60 Works

Data from: Time scale matters: genetic analysis does not support adaptation-by-time as the mechanism for adaptive seasonal declines in kokanee reproductive lifespan

Yolanda E. Morbey, Evelyn L. Jensen & Michael A. Russello
Seasonal declines of fitness-related traits are often attributed to environmental effects or individual-level decisions about reproductive timing and effort, but genetic variation may also play a role. In populations of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal declines in reproductive life span have been attributed to adaptation-by-time, in which divergent selection for different traits occurs among reproductively isolated temporal components of a population. We evaluated this hypothesis in kokanee (freshwater obligate Oncorhynchus nerka) by testing for temporal...

Data from: QST FST comparisons with unbalanced half-sib designs

Kimberly J. Gilbert & Michael C. Whitlock
QST, a measure of quantitative genetic differentiation among populations, is an index that can suggest local adaptation if QST for a trait is sufficiently larger than the mean FST of neutral genetic markers. A previous method by Whitlock and Guillaume derived a simulation resampling approach to statistically test for a difference between QST and FST, but that method is limited to balanced data sets with offspring related as half-sibs through shared fathers. We extend this...

Data from: Landscape structure and the genetic effects of a population collapse

Serena A. Caplins, Kimberly J. Gilbert, Claudia Ciotir, Jens Roland, Stephen F. Matter & Nusha Keyghobadi
Both landscape structure and population size fluctuations influence population genetics. While independent effects of these factors on genetic patterns and processes are well studied, a key challenge is to understand their interaction, as populations are simultaneously exposed to habitat fragmentation and climatic changes that increase variability in population size. In a population network of an alpine butterfly, abundance declined 60–100% in 2003 because of low over-winter survival. Across the network, mean microsatellite genetic diversity did...

Data from: Jerzego, a new hisponine jumping spider from Borneo (Araneae: Salticidae)

Wayne P. Maddison & Edyta K. Piascik
A new genus and species of hisponine jumping spider from Sarawak, Jerzego corticicola Maddison sp. nov. are described, representing one of the few hisponine jumping spiders known from Asia, and the only whose male is known. Although similar to the primarily-Madagascan genus Hispo in having an elongate and flat body, sequences of 28s and 16sND1 genes indicate that Jerzego is most closely related to Massagris and Tomomingi, a result consistent with morphology. Females of Jerzego...

Data from: Indirect genetic effects underlie oxygen-limited thermal tolerance within a coastal population of chinook salmon

Nicolas J. Muñoz, Katja Anttila, Zhongqi Chen, John W. Heath, Anthony P. Farrell, Bryan D. Neff & N. J. Munoz
With global temperatures projected to surpass the limits of thermal tolerance for many species, evaluating the heritable variation underlying thermal tolerance is critical for understanding the potential for adaptation to climate change. We examined the evolutionary potential of thermal tolerance within a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by conducting a full-factorial breeding design and measuring the thermal performance of cardiac function and the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of offspring from each family. Additive genetic...

Data from: Transcriptome analysis indicates considerable divergence in alternative splicing between duplicated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

David C. Tack, William R. Pitchers & Keith L. Adams
Gene and genome duplication events have created a large number of new genes in plants that can diverge by evolving new expression profiles and functions (neofunctionalization) or dividing extant ones (subfunctionalization). Alternative splicing (AS) generates multiple types of mRNA from a single type of pre-mRNA by differential intron splicing. It can result in new protein isoforms or down-regulation of gene expression by transcript decay. Using RNA-seq we investigated the degree to which alternative splicing patterns...

