29 Works

Data from: Evidence that fertility trades off with early offspring fitness as males age

Sheri L. Johnson, Sylvia Zellhuber-McMillan, Joanne Gillum, Jessica Dunleavy, Jonathan P. Evans, Shinichi Nakagawa & Neil J. Gemmell
Models of aging predict that sperm function and fertility should decline with age as sperm are exposed to free radical damage and mutation accumulation. However, theory also suggests that mating with older males should be beneficial for females because survival to old age is a demonstration of a male’s high genetic and/or phenotypic quality. Consequently, declines in sperm fitness may be offset by indirect fitness benefits exhibited in offspring. While numerous studies have investigated age-based...

Data from: Livestock grazing reinforces the competitive exclusion of small-bodied birds by large aggressive birds

James Val, David J. Eldridge, Samantha K. Travers & Ian Oliver
1.Grazing by domestic livestock is sometimes promoted as a management tool to benefit biodiversity. In many situations, however, it can produce negative outcomes. 2.Here we examine the impacts of recent and historic livestock grazing on bird communities in the semi-arid woodlands in eastern Australia, testing the notion that grazing removes the suppressive effect of structurally complex vegetation on miners, thereby reducing the richness and abundance of small birds. 3.We used time- and area-limited searches of...

Data from: Zinc is a potent and specific inhibitor of IFN-λ3 signalling

Scott A. Read, Kate S. O'Connor, Vijay Suppiah, Chantelle L. E. Ahlenstiel, Stephanie Obeid, Kristina M. Cook, Anthony Cunningham, Mark W. Douglas, Philip J. Hogg, David Booth, Jacob George & Golo Ahlenstiel
Lambda interferons (IFNL, IFN-λ) are pro-inflammatory cytokines important in acute and chronic viral infection. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917 within the IFNL gene locus predict hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance, as well as inflammation and fibrosis progression in viral and non-viral liver disease. The underlying mechanism, however, is not defined. Here we show that the rs12979860 CC genotype correlates with increased hepatic metallothionein expression through increased systemic zinc levels. Zinc interferes with IFN-λ3 binding to...

Data from: Particle-association lifestyle is a phylogenetically conserved trait in bathypelagic prokaryotes

Guillem Salazar Guiral, Francisco Cornejo-Castillo, Encarna Borrull, Cristina Díez-Vives, Elena Lara, Dolors Vaqué, Jesús Arrieta, Carlos Duarte, Josep Gasol & Silvia Acinas
The free-living (FL) and particle-attached (PA) marine microbial communities have repeatedly been proved to differ in their diversity and composition in the photic ocean and also recently in the bathypelagic ocean at a global scale. However, although high taxonomic ranks have been proved to exhibit preferences for a PA or FL mode of life, it remains poorly understood whether two clear lifestyles do exist and how these are distributed across the prokaryotic phylogeny. We studied...

Data from: Sneeze to leave: African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) use variable quorum thresholds facilitated by sneezes in collective decisions.

Reena H. Walker, Andrew J. King, John Weldon McNutt & Neil R. Jordan
In despotically driven animal societies, one or a few individuals tend to have a disproportionate influence on group decision-making and actions. However, global communication allows each group member to assess the relative strength of preferences for different options amongst their group-mates. Here, we investigate collective decisions by free-ranging African wild dog packs in Botswana. African wild dogs exhibit dominant-directed group living and take part in stereotyped social rallies: high energy greeting ceremonies that occur before...

Data from: Interactions between rainfall, fire and herbivory drive resprouter vital rates in a semi-arid ecosystem

Katherine M. Giljohann, Michael A. McCarthy, David A. Keith, Luke T. Kelly, Mark G. Tozer & Tracey J. Regan
1. Global change is threatening ecosystems and biodiversity worldwide, creating a pressing need to understand how climate and disturbance regimes interact and influence the persistence of species. We quantify how three ecosystem drivers– rainfall, fire and herbivory – influence vital rates in the perennial resprouting graminoid, Triodia scariosa, a foundation species of semi-arid Australia. 2. We used an 11 year data set from a fire and herbivore exclosure experiment, to model flowering, post-fire recruitment and...

