64 Works

Data from: Memory for lectures: how lecture format impacts the learning experience

Trish L. Varao-Sousa & Alan Kingstone
The present study investigated what impact the presentation style of a classroom lecture has on memory, mind wandering, and the subjective factors of interest and motivation. We examined if having a professor lecturing live versus on video alters the learning experience of the students in the classroom. During the lectures, students were asked to report mind wandering and later complete a memory test. The lecture format was manipulated such that all the students received two...

Data from: Direct and indirect effects of native range expansion on soil microbial community structure and function

Courtney G. Collins, Chelsea J. Carey, Emma L. Aronson, Christopher W. Kopp & Jeffrey M. Diez
Analogous to the spread of non-native species, shifts in native species’ ranges resulting from climate and land use change are also creating new combinations of species in many ecosystems. These native range shifts may be facilitated by similar mechanisms that provide advantages for non-native species and may also have comparable impacts on the ecosystems they invade. Soil biota, in particular bacteria and fungi, are important regulators of plant community composition and below-ground ecosystem function. Compared...

Data from: The effects of food web structure on ecosystem function exceeds those of precipitation

M. Kurtis Trzcinski, Diane S. Srivastava, Bruno Corbara, Olivier Dézerald, Céline Leroy, Jean-François Carrias, Alain Dejean & Régis Céréghino
Ecosystems are being stressed by climate change, but few studies have tested food web responses to changes in precipitation patterns and the consequences to ecosystem function. Fewer still have considered whether results from one geographic region can be applied to other regions, given the degree of community change over large biogeographic gradients. We assembled, in one field site, three types of macroinvertebrate communities within water-filled bromeliads. Two represented food webs containing both a fast filter...

Data from: Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats

Janosch Sedlacek, Andrés J. Cortés, Julia Wheeler, Oliver Bossdorf, Guenter Hoch, Jaroslav Klápště, Christian Lexer, Christian Rixen, Sonja Wipf, Sophie Karrenberg & Mark Van Kleunen
Alpine ecosystems are seriously threatened by climate change. One of the key mechanisms by which plants can adapt to changing environmental conditions is through evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the evolutionary potential in wild populations of long-lived alpine plants. Here, we investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers....

Data from: Cline coupling and uncoupling in a stickleback hybrid zone

Timothy H. Vines, Anne C. Dalziel, Arianne Albert, Thor Veen, Patricia Marita Schulte, Dolph Schluter & Arianne Y. K. Albert
Strong ecological selection on a genetic locus can maintain allele frequency differences between populations in different environments, even in the face of hybridization. When alleles at divergent loci come into tight linkage disequilibrium, selection acts on them as a unit and can significantly reduce gene flow. For populations interbreeding across a hybrid zone, linkage disequilibria between loci can force clines to share the same slopes and centers. However, strong ecological selection on a locus can...

Data from: Assessing conservation risks to populations of an anadromous Arctic salmonid, the northern Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma malma), via estimates of effective and census population sizes and approximate Bayesian computation

Les N. Harris, Friso P. Palstra, Rob Bajno, Colin P. Gallagher, Kimberly L. Howland, Eric B. Taylor, James D. Reist & Robert Bajno
Census population size (Nc) is crucial to the development of resource management strategies, however, monitoring the effective population size (Ne) of managed populations has proliferated because of this parameter’s relationship to the short-term impacts of genetic stochasticity and long-term population viability. Thus, having a sound understanding of both Nc and Ne, including population connectivity, provides valuable insights into both the demographic and genetic risks to extinction. Here, we assessed microsatellite DNA variation in four (of...

Data from: Resource selection and landscape change reveal mechanisms suppressing population recovery for the world's most endangered antelope

Abdullahi H. Ali, Adam T. Ford, Jeffrey S. Evans, David P. Mallon, Matthew M. Hayes, Juliet King, Rajan Amin & Jacob R. Goheen
Understanding how bottom-up and top-down forces affect resource selection can inform restoration efforts. With a global population size of <500 individuals, the hirola Beatragus hunteri is the world's most endangered antelope, with a declining population since the 1970s. While the underlying mechanisms are unclear, some combination of habitat loss and predation are thought to be responsible for low abundances of contemporary populations. Efforts to conserve hirola are hindered by a lack of understanding as to...

