642 Works

Woodpeckers and other excavators maintain the diversity of cavity-nesting vertebrates

M. Kurtis Trzcinski, Kristina Cockle, Andrea Norris, Max Edworthy, Karen Wiebe & Kathy Martin
Woodpeckers and other excavators create most of the holes used by secondary tree-cavity nesting vertebrates (SCNs) in North American temperate mixedwood forests, but the degree to which excavators release SCNs from nest-site limitation is debated. Our goal was to quantify how excavators maintain the diversity and abundance of secondary cavity nesters in a temperate forest through the creation of tree cavities. We examined the short- and long-term (legacy) effects of excavators (principally woodpeckers, but also...

Landscape context mediates the physiological stress response of birds to farmland diversification

Christopher Latimer, Olivia Smith, Joseph Taylor, Amanda Edworthy, Jeb Owen, William Snyder & Christina M. Kennedy
1. Farmland diversification practices are increasingly adopted to help reverse biodiversity declines in agroecosystems. However, evidence for the effectiveness of this approach often comes from documenting the species attracted to particular farming systems or landscapes, rather than their underlying physiological states that ultimately determine population growth or decline over the longer term. 2. Across 38 organic, mixed-produce farms spanning the U.S. west coast, we quantified three physiological biomarkers that are widely used to capture variation...

Predicting the strength of urban-rural clines in a Mendelian polymorphism along a latitudinal gradient

James Santangelo, Ken Thompson, Beata Cohan, Jibran Syed, Rob Ness & Marc Johnson
Cities are emerging as models for addressing the fundamental question of whether populations evolve in parallel to similar environments. Here, we examine the environmental factors that drive the evolution of parallel urban-rural clines in a Mendelian trait—the cyanogenic antiherbivore defense of white clover (Trifolium repens). Previous work suggested urban-rural gradients in frost and snow depth could drive the evolution of reduced hydrogen cyanide (HCN) frequencies in urban populations. Here, we sampled over 700 urban and...

Scientific shortcomings in environmental impact statements internationally

Gerald Singh, Jackie Lerner, Megan Mach, Cathryn Clarke Murray, Bernardo Ranieri, Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent, Janson Wong, Alice Guimaraes, Gustavo Yunda-Guarin, Terre Satterfield & Kai Chan
1. Governments around the world rely on environmental impact assessment to understand the environmental risks of proposed developments. 2. To examine the basis for these appraisals, we examine the output of environmental impact assessment processes in jurisdictions within seven countries, focusing on scope (spatial and temporal), mitigation actions, and whether impacts were identified as ‘significant’. 3. We find that the number of impacts characterized as significant is generally low. While this finding may indicate that...

Interspecific competition slows range expansion and shapes range boundaries

Geoffrey Legault, Matthew Bitters, Alan Hastings & Brett Melbourne
Species expanding into new habitats as a result of climate change or human introductions will frequently encounter resident competitors. Theoretical models suggest that such interspecific competition can alter the speed of expansion and the shape of expanding range boundaries. However, competitive interactions are rarely considered when forecasting the success or speed of expansion, in part because there has been no direct experimental evidence that competition affects either expansion speed or boundary shape. Here we demonstrate...

Clinician-researcher’s perspectives on clinical research during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sarah Silverberg, Lisa Puchalski-Ritchie, Nina Gobat, Alistair Nichol & Srinavas Murthy
Objectives: The outcome of well-performed clinical research is essential for evidence-based patient management during pandemics. However, conducting clinical research amidst a pandemic requires researchers to balance clinical and research demands. We seek to understand the values, experiences, and beliefs of physicians working at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in order to inform clinical research planning. We aim to understand whether pandemic settings affect physician comfort with research practices, and how physician experiences shape their...

Growth, metabolism, anatomy, behaviour, invertebrate drift

Gauthier Monnet
Adaptive trade-offs are fundamental mechanisms underlying phenotypic diversity, but the presence of generalizable patterns in multivariate adaptation and their mapping onto environmental gradients remain unclear. To understand how life-history affects multivariate trait associations, we examined relationships among growth, metabolism, anatomy and behaviour in rainbow trout juveniles from piscivore vs. insectivore ecotypes along an experimental gradient of food availability. We hypothesized that i) selection for larger size in piscivorous adults would select for higher juvenile growth...

Insights from Fisher's geometric model on the likelihood of speciation under different histories of environmental change

Ryo Yamaguchi & Sarah P. Otto
All code and simulation data necessary to repeat the analysis described in "Insights from Fisher’s geometric model on the likelihood of speciation under different histories of environmental change."

