64 Works

Data from: Adaptation to elevated CO2 in different biodiversity contexts

Elizabeth J. Kleynhans, Sarah P. Otto, Peter B. Reich & Mark Vellend
In the absence of migration, species persistence depends on adaption to a changing environment, but whether and how adaptation to global change is altered by community diversity is not understood. Community diversity may prevent, enhance or alter how species adapt to changing conditions by influencing population sizes, genetic diversity and/or the fitness landscape experienced by focal species. We tested the impact of community diversity on adaptation by performing a reciprocal transplant experiment on grasses that...

Data from: Being in a “green” building elicits “greener” recycling, but not necessarily “better” recycling

David W.-L. Wu, Alessandra DiGiacomo, Lenkic J. Peter, Wong K. Vanessa, Alan Kingstone, Peter J. Lenkic & Vanessa K. Wong
Previous observational work revealed that transient populations in a sustainable building disposed of waste more accurately when compared to patrons in a non-sustainable building. The current study uses an experimental design to replicate this observed effect and to investigate whether or not the built environment influences motivational factors to impact behavior. We find support that a building designed and built to communicate an atmosphere of sustainability can influence waste disposal behavior. Participants in the sustainable...

Data from: Cultural isolation is greater than genetic isolation across an avian hybrid zone

Haley L. Kenyon, Miguel Alcaide, David P.L. Toews, Darren E. Irwin & D. P. L. Toews
Elucidating the relationship between genetic and cultural evolution is important in understanding speciation, as learned premating barriers might be involved in maintaining species differences. Here we test this relationship by examining a widely recognized premating barrier, bird song, in a hybrid zone between black-throated green (Setophaga virens) and Townsend's warblers (S. townsendi). We use song analysis, genomic techniques and playback experiments to characterize the cultural and genetic backgrounds of individuals in this region, expecting that...

Data from: Untangling the early diversification of eukaryotes: a phylogenomic study of the evolutionary origins of Centrohelida, Haptophyta, and Cryptista

Fabien Burki, Maia Kaplan, Denis V. Tikhonekov, Vasily Zlatogursky, Bui Quang Minh, Liudmila V. Radaykina, Alexey Smirnov, Alexander P. Mylnikov, Patrick J. Keeling & Denis V. Tikhonenkov
Assembling the global eukaryotic tree of life has long been a major effort of Biology. In recent years, pushed by the new availability of genome-scale data for microbial eukaryotes, it has become possible to revisit many evolutionary enigmas. However, some of the most ancient nodes, which are essential for inferring a stable tree, have remained highly controversial. Among other reasons, the lack of adequate genomic datasets for key taxa has prevented the robust reconstruction of...

Data from: Do thermoregulatory costs limit altitude distributions of Andean forest birds?

Gustavo A. Londono, Mark A. Chappell, Jill E. Jankowski & Scott K. Robinson
Along tropical mountains, species often occupy narrow altitude ranges. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors have been proposed as determinants of altitude occupancy. We measured several aspects of thermal physiology of 215 bird species across a 2·6-km altitude gradient in the Peruvian Andes. We predicted that highland species would show adaptation to the colder high-altitude climate and that energy costs of thermoregulation might limit upslope dispersal of lowland natives. We found reductions in thermal conductance, body...

Data from: The temporal window of ecological adaptation in postglacial lakes: a comparison of head morphology, trophic position and habitat use in Norwegian threespine stickleback populations

Kjartan Østbye, Chris Harrod, Finn Gregersen, Tom Klepaker, Michael Schulz, Dolph Schluter & Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad
Background: Studying how trophic traits and niche use are related in natural populations is important in order to understand adaptation and specialization. Here, we describe trophic trait diversity in twenty-five Norwegian freshwater threespine stickleback populations and their putative marine ancestor, and relate trait differences to postglacial lake age. By studying lakes of different ages, depths and distance to the sea we examine key environmental variables that may predict adaptation in trophic position and habitat use....

Data from: Genetic admixture and heterosis may enhance the invasiveness of common ragweed

Min A. Hahn & Loren H. Rieseberg
Biological invasions are often associated with multiple introductions and genetic admixture of previously isolated populations. In addition to enhanced evolutionary potential through increased genetic variation, admixed genotypes may benefit from heterosis, which could contribute to their increased performance and invasiveness. To deepen our understanding of the mechanisms and management strategies for biological invasions, we experimentally studied whether intraspecific admixture causes heterosis in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) by comparing the performance of crosses (F1) between populations...

Data from: Calorespirometry reveals that goldfish prioritize aerobic metabolism over metabolic rate depression in all but near-anoxic environments

Matthew D. Regan, Ivan Gill & Jeffrey G. Richards
Metabolic rate depression (MRD) has long been proposed as the key metabolic strategy of hypoxic survival, but surprisingly the effects of changes in hypoxic O2 tensions (PwO2) on MRD are largely unexplored. We simultaneously measured the O2 consumption rate (ṀO2) and metabolic heat of goldfish using calorespirometry to test the hypothesis that MRD is employed at hypoxic PwO2s and initiated just below Pcrit, the PwO2 below which ṀO2 is forced to progressively decline as the...