Data from: Immune response genes and pathogen presence predict migration survival in wild salmon smolts

Ken M. Jeffries, Scott G. Hinch, Marika Kirsten Gale, Timothy D. Clark, Andrew G. Lotto, Matthew T. Casselman, Shaorong Li, Erin L. Rechisky, Aswea D. Porter, David W. Welch, Kristina M. Miller & Marika Kirstin Gale
We present the first data to link physiological responses and pathogen presence with subsequent fate during migration of wild salmonid smolts. We tagged and non-lethally sampled gill tissue from sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts as they left their nursery lake (Chilko Lake, BC, Canada) to compare gene expression profiles and freshwater pathogen loads with migration success over the first ~1150 km of their migration to the North Pacific Ocean using acoustic telemetry. Fifteen percent of...

Data from: Divergent transcriptional patterns are related to differences in hypoxia tolerance between the intertidal and the subtidal sculpins

Milica Mandic, Marina L. Ramon, Andrew Y. Gracey & Jeffrey G. Richards
Transcriptionally mediated phenotypic plasticity as a mechanism of modifying traits in response to an environmental challenge remains an important area of study. We compared the transcriptional responses to low-oxygen (hypoxia) of the hypoxia tolerant intertidal fish, the tidepool sculpin (Oligocottus maculosus) with the closely related hypoxia intolerant subtidal fish, the silverspotted sculpin (Blepsias cirrhosus) to determine if these species use different mechanisms to cope with hypoxia. Individuals from each species were exposed to environmental O2...

Data from: Multiple plant traits shape the genetic basis of herbivore community assembly

Matthew A. Barbour, Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal, Elizabeth T. Wu, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Carol E. Ritland, Allyson E. Miscampbell, Erik S. Jules & Gregory M. Crutsinger
1. Community genetics research has posited a genetic basis to the assembly of ecological communities. For arthropod herbivores in particular, there is strong support that genetic variation in host plants is a key factor shaping their diversity and composition. However, the specific plant phenotypes underlying herbivore responses remain poorly explored for most systems. 2. We address this knowledge gap by examining the influence of both genetic and phenotypic variation in a dominant host-plant species, Salix...

Data from: Social evolution in structured populations

Florence Débarre, Christoph Hauert & Michael Doebeli
Understanding the evolution of social behaviours such as altruism and spite is a long-standing problem that has generated thousands of articles and heated debates. Previous theoretical studies showed that whether altruism and spite evolve may be contingent on seemingly artificial model features, such as which rule is chosen to update the population (e.g., Birth-Death or Death-Birth), and whether the benefits and costs of sociality affect fecundity or survival. Here we unify these features in a...

Data from: How much of the world is woody?

Richard G. FitzJohn, Matt W. Pennell, Amy E. Zanne, Peter F. Stevens, David C. Tank, William K. Cornwell & Matthew W. Pennell
1.The question posed by the title of this paper is a basic one, and it is surprising that the answer is not known. Recently assembled trait datasets provide an opportunity to address this, but scaling these datasets to the global scale is challenging because of sampling bias. Although we currently know the growth form of tens of thousands of species, these data are not a random sample of global diversity; some clades are exhaustively characterised,...

Data from: Adaptive divergence along environmental gradients in a climate-change-sensitive mammal

P. Henry & M. A. Russello
In the face of predicted climate change, a broader understanding of biotic responses to varying environments has become increasingly important within the context of biodiversity conservation. Local adaptation is one potential option, yet remarkably few studies have harnessed genomic tools to evaluate the efficacy of this response within natural populations. Here we show evidence of selection driving divergence of a climate change-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps), distributed along elevation gradients at its northern...

Data from: Individual performance in relation to cytonuclear discordance in a northern contact zone between long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) lineages

Julie A. Lee-Yaw, Chris G. C. Jacobs & Darren E. Irwin
Cytonuclear discordance in contact zones between related lineages is common, with mitochondrial clines often being displaced from clines in nuclear allele frequency. Proposed explanations for such a pattern include adaptive introgression of mtDNA or a neutral wake of mtDNA being left behind following hybrid zone movement. However, studies investigating these hypotheses are rare. Our previous survey of genetic variation in the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) highlighted a potential case of cytonuclear discordance between two lineages...