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Selection on a small genomic region underpins differentiation in multiple color traits between two warbler species

Silu Wang, Sievert Rohwer, Devin De Zwaan, David Toews, Irby Lovette, Jacqueline Mackenzie & Darren Irwin
Speciation is one of the most important processes in biology, yet the study of the genomic changes underlying this process is in its infancy. North American warbler species Setophaga townsendi and S. occidentalis hybridize in a stable hybrid zone, following a period of geographic separation. Genomic differentiation accumulated during geographic isolation can be homogenized by introgression at secondary contact, while genetic regions that cause low hybrid fitness can be shielded from such introgression. Here we...

Data from: Thermal tolerances and species interactions determine the elevational distributions of insects

Sarah Amundrud & Diane Srivastava
Aim: While physiological limits to thermal extremes are often thought to determine the abundance and geographic distribution of species, more recent evidence suggests that species interactions may be equally important. Moreover, the relative importance of these constraints may shift with changing abiotic conditions, such as climate change. Here, we explore the relative importance of physiological tolerances to heat and species interactions in determining the distribution of insects along two elevational gradients. The gradients contrast in...

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

Data from: Coexistence and origin of trophic ecotypes of pygmy whitefish, Prosopium coulterii, in southwestern Alaskan lake

Tom P. Quinn, Conrad P. Gowell & Eric B. Taylor
Ecologically, morphologically, and genetically distinct populations within single taxa often co-exist in postglacial lakes and have provided important model systems with which to investigate ecological and evolutionary processes such as niche partitioning and ecological speciation. Within the Salmonidae, these species complexes have been well studied, particularly within the Coregonus clupeaformis-C. laveratus (lake and European whitefish, respectively) group, but the phenomenon has been less well documented in the other whitefish genera, Prosopium and Stenodus. Here, we...

Data from: Towards an integrated database on Canadian ocean resources: benefits, current states, and research gaps

Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor, William Wai Lung Cheung, Karin Bodtker, Louise Teh, Nadja Steiner, Morgan Bailey, Carie Hoover & Ussif Rashid Sumaila
Oceanic ecosystem services support a range of human benefits, and Canada has extensive research networks producing growing data sets. We present a first effort to compile, link, and harmonize available information to provide new perspectives on the status of Canadian ocean ecosystems and corresponding research. The metadata database currently includes 1094 individual assessments and data sets from government (n = 716), nongovernment (n = 320), and academic sources (n = 58), comprising research on marine...

Data from: Life-history characteristics and landscape attributes as drivers of genetic variation, gene flow and fine-scale population structure in Northern Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma malma) in Canada

Les N. Harris, Robert Bajno, Colin P. Gallagher, Itsuro Koizumi, Lucy K. Johnson, Kimberly L. Howland, Eric B. Taylor & James D. Reist
The Northern Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma malma) displays variable life-history types and occupies freshwater habitats with varying levels of connectivity. Here, we assayed microsatellite DNA variation in Northern Dolly Varden from the western Canadian Arctic to resolve landscape and life history variables driving variation in genetic diversity and population structure. Overall, genetic variation was highest in anadromous populations and lowest in those isolated above waterfalls with stream-resident forms intermediate between the two. Anadromous and isolated...

Data from: Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in comparative data

Luke J. Harmon, Jonathan B. Losos, T. Jonathan Davies, Rosemary G. Gillespie, John L. Gittleman, W. Bryan Jennings, Kenneth H. Kozak, Mark A. McPeek, Franck Moreno-Roark, Thomas J. Near, Andy Purvis, Robert E. Ricklefs, Dolph Schluter, , Ole Seehausen, Brian L. Sidlauskas, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Jason T. Weir & Arne Ø. Mooers
George Gaylord Simpson famously postulated that much of life's diversity originated as adaptive radiations—more or less simultaneous divergences of numerous lines from a single ancestral adaptive type. However, identifying adaptive radiations has proven difficult due to a lack of broad-scale comparative datasets. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative data on body size and shape in a diversity of animal clades to test a key model of adaptive radiation, in which initially rapid morphological evolution is followed...

Data from: Genetic patterns in Neotropical Magnolias (Magnoliaceae) using de novo developed microsatellite markers

Emily Veltjen, Pieter Asselman, Majela Hernández Rodríguez, Alejandro Palmarola Bejerano, Ernesto Testé Lozano, Luis Roberto González Torres, Paul Goetghebeur, Isabel Larridon & Marie-Stéphanie Samain
Conserving tree populations safeguards forests since they represent key elements of the ecosystem. The genetic characteristics underlying the evolutionary success of the tree growth form: high genetic diversity, extensive gene flow and strong species integrity, contribute to their survival in terms of adaptability. However, different biological and landscape contexts challenge these characteristics. This study employs 63 de novo developed microsatellite or SSR (Single Sequence Repeat) markers in different datasets of nine Neotropical Magnolia species. The...