Data from: Rapid evolution accelerates plant population spread in fragmented experimental landscapes

Jennifer L. Williams, Bruce E. Kendall & Jonathan M. Levine
Predicting the speed of biological invasions and native species migrations requires an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of spreading populations. Theory predicts that evolution can accelerate species’ spread velocity, but how landscape patchiness—an important control over traits under selection—influences this process is unknown. We manipulated the response to selection in populations of a model plant species spreading through replicated experimental landscapes of varying patchiness. After six generations of change, evolving populations spread 11%...

Data from: Direct and indirect genetic and fine-scale location effects on breeding date in song sparrows

Ryan R. Germain, Matthew E. Wolak, Peter Arcese, Sylvain Losdat & Jane M. Reid
Quantifying direct and indirect genetic effects of interacting females and males on variation in jointly expressed life-history traits is central to predicting microevolutionary dynamics. However, accurately estimating sex-specific additive genetic variances in such traits remains difficult in wild populations, especially if related individuals inhabit similar fine-scale environments. Breeding date is a key life-history trait that responds to environmental phenology and mediates individual and population responses to environmental change. However, no studies have estimated female (direct)...

Data from: Phylogenomics from whole genome sequences using aTRAM

Julie M. Allen, Bret Boyd, Nam-Phuong Nguyen, Pranjal Vachaspati, Tandy Warnow, Daisie I. Huang, Patrick G. S. Grady, Kayce C. Bell, Quentin C.B. Cronk, Lawrence Mugisha, Barry R. Pittendrigh, M. Soledad Leonardi, David L. Reed & Kevin P. Johnson
Novel sequencing technologies are rapidly expanding the size of data sets that can be applied to phylogenetic studies. Currently the most commonly used phylogenomic approaches involve some form of genome reduction. While these approaches make assembling phylogenomic data sets more economical for organisms with large genomes, they reduce the genomic coverage and thereby the long-term utility of the data. Currently, for organisms with moderate to small genomes (<1000 Mbp) it is feasible to sequence the...

Data from: Untangling the early diversification of eukaryotes: a phylogenomic study of the evolutionary origins of Centrohelida, Haptophyta, and Cryptista

Fabien Burki, Maia Kaplan, Denis V. Tikhonekov, Vasily Zlatogursky, Bui Quang Minh, Liudmila V. Radaykina, Alexey Smirnov, Alexander P. Mylnikov, Patrick J. Keeling & Denis V. Tikhonenkov
Assembling the global eukaryotic tree of life has long been a major effort of Biology. In recent years, pushed by the new availability of genome-scale data for microbial eukaryotes, it has become possible to revisit many evolutionary enigmas. However, some of the most ancient nodes, which are essential for inferring a stable tree, have remained highly controversial. Among other reasons, the lack of adequate genomic datasets for key taxa has prevented the robust reconstruction of...

Data from: Being in a “green” building elicits “greener” recycling, but not necessarily “better” recycling

David W.-L. Wu, Alessandra DiGiacomo, Lenkic J. Peter, Wong K. Vanessa, Alan Kingstone, Peter J. Lenkic & Vanessa K. Wong
Previous observational work revealed that transient populations in a sustainable building disposed of waste more accurately when compared to patrons in a non-sustainable building. The current study uses an experimental design to replicate this observed effect and to investigate whether or not the built environment influences motivational factors to impact behavior. We find support that a building designed and built to communicate an atmosphere of sustainability can influence waste disposal behavior. Participants in the sustainable...

Data from: Do thermoregulatory costs limit altitude distributions of Andean forest birds?