Data from: Gene expression and drought response in an invasive thistle

Kathryn G. Turner, Kristin A. Nurkowski & Loren H. Rieseberg
Though rapid phenotypic evolution has been observed in many invasive plant species, less is known about the associated genetic mechanisms. Some hypotheses invoke the evolution of trade-offs in resource allocation to explain phenotypic differences between the native and invaded ranges of a species. Alternately, invasive species may benefit from a generalist strategy and perform well in many environments. Identification of the molecular changes associated with successful invasions can offer clues regarding the mechanistic basis of...

Data from: Accelerometers can measure total and activity-specific energy expenditure in free-ranging marine mammals only if linked to time-activity budgets

Tiphaine Jeanniard-Du-Dot, Christophe Guinet, John P. Y. Arnould, John R. Speakman, Andrew W. Trites & John P.Y. Arnould
Energy expenditure is an important component of foraging ecology, but is extremely difficult to estimate in free-ranging animals and depends on how animals partition their time between different activities during foraging. Acceleration data have emerged as a new way to determine energy expenditure at a fine scale but this needs to be tested and validated in wild animals. This study investigated whether vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA) could accurately predict the energy expended by marine...

Data from: Naked mole rats exhibit metabolic but not ventilatory plasticity following chronic sustained hypoxia

Danielle Chung, Yvonne Dzal, Allison Seow, William Milsom, Matthew Pamenter, Yvonne A. Dzal, William K. Milsom & Matthew E. Pamenter
Naked mole rats are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified and live in chronic hypoxia throughout their lives. The mechanisms underlying this tolerance, however, are poorly understood. Most vertebrates hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and exhibit an enhanced hyperventilation following acclimatization to chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH). Conversely, naked mole rats do not hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and their response to CSH has not been examined. In this study we explored mechanisms of plasticity in the control...

Data from: Hummingbirds control turning velocity using body orientation and turning radius using asymmetrical wingbeat kinematics

Tyson J. G. Read, Paolo S. Segre, Kevin M. Middleton & Douglas L. Altshuler
Turning in flight requires reorientation of force, which birds, bats and insects accomplish either by shifting body position and total force in concert or by using left–right asymmetries in wingbeat kinematics. Although both mechanisms have been observed in multiple species, it is currently unknown how each is used to control changes in trajectory. We addressed this problem by measuring body and wingbeat kinematics as hummingbirds tracked a revolving feeder, and estimating aerodynamic forces using a...

Data from: Climate change is projected to outpace rates of niche change in grasses

F. Alice Cang, Ashley A. Wilson & John J. Wiens
Climate change may soon threaten much of global biodiversity, especially if species cannot adapt to changing climatic conditions quickly enough. A critical question is how quickly climatic niches change, and if this speed is sufficient to prevent extinction as climates warm. Here, we address this question in the grass family (Poaceae). Grasses are fundamental to one of Earth's most widespread biomes (grasslands), and provide roughly half of all calories consumed by humans (including wheat, rice,...

Data from: Intruder colour and light environment jointly determine how nesting male stickleback respond to simulated territorial intrusions

Daniel I. Bolnick, Kimberly Hendrix, Lyndon Alexander Jordan, Thor Veen & Chad D. Brock
Variation in male nuptial colour signals might be maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. This can occur if males are more aggressive towards rivals with locally common colour phenotypes. To test this hypothesis, we introduced red or melanic three-dimensional printed-model males into the territories of nesting male stickleback from two optically distinct lakes with different coloured residents. Red-throated models were attacked more in the population with red males, while melanic models were attacked more in the...

Data from: The genetics of adaptation to discrete heterogeneous environments: frequent mutation or large-effect alleles can allow range expansion

Kimberly J. Gilbert & Michael C. Whitlock
Range expansions are complex evolutionary and ecological processes. From an evolutionary standpoint, a populations' adaptive capacity can determine the success or failure of expansion. Using individual-based simulations, we model range expansion over a two-dimensional, approximately continuous landscape. We investigate the ability of populations to adapt across patchy environmental gradients and examine how the effect sizes of mutations influence the ability to adapt to novel environments during range expansion. We find that genetic architecture and landscape...

Data from: Weak coordination between leaf structure and function among closely related tomato species

Christopher D. Muir, Miquel À. Conesa, Emilio J. Roldán, Arántzazu Molins & Jeroni Galmés
Theory predicts that natural selection should favor coordination between leaf physiology, biochemistry and anatomical structure along a functional trait spectrum from fast, resource-acquisitive syndromes to slow, resource-conservative syndromes. However, the coordination hypothesis has rarely been tested at a phylogenetic scale most relevant for understanding rapid adaptation in the recent past or for the prediction of evolutionary trajectories in response to climate change. We used a common garden to examine genetically based coordination between leaf traits...