Data from: Multiple plant traits shape the genetic basis of herbivore community assembly

Matthew A. Barbour, Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal, Elizabeth T. Wu, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Carol E. Ritland, Allyson E. Miscampbell, Erik S. Jules & Gregory M. Crutsinger
1. Community genetics research has posited a genetic basis to the assembly of ecological communities. For arthropod herbivores in particular, there is strong support that genetic variation in host plants is a key factor shaping their diversity and composition. However, the specific plant phenotypes underlying herbivore responses remain poorly explored for most systems. 2. We address this knowledge gap by examining the influence of both genetic and phenotypic variation in a dominant host-plant species, Salix...

Data from: Morphological and genetic analysis of sympatric dace within the Rhinichthys cataractae species complex: a case of isolation lost

Jennifer A. Ruskey & Eric B. Taylor
The Nooksack dace (Pisces: an undescribed putative taxon within Rhinichthys) and longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) are two forms within the R. cataractae species complex that are distinguishable from one another by mitochondrial (mt) DNA divergence of 2–3%, as well as by subtle morphological differences. The two forms are found in allopatry in south-eastern British Columbia (BC), Canada, and adjacent areas of western Washington, USA, and are sympatric in three streams in the lower Fraser River...

Data from: Sockeye salmon repatriation leads to population re-establishment and rapid introgression with native kokanee

Andrew J. Veale & Michael A. Russello
Re-establishing salmonid populations to areas historically occupied has substantial potential for conservation gains, however, such interventions also risk negatively impacting native resident stocks. Here, we assessed the success of the hatchery-assisted reintroduction of anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) into Skaha Lake, British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated the genetic consequences for native kokanee, a freshwater-obligate ecotype, using single nucleotide polymorphism genotypic data collected from reference samples of spawning Okanagan River sockeye and Skaha Lake kokanee pre-sockeye...

Data from: Social evolution in structured populations

Florence Débarre, Christoph Hauert & Michael Doebeli
Understanding the evolution of social behaviours such as altruism and spite is a long-standing problem that has generated thousands of articles and heated debates. Previous theoretical studies showed that whether altruism and spite evolve may be contingent on seemingly artificial model features, such as which rule is chosen to update the population (e.g., Birth-Death or Death-Birth), and whether the benefits and costs of sociality affect fecundity or survival. Here we unify these features in a...

Data from: Jerzego, a new hisponine jumping spider from Borneo (Araneae: Salticidae)

Wayne P. Maddison & Edyta K. Piascik
A new genus and species of hisponine jumping spider from Sarawak, Jerzego corticicola Maddison sp. nov. are described, representing one of the few hisponine jumping spiders known from Asia, and the only whose male is known. Although similar to the primarily-Madagascan genus Hispo in having an elongate and flat body, sequences of 28s and 16sND1 genes indicate that Jerzego is most closely related to Massagris and Tomomingi, a result consistent with morphology. Females of Jerzego...

Data from: Indirect genetic effects underlie oxygen-limited thermal tolerance within a coastal population of chinook salmon

Nicolas J. Muñoz, Katja Anttila, Zhongqi Chen, John W. Heath, Anthony P. Farrell, Bryan D. Neff & N. J. Munoz
With global temperatures projected to surpass the limits of thermal tolerance for many species, evaluating the heritable variation underlying thermal tolerance is critical for understanding the potential for adaptation to climate change. We examined the evolutionary potential of thermal tolerance within a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by conducting a full-factorial breeding design and measuring the thermal performance of cardiac function and the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of offspring from each family. Additive genetic...

Data from: Molecular phylogeny of an ancient rodent family (Aplodontiidae)

Antoinette J. Piaggio, Brett A. Coghlan, Allyson E. Miscampbell, Wendy M. Arjo, Douglas B. Ransome & Carol E. Ritland
The family Aplodontiidae contains a single, monotypic extant genus, Aplodontia (mountain beaver), which was 1st described by Rafinesque in 1817. Phylogenetic studies have shown that it is the sister lineage to squirrels. Aplodontia rufa is endemic to the Pacific Northwest and ranges from central California to British Columbia. Currently, 7 described subspecies are recognized based on morphological taxonomic studies. In this study, mitochondrial and nuclear genes were sequenced to infer molecular phylogenies of A. rufa....

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