Gustavo A. Londono, Mark A. Chappell, Jill E. Jankowski & Scott K. Robinson
Along tropical mountains, species often occupy narrow altitude ranges. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors have been proposed as determinants of altitude occupancy. We measured several aspects of thermal physiology of 215 bird species across a 2·6-km altitude gradient in the Peruvian Andes. We predicted that highland species would show adaptation to the colder high-altitude climate and that energy costs of thermoregulation might limit upslope dispersal of lowland natives. We found reductions in thermal conductance, body...

Data from: The temporal window of ecological adaptation in postglacial lakes: a comparison of head morphology, trophic position and habitat use in Norwegian threespine stickleback populations

Kjartan Østbye, Chris Harrod, Finn Gregersen, Tom Klepaker, Michael Schulz, Dolph Schluter & Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad
Background: Studying how trophic traits and niche use are related in natural populations is important in order to understand adaptation and specialization. Here, we describe trophic trait diversity in twenty-five Norwegian freshwater threespine stickleback populations and their putative marine ancestor, and relate trait differences to postglacial lake age. By studying lakes of different ages, depths and distance to the sea we examine key environmental variables that may predict adaptation in trophic position and habitat use....

Data from: Adaptation to elevated CO2 in different biodiversity contexts

Elizabeth J. Kleynhans, Sarah P. Otto, Peter B. Reich & Mark Vellend
In the absence of migration, species persistence depends on adaption to a changing environment, but whether and how adaptation to global change is altered by community diversity is not understood. Community diversity may prevent, enhance or alter how species adapt to changing conditions by influencing population sizes, genetic diversity and/or the fitness landscape experienced by focal species. We tested the impact of community diversity on adaptation by performing a reciprocal transplant experiment on grasses that...

Data from: Hummingbirds control turning velocity using body orientation and turning radius using asymmetrical wingbeat kinematics

Tyson J. G. Read, Paolo S. Segre, Kevin M. Middleton & Douglas L. Altshuler
Turning in flight requires reorientation of force, which birds, bats and insects accomplish either by shifting body position and total force in concert or by using left–right asymmetries in wingbeat kinematics. Although both mechanisms have been observed in multiple species, it is currently unknown how each is used to control changes in trajectory. We addressed this problem by measuring body and wingbeat kinematics as hummingbirds tracked a revolving feeder, and estimating aerodynamic forces using a...

Data from: Accelerometers can measure total and activity-specific energy expenditure in free-ranging marine mammals only if linked to time-activity budgets

Tiphaine Jeanniard-Du-Dot, Christophe Guinet, John P. Y. Arnould, John R. Speakman, Andrew W. Trites & John P.Y. Arnould
Energy expenditure is an important component of foraging ecology, but is extremely difficult to estimate in free-ranging animals and depends on how animals partition their time between different activities during foraging. Acceleration data have emerged as a new way to determine energy expenditure at a fine scale but this needs to be tested and validated in wild animals. This study investigated whether vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA) could accurately predict the energy expended by marine...

Data from: Intruder colour and light environment jointly determine how nesting male stickleback respond to simulated territorial intrusions

Daniel I. Bolnick, Kimberly Hendrix, Lyndon Alexander Jordan, Thor Veen & Chad D. Brock
Variation in male nuptial colour signals might be maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. This can occur if males are more aggressive towards rivals with locally common colour phenotypes. To test this hypothesis, we introduced red or melanic three-dimensional printed-model males into the territories of nesting male stickleback from two optically distinct lakes with different coloured residents. Red-throated models were attacked more in the population with red males, while melanic models were attacked more in the...

Data from: Naked mole rats exhibit metabolic but not ventilatory plasticity following chronic sustained hypoxia

Danielle Chung, Yvonne Dzal, Allison Seow, William Milsom, Matthew Pamenter, Yvonne A. Dzal, William K. Milsom & Matthew E. Pamenter
Naked mole rats are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified and live in chronic hypoxia throughout their lives. The mechanisms underlying this tolerance, however, are poorly understood. Most vertebrates hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and exhibit an enhanced hyperventilation following acclimatization to chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH). Conversely, naked mole rats do not hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and their response to CSH has not been examined. In this study we explored mechanisms of plasticity in the control...