Data from: Eye and head movements are complementary in visual selection

Grayden J. F. Solman, Thomas Foulsham, Alan Kingstone & Tom Foulsham
In the natural environment, visual selection is accomplished by a system of nested effectors, moving the head and body within space and the eyes within the visual field. However, it is not yet known if the principles of selection for these different effectors are the same or different. We used a novel gaze-contingent display in which an asymmetric window of visibility (a horizontal or vertical slot) was yoked to either head or eye position. Participants...

Data from: Convergent local adaptation to climate in distantly related conifers

Sam Yeaman, Kathryn A. Hodgins, Katie E. Lotterhos, Haktan Suren, Simon Nadeau, Kristin A. Nurkowski, Pia Smets, Tongli Wang, Laura K. Gray, Katharina J. Liepe, Andreas Hamann, Jason A. Holliday, Michael C. Whitlock, Loren H. Rieseberg & Sally N. Aitken
When confronted with an adaptive challenge, such as extreme temperature, closely related species frequently evolve similar phenotypes using the same genes. Although such repeated evolution is thought to be less likely in highly polygenic traits and distantly related species, this has not been tested at the genome scale. We performed a population genomic study of convergent local adaptation among two distantly related species, lodgepole pine and interior spruce. We identified a suite of 47 genes,...

Data from: Rapid adaptive evolution of colour vision in the threespine stickleback radiation

Diana J. Rennison, Gregory L. Owens, Nancy Heckman, Dolph Schluter & Thor Veen
Vision is a sensory modality of fundamental importance for many animals, aiding in foraging, detection of predators, and mate choice. Adaptation to local ambient light conditions is thought to be commonplace, and a match between spectral sensitivity and light spectrum is predicted. We use opsin gene expression to test for local adaptation and matching of spectral sensitivity in multiple independent lake populations of threespine stickleback populations derived since the last ice age from an ancestral...

Data from: Maternal stress has divergent effects on gene expression patterns in the brains of male and female threespine stickleback

David C.H. Metzger, Patricia M. Schulte & David C. H. Metzger
Maternal stress can have long-term effects on neurodevelopment that can influence offspring performance and population evolutionary trajectories. To examine the mechanistic basis for these neurodevelopmental effects of maternal stress, we used RNA-seq to assess differential gene expression across the brain transcriptome of adult male and female threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from stressed and unstressed mothers. We identified sexually divergent effects of maternal stress on the brain transcriptome. In males, genes that were up-regulated by maternal...

Data from: Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

Colin K. Khoury, Harold A. Achicanoy, Anne D. Bjorkman, Carlos Navarro-Racines, Luigi Guarino, Ximena Flores-Palacios, Johannes M. M. Engels, John H. Wiersema, Hannes Dempewolf, Steven Sotelo, Julian Ramírez-Villegas, Nora P. Castañeda Álvarez, Cary Fowler, Andy Jarvis, Loren H. Rieseberg & Paul C. Struik
Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree...

Data from: Fixation probability in a haploid-diploid population

Kazuhiro Bessho & Sarah P. Otto
Classical population genetic theory generally assumes either a fully haploid or fully diploid life cycle. However, many organisms exhibit more complex life cycles, with both free-living haploid and diploid stages. Here we ask what the probability of fixation is for selected alleles in organisms with haploid-diploid life cycles. We develop a genetic model that considers the population dynamics using both the Moran model and Wright-Fisher model. Applying a branching process approximation, we obtain an accurate...

Data from: Morphological identification and single-cell genomics of marine diplonemids

Ryan M. R. Gawryluk, Javier Del Campo, Noriko Okamoto, Jurgen F. H. Strassert, Julius Lukes, Thomas A. Richards, Alexandra Z. Worden, Alyson E. Santoro & Patrick J. Keeling
Recent global surveys of marine biodiversity have revealed that a group of organisms known as “marine diplonemids” constitutes one of the most abundant and diverse planktonic lineages [1]. Though discovered over a decade ago [2 and 3], their potential importance was unrecognized, and our knowledge remains restricted to a single gene amplified from environmental DNA, the 18S rRNA gene (small subunit [SSU]). Here, we use single-cell genomics (SCG) and microscopy to characterize ten marine diplonemids,...

Data from: Sockeye salmon repatriation leads to population re-establishment and rapid introgression with native kokanee

Andrew J. Veale & Michael A. Russello
Re-establishing salmonid populations to areas historically occupied has substantial potential for conservation gains, however, such interventions also risk negatively impacting native resident stocks. Here, we assessed the success of the hatchery-assisted reintroduction of anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) into Skaha Lake, British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated the genetic consequences for native kokanee, a freshwater-obligate ecotype, using single nucleotide polymorphism genotypic data collected from reference samples of spawning Okanagan River sockeye and Skaha Lake kokanee pre-sockeye...

Data from: Lowland biotic attrition revisited: body size and variation among climate change ‘winners’ and ‘losers’

Jedediah F. Brodie, Matthew Strimas-Mackey, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Alys Granados, Henry Bernard, Anthony J. Giordano & Olga E. Helmy
The responses of lowland tropical communities to climate change will critically influence global biodiversity but remain poorly understood. If species in these systems are unable to tolerate warming, the