Julia Schroeder, Shinichi Nakagawa, Yu-Hsun Hsu, Mirre J. Simons, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Maria-Elena Mannarelli & Terry Burke
How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and...

Data from: Abiotic and biotic predictors of macroecological patterns in bird and butterfly coloration

Rhiannon L. Dalrymple, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Darrell J. Kemp, Thomas E. White, Shawn W. Laffan, Frank A. Hemmings, Timothy D. Hitchcock & Angela T. Moles
Animal color phenotypes are invariably influenced by both their biotic community and the abiotic environments. A host of hypotheses have been proposed for how variables such as solar radiation, habitat shadiness, primary productivity, temperature, rainfall and community diversity might affect animal color traits. However, while individual factors have been linked to coloration in specific contexts, little is known about which factors are most important across broad taxonomic and geographic scales. Using data collected from 570...

Data from: Adult dietary protein has age- and context-dependent effects on male post-copulatory performance

Erin L. Macartney, Angela J. Crean & R. Bonduriansky
The highly-conserved effect of dietary protein restriction on life-span and ageing is observed in both sexes and across a vast range of taxa. This extension of life-span is frequently accompanied by a reduction in female fecundity and it has been hypothesised that individuals may reallocate resources away from reproduction and into somatic maintenance. However, effects of dietary protein restriction on male reproduction are less consistent, suggesting that these effects may depend on other environmental parameters....

Data from: Differentiating founder and chronic HIV envelope sequences

John M. Murray, Stephen Maher, Talia Mota, Kazuo Suzuki, Anthony D. Kelleher, Rob J. Center & Damian Purcell
Significant progress has been made in characterizing broadly neutralizing antibodies against the HIV envelope glycoprotein Env, but an effective vaccine has proven elusive. Vaccine development would be facilitated if common features of early founder virus required for transmission could be identified. Here we employ a combination of bioinformatic and operations research methods to determine the most prevalent features that distinguish 78 subtype B and 55 subtype C founder Env sequences from an equal number of...

Data from: Competition drives the response of soil microbial diversity to increased grazing by vertebrate herbivores

David J. Eldridge, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Samantha K. Travers, James Val, Ian Oliver, Kelly Hamonts & Brajesh K. Singh
Scientists have largely neglected the effects of grazing on soil microbial communities despite their importance as drivers of ecosystem functions and services. We hypothesised that changes in soil properties resulting from grazing regulate the diversity of soil microbes by releasing/suppressing subordinate microbial taxa via competition. To test this, we examined intensity of vertebrate herbivores influences the diversity and composition of soil bacteria and fungi at 216 soil samples from 54 sites and four microsites. Increasing...

Early mobilisation after total hip or knee arthroplasty: A multicentre prospective observational study

Justine Naylor, Ian Harris, Rajat Mittal, Wei Xuan, Matthew Chua & Andrew Hart
Early mobilisation is recommended following total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE). We sought to determine the proportions of patients that first mobilised on post-operative day 0 (POD 0) and factors associated with earlier time to mobilisation.

Data from: Rewilded mammal assemblages reveal the missing ecological functions of granivores

Charlotte H. Mills, Christopher E. Gordon & Mike Letnic
1. Rewilding is a strategy for ecological restoration that uses reintroductions of animals to re-establish the ecological functions of keystone species. Globally, rewilding efforts have focused primarily on reinstating the ecological functions of charismatic megafauna. In Australia, rewilding efforts have focused on restoring the ecological functions of herbivorous and omnivorous rodents and marsupials weighing between 30-5000g inside of predator-proof exclosures. 2. In many arid ecosystems, mammals are considered the dominant seed predators. In Australian deserts,...

Data from: Landscape context explains changes in the functional diversity of regenerating forests better than climate or species richness

Michael Sams, Hao Ran Lai, Stephen Bonser, Peter Vesk, Robert Kooyman, Daniel Metcalfe, John W. Morgan, Margaret Mayfield, M. A. Sams, D. J. Metcalfe, R. M. Kooyman & P. A. Vesk
Aim A rich literature on forest succession provides general expectations for the steps forests go through while reassembling after disturbance, yet we still have a surprisingly poor understanding of why the outcomes of forest recovery after logging (or other disturbances) vary so extensively. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that regional species pool, system productivity, climate and landscape structure are important drivers of forest reassembly outcomes. Location Transect 1,500 km in length along the...

Data from: Livestock activity increases exotic plant richness, but wildlife increases native richness, with stronger effects under low productivity

David J. Eldridge, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Samantha K. Travers, James Val, Ian Oliver, Josh W. Dorrough & Santiago Soliveres
1.Grazing by domestic livestock is one of the most widespread land uses worldwide, particularly in rangelands, where it co-occurs with grazing by wild herbivores. Grazing effects on plant diversity are likely to depend on intensity of grazing, herbivore type, coevolution with plants and prevailing environmental conditions. 2.We collected data on climate, plant productivity, soil properties, grazing intensity and herbivore type; and measured their effects on plant species richness from 451 sites across 0.4 M km2...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    32

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    32

Affiliations

  • UNSW Sydney
    32
  • University of Melbourne
    6
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • University of Otago
    3
  • Macquarie University
    3
  • University of New England
    3
  • University of Queensland
    2
  • La Trobe University
    2
  • University of Colorado Boulder
    2
  • Western Sydney University
    2