Data from: Predators, energetics and fitness drive neonatal reproductive failure in red squirrels

Emily K. Studd, Stan Boutin, Andrew G. McAdam, Charles J. Krebs & Murray M. Humphries
Neonatal reproductive failure should occur when energetic costs of parental investment outweigh fitness benefits. However, little is known about the drivers of neonatal reproductive failure in free ranging species experiencing continuous natural variation in predator abundance and in the energetic and fitness costs and benefits associated with parental investment. Long-term comprehensive studies are required to better understand how biotic, abiotic, and life history conditions interact to drive occurrences of reproductive failure in the wild. Using...

Data from: The relationship between parasite fitness and host condition in an insect - virus system

Michelle Tseng & Judith H. Myers
Research in host-parasite evolutionary ecology has demonstrated that environmental variation plays a large role in mediating the outcome of parasite infection. For example, crowding or low food availability can reduce host condition and make them more vulnerable to parasite infection. This observation that poor-condition hosts often suffer more from parasite infection compared to healthy hosts has led to the assumption that parasite productivity is higher in poor-condition hosts. However, the ubiquity of this negative relationship...

Data from: Genetic covariance between components of male reproductive success: within-pair versus extra-pair paternity in song sparrows

Jane M. Reid, Peter Arcese & Sylvain Losdat
The evolutionary trajectories of reproductive systems, including both male and female multiple mating and hence polygyny and polyandry, are expected to depend on the additive genetic variances and covariances in and among components of male reproductive success achieved through different reproductive tactics. However, genetic covariances among key components of male reproductive success have not been estimated in wild populations. We used comprehensive paternity data from socially monogamous but genetically polygynandrous song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to...

Data from: Quantifying inbreeding avoidance through extra-pair reproduction

Jane M. Reid, Peter Arcese, Lukas F. Keller, Ryan R. Germain, Alexander Bradley Duthie, Sylvain Losdat, Matthew Ernest Wolak & Pirmin Nietlisbach
Extra-pair reproduction is widely hypothesised to allow females to avoid inbreeding with related socially-paired males. Consequently, numerous field studies have tested the key predictions that extra-pair offspring are less inbred than females’ alternative within-pair offspring, and that the probability of extra-pair reproduction increases with a female's relatedness to her socially-paired male. However such studies rarely measure inbreeding or relatedness sufficiently precisely to detect subtle effects, or consider biases stemming from failure to observe inbred offspring...

Data from: Stark sexual display divergence among jumping spider populations in the face of gene flow

Gwylim S. Blackburn & Wayne P. Maddison
Gene flow can inhibit evolutionary divergence by eroding genetic differences between populations. A current aim in speciation research is to identify conditions in which selection overcomes this process. We focused on a state of limited differentiation, asking whether selection enables divergence with gene flow in a set of Habronattus americanus jumping spider populations that exhibit three distinct male sexual display morphs. We found that each population is at high frequency or fixed for a single...

Data from: Evaluation of demographic history and neutral parameterization on the performance of Fst outlier tests

Katie E. Lotterhos & Michael C. Whitlock
FST outlier tests are a potentially powerful way to detect genetic loci under spatially divergent selection. Unfortunately, the extent to which these tests are robust to non-equilibrium demographic histories has been under-studied. We developed a landscape-genetics simulator to test the effects of isolation by distance (IBD) and range expansion on FST outlier methods. We evaluated the two most commonly used methods for the identification of FST outliers (FDIST2 and BayeScan, which assume samples are evolutionarily...

Data from: The evolution of environmental tolerance and range size: a comparison of geographically restricted and widespread Mimulus

Seema Nayan Sheth & Amy L. Angert
The geographic ranges of closely related species can vary dramatically, yet we do not fully grasp the mechanisms underlying such variation. The niche breadth hypothesis posits that species that have evolved broad environmental tolerances can achieve larger geographic ranges than species with narrow environmental tolerances. In turn, plasticity and genetic variation in ecologically important traits and adaptation to environmentally variable areas can facilitate the evolution of broad environmental tolerance. We used five pairs of western...