Data from: Personality-matching habitat choice, rather than behavioural plasticity, is a likely driver of a phenotype–environment covariance

Benedikt Holtmann, Eduardo S.A. Santos, Carlos E. Lara, Shinichi Nakagawa & Eduardo S. A. Santos
An emerging hypothesis of animal personality posits that animals choose the habitat that best fits their personality, and that the match between habitat and personality can facilitate population differentiation, and eventually speciation. However, behavioural plasticity and the adjustment of behaviours to new environments have been a classical explanation for such matching patterns. Using a population of dunnocks (Prunella modularis), we empirically tested whether personality or behavioural plasticity is responsible for the non-random distribution of shy...

Data from: Genetic rescue increases fitness and aids rapid recovery of an endangered marsupial population

Andrew R. Weeks, Dean Heinze, Louise Perrin, Jakub Stoklosa, Ary A. Hoffmann, Anthony Van Rooyen, Tom Kelly & Ian Mansergh
Genetic rescue has now been attempted in several threatened species, but the contribution of genetics per se to any increase in population health can be hard to identify. Rescue is expected to be particularly useful when individuals are introduced into small isolated populations with low levels of genetic variation. Here we consider such a situation by documenting genetic rescue in the mountain pygmy possum, Burramys parvus. Rapid population recovery occurred in the target population after...

Data from: Predator exposure improves anti-predator responses in a threatened mammal

Rebecca West, Mike Letnic, Daniel T. Blumstein & Katherine E. Moseby
Incorporating an understanding of animal behaviour into conservation programmes can influence conservation outcomes. Exotic predators can have devastating impacts on native prey species and thwart reintroduction efforts, in part due to prey naïveté caused by an absence of co-evolution between predators and prey. Attempts have been made to improve the anti-predator behaviours of reintroduced native prey by conducting laboratory-based predator recognition training but results have been varied and have rarely led to improved survival in...

Data from: Habitat filtering determines the functional niche occupancy of plant communities worldwide

Yuanzhi Li, Bill Shipley, Jodi N. Price, Vinícius De L. Dantas, Riin Tamme, Mark Westoby, Andrew Siefert, Brandon S. Schamp, Marko J. Spasojevic, Vincent Jung, Daniel C. Laughlin, Sarah J. Richardson, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Christian Schöb, Antonio Gazol, Honor C. Prentice, Nicolas Gross, Jacob Overton, Marcus V. Cianciaruso, Frédérique Louault, Chiho Kamiyama, Tohru Nakashizuka, Kouki Hikosaka, Takehiro Sasaki, Masatoshi Katabuchi … & Marco A. Batalha
How the patterns of niche occupancy vary from species-poor to species-rich communities is a fundamental question in ecology that has a central bearing on the processes that drive patterns of biodiversity. As species richness increases, habitat filtering should constrain the expansion of total niche volume, while limiting similarity should restrict the degree of niche overlap between species. Here, by explicitly incorporating intraspecific trait variability, we investigate the relationship between functional niche occupancy and species richness...

Data from: Gliding lizards use the position of the sun to enhance social display

Danielle A. Klomp, Devi Stuart-Fox, Indraneil Das & Terry J. Ord
Effective communication requires animal signals to be readily detected by receivers in the environments in which they are typically given. Certain light conditions enhance the visibility of colour signals and these conditions can vary depending on the orientation of the sun and the position of the signaller. We tested whether Draco sumatranus gliding lizards modified their position relative to the sun to enhance the conspicuousness of their throat-fan (dewlap) during social display to conspecifics. The...

Data from: HIV dynamics linked to memory CD4+ T cell homeostasis

John M. Murray, John Zaunders, Sean Emery, David A. Cooper, William J. Hey-Nguyen, Kersten K. Koelsch & Anthony D. Kelleher
The dynamics of latent HIV is linked to infection and clearance of resting memory CD4+ T cells. Infection also resides within activated, non-dividing memory cells and can be impacted by antigen-driven and homeostatic proliferation despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated whether plasma viral level (pVL) and HIV DNA dynamics could be explained by HIV’s impact on memory CD4+ T cell homeostasis. Median total, 2-LTR and integrated HIV DNA levels per μL of peripheral blood,...