Data from: Gene expression and drought response in an invasive thistle

Kathryn G. Turner, Kristin A. Nurkowski & Loren H. Rieseberg
Though rapid phenotypic evolution has been observed in many invasive plant species, less is known about the associated genetic mechanisms. Some hypotheses invoke the evolution of trade-offs in resource allocation to explain phenotypic differences between the native and invaded ranges of a species. Alternately, invasive species may benefit from a generalist strategy and perform well in many environments. Identification of the molecular changes associated with successful invasions can offer clues regarding the mechanistic basis of...

Data from: Climate change is projected to outpace rates of niche change in grasses

F. Alice Cang, Ashley A. Wilson & John J. Wiens
Climate change may soon threaten much of global biodiversity, especially if species cannot adapt to changing climatic conditions quickly enough. A critical question is how quickly climatic niches change, and if this speed is sufficient to prevent extinction as climates warm. Here, we address this question in the grass family (Poaceae). Grasses are fundamental to one of Earth's most widespread biomes (grasslands), and provide roughly half of all calories consumed by humans (including wheat, rice,...

Data from: Genetic admixture and heterosis may enhance the invasiveness of common ragweed

Min A. Hahn & Loren H. Rieseberg
Biological invasions are often associated with multiple introductions and genetic admixture of previously isolated populations. In addition to enhanced evolutionary potential through increased genetic variation, admixed genotypes may benefit from heterosis, which could contribute to their increased performance and invasiveness. To deepen our understanding of the mechanisms and management strategies for biological invasions, we experimentally studied whether intraspecific admixture causes heterosis in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) by comparing the performance of crosses (F1) between populations...

Data from: Cultural isolation is greater than genetic isolation across an avian hybrid zone

Haley L. Kenyon, Miguel Alcaide, David P.L. Toews, Darren E. Irwin & D. P. L. Toews
Elucidating the relationship between genetic and cultural evolution is important in understanding speciation, as learned premating barriers might be involved in maintaining species differences. Here we test this relationship by examining a widely recognized premating barrier, bird song, in a hybrid zone between black-throated green (Setophaga virens) and Townsend's warblers (S. townsendi). We use song analysis, genomic techniques and playback experiments to characterize the cultural and genetic backgrounds of individuals in this region, expecting that...

Data from: The genetics of adaptation to discrete heterogeneous environments: frequent mutation or large-effect alleles can allow range expansion

Kimberly J. Gilbert & Michael C. Whitlock
Range expansions are complex evolutionary and ecological processes. From an evolutionary standpoint, a populations' adaptive capacity can determine the success or failure of expansion. Using individual-based simulations, we model range expansion over a two-dimensional, approximately continuous landscape. We investigate the ability of populations to adapt across patchy environmental gradients and examine how the effect sizes of mutations influence the ability to adapt to novel environments during range expansion. We find that genetic architecture and landscape...

Data from: Calorespirometry reveals that goldfish prioritize aerobic metabolism over metabolic rate depression in all but near-anoxic environments

Matthew D. Regan, Ivan Gill & Jeffrey G. Richards
Metabolic rate depression (MRD) has long been proposed as the key metabolic strategy of hypoxic survival, but surprisingly the effects of changes in hypoxic O2 tensions (PwO2) on MRD are largely unexplored. We simultaneously measured the O2 consumption rate (ṀO2) and metabolic heat of goldfish using calorespirometry to test the hypothesis that MRD is employed at hypoxic PwO2s and initiated just below Pcrit, the PwO2 below which ṀO2 is forced to progressively decline as the...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    64

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    64

Affiliations

  • University of British Columbia
    64
  • Indiana University Bloomington
    6
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    3
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    3
  • University of Vienna
    3
  • University of California System
    2
  • University of Alberta
    2
  • University of Aberdeen
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    2