Data from: Landscape genomics of Populus trichocarpa: the role of hybridization, limited gene flow and natural selection in shaping patterns of population structure

Armando J. M. Geraldes, Nima Farzaneh, Christopher J. Grassa, Athena D. McKown, Robert D. Guy, Shawn D. Mansfied, Carl J. Douglas, Quentin C. B. Cronk, Armando Geraldes & Shawn D. Mansfield
Populus trichocarpa is an ecologically important tree across western North America. We used a large population sample of 498 accessions over a wide geographical area genotyped with a 34K Populus SNP array to quantify geographical patterns of genetic variation in this species (landscape genomics). We present evidence that three processes contribute to the observed patterns: (1) introgression from the sister species P. balsamifera (2) isolation-by-distance and (3) natural selection. Introgression was detected only at the...

Data from: Nontarget herbivory by a weed biocontrol insect is limited to spillover, reducing the chance of population-level impacts

Haley A. Catton, Robert G. Lalonde & Rosemarie A. De Clerck-Floate
Insects approved for classical biocontrol of weeds are often capable of using close relatives of their target weed for feeding, oviposition, or larval development, with reduced preference and performance. When nontarget herbivory occurs and is suspected to reduce survival, growth, or fecundity of individual plants, and insects are capable of reproducing on their nontarget host, characterization of spatial and temporal patterns of the occurrence and intensity of herbivory is valuable for predicting potential population-level effects....

Data from: Tisaniba, a new genus of marpissoid jumping spiders from Borneo (Araneae: Salticidae)

Jun-Xia Zhang & Wayne P. Maddison
Six new species of marpissoid jumping spiders from Sarawak, Borneo, are described in the new genus Tisaniba Zhang & Maddison. They are the type species, T. mulu Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., as well as the species T. bijibijan Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., T. dik Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., T. kubah Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., T. selan Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., and T. selasi Zhang & Maddison sp. nov. The spiders...

Data from: Genetic evidence of hybridization between the critically endangered Cuban crocodile and the American crocodile: implications for population history and in situ/ex situ conservation

Yoamel Milián-García, Roberto Ramos-Targarona, Etiam Pérez-Fleitas, Gustavo Sosa-Rodríguez, Leiter Guerra-Manchena, Manuel Alonso-Tabet, Georgina Espinosa-López & Michael A. Russello
Inter-specific hybridization may be especially detrimental when one species is extremely rare and the other is abundant owing to the potential for genetic swamping. The Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) is a critically endangered island endemic largely restricted to Zapata Swamp, where it is sympatric with the widespread American crocodile (C. acutus). An on-island, C. rhombifer captive breeding program is underway with the goals of maintaining taxonomic integrity and providing a source of individuals for reintroduction,...

Data from: Overdominance interacts with linkage to determine the rate of adaptation to a new optimum

Jeremy Draghi & Michael C. Whitlock
Overdominance, or a fitness advantage of a heterozygote over both homozygotes, can occur commonly with adaptation to a new optimum phenotype. We model how such overdominant polymorphisms can reduce the evolvability of diploid populations, uncovering a novel form of epistatic constraint on adaptation. The fitness load caused by overdominant polymorphisms can most readily be ameliorated by evolution at tightly linked loci; therefore traits controlled by multiple loosely linked loci are predicted to be strongly constrained....

Registration Year

  • 2014
    60

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    60

Affiliations

  • University of British Columbia
    60
  • University of Alberta
    5
  • University of Aberdeen
    4
  • Western University
    3
  • Indiana University Bloomington
    3
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    3
  • VU University Amsterdam
    2
  • State University of New York
    2
  • University of Guelph
    2
  • University of Zurich
    2