Data from: Manipulation of habitat isolation and area implicates deterministic factors and limited neutrality in community assembly

Terry J. Ord, Jack Emblen, Mattias Hagman, Ryan Shofner & Sara Unruh
Theory predicts deterministic and stochastic factors will contribute to community assembly in different ways: environmental filters should regulate those species that establish in a particular area resulting in the ecological requirements of species being the primary driver of species distributions, while chance and dispersal limitation should dictate the likelihood of species reaching certain areas with the ecology of species being largely neutral. These factors are specifically relevant for understanding how the area and isolation of...

Data from: Seagrass on the brink: decline of threatened seagrass Posidonia australis continues following protection

Suzanna M. Evans, Kingsley J. Griffin, Ray A. J. Blick, Alistair G. B. Poore & Adriana Verges
Seagrasses are in decline globally due to sustained pressure from coastal development, water quality declines and the ongoing threat from climate change. The result of this decline has been a loss of coastal productivity, a reduction in critical fisheries habitat and increased erosion. Attempts to slow this decline have included legislative protection of habitat and direct restoration efforts. Monitoring the success of these approaches requires tracking changes in the abundance of seagrasses, but such monitoring...

Data from: Surface-water dynamics and land use influence landscape connectivity across a major dryland region

Robbi Bishop-Taylor, Mirela G. Tulbure & Mark Broich
Landscape connectivity is important for the long-term persistence of species inhabiting dryland freshwater ecosystems, with spatiotemporal surface-water dynamics (e.g., flooding) maintaining connectivity by both creating temporary habitats and providing transient opportunities for dispersal. Improving our understanding of how landscape connectivity varies with respect to surface-water dynamics and land use is an important step to maintaining biodiversity in dynamic dryland environments. Using a newly available validated Landsat TM and ETM+ surface-water time series, we modelled landscape...

Data from: Removal of an apex predator initiates a trophic cascade that extends from herbivores to vegetation and the soil nutrient pool

Timothy Morris & Mike Letnic
It is widely assumed that organisms at low trophic levels, particularly microbes and plants, are essential to basic services in ecosystems, such as nutrient cycling. In theory, apex predators' effects on ecosystems could extend to nutrient cycling and the soil nutrient pool by influencing the intensity and spatial organization of herbivory. Here, we take advantage of a long-term manipulation of dingo abundance across Australia's dingo-proof fence in the Strzelecki Desert to investigate the effects that...

Data from: Plant traits of propagule banks and standing vegetation reveal flooding alleviates impacts of agriculture on wetland restoration

Samantha K. Dawson, David I. Warton, Richard T. Kingsford, Peter Berney, David A. Keith & Jane A. Catford
1. Restoration of degraded plant communities requires understanding of community assembly processes. Human land use can influence plant community assembly by altering environmental conditions and species’ dispersal patterns. Flooding, including from environmental flows, may counteract land use effects on wetland vegetation. We examined the influence of land use history and flood frequency on the functional composition of wetland plant communities along a regulated river. 2. We applied fourth corner modelling to determine species’ trait-based responses...

Data from: Sex-dependent expression of behavioural genetic architectures and the evolution of sexual dimorphism

Chang S. Han & Niels J. Dingemanse
Empirical studies imply that sex-specific genetic architectures can resolve evolutionary conflicts between males and females, and thereby facilitate the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Sex-specificity of behavioural genetic architectures have, however, rarely been considered. Moreover, as the expression of genetic (co)variances is often environment-dependent, general inferences on sex-specific genetic architectures require estimates of quantitative genetics parameters under multiple conditions. We measured exploration and aggression in pedigreed populations of southern field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) raised on either...

Data from: Differentiating founder and chronic HIV envelope sequences

John M. Murray, Stephen Maher, Talia Mota, Kazuo Suzuki, Anthony D. Kelleher, Rob J. Center & Damian Purcell
Significant progress has been made in characterizing broadly neutralizing antibodies against the HIV envelope glycoprotein Env, but an effective vaccine has proven elusive. Vaccine development would be facilitated if common features of early founder virus required for transmission could be identified. Here we employ a combination of bioinformatic and operations research methods to determine the most prevalent features that distinguish 78 subtype B and 55 subtype C founder Env sequences from an equal number of...

Data from: Landscape context explains changes in the functional diversity of regenerating forests better than climate or species richness

Michael Sams, Hao Ran Lai, Stephen Bonser, Peter Vesk, Robert Kooyman, Daniel Metcalfe, John W. Morgan, Margaret Mayfield, M. A. Sams, D. J. Metcalfe, R. M. Kooyman & P. A. Vesk
Aim A rich literature on forest succession provides general expectations for the steps forests go through while reassembling after disturbance, yet we still have a surprisingly poor understanding of why the outcomes of forest recovery after logging (or other disturbances) vary so extensively. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that regional species pool, system productivity, climate and landscape structure are important drivers of forest reassembly outcomes. Location Transect 1,500 km in length along the...

Data from: Competition drives the response of soil microbial diversity to increased grazing by vertebrate herbivores

David J. Eldridge, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Samantha K. Travers, James Val, Ian Oliver, Kelly Hamonts & Brajesh K. Singh
Scientists have largely neglected the effects of grazing on soil microbial communities despite their importance as drivers of ecosystem functions and services. We hypothesised that changes in soil properties resulting from grazing regulate the diversity of soil microbes by releasing/suppressing subordinate microbial taxa via competition. To test this, we examined intensity of vertebrate herbivores influences the diversity and composition of soil bacteria and fungi at 216 soil samples from 54 sites and four microsites. Increasing...

Data from: Livestock activity increases exotic plant richness, but wildlife increases native richness, with stronger effects under low productivity

David J. Eldridge, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Samantha K. Travers, James Val, Ian Oliver, Josh W. Dorrough & Santiago Soliveres
1.Grazing by domestic livestock is one of the most widespread land uses worldwide, particularly in rangelands, where it co-occurs with grazing by wild herbivores. Grazing effects on plant diversity are likely to depend on intensity of grazing, herbivore type, coevolution with plants and prevailing environmental conditions. 2.We collected data on climate, plant productivity, soil properties, grazing intensity and herbivore type; and measured their effects on plant species richness from 451 sites across 0.4 M km2...

Data from: Rewilded mammal assemblages reveal the missing ecological functions of granivores

Charlotte H. Mills, Christopher E. Gordon & Mike Letnic
1. Rewilding is a strategy for ecological restoration that uses reintroductions of animals to re-establish the ecological functions of keystone species. Globally, rewilding efforts have focused primarily on reinstating the ecological functions of charismatic megafauna. In Australia, rewilding efforts have focused on restoring the ecological functions of herbivorous and omnivorous rodents and marsupials weighing between 30-5000g inside of predator-proof exclosures. 2. In many arid ecosystems, mammals are considered the dominant seed predators. In Australian deserts,...

Data from: The large-scale drivers of population declines in a long-distance migratory shorebird

Nicholas J. Murray, Peter P. Marra, Richard A. Fuller, Robert S. Clemens, Kiran Dhanjal-Adams, Ken B. Gosbell, Chris J. Hassell, Takuya Iwamura, David Melville, Clive D. T. Minton, Adrian C. Riegen, Danny I. Rogers, Eric J. Woehler & Colin E. Studds
Migratory species can travel tens of thousands of kilometers each year, spending different parts of their annual cycle in geographically distinct locations. Understanding the drivers of population change is vital for conserving migratory species, yet the challenge of collecting data over entire geographic ranges has hindered attempts to identify the processes leading to observed population changes. Here, we use remotely sensed environmental data and count data to investigate the factors driving variability in abundance in...

Data from: Adult dietary protein has age- and context-dependent effects on male post-copulatory performance

Erin L. Macartney, Angela J. Crean & R. Bonduriansky
The highly-conserved effect of dietary protein restriction on life-span and ageing is observed in both sexes and across a vast range of taxa. This extension of life-span is frequently accompanied by a reduction in female fecundity and it has been hypothesised that individuals may reallocate resources away from reproduction and into somatic maintenance. However, effects of dietary protein restriction on male reproduction are less consistent, suggesting that these effects may depend on other environmental parameters....

Registration Year

  • 2017
    29

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    29

Affiliations

  • UNSW Sydney
    29
  • University of Melbourne
    6
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • University of Otago
    3
  • Macquarie University
    3
  • University of New England
    3
  • University of Queensland
    2
  • La Trobe University
    2
  • University of Colorado Boulder
    2
  • Western Sydney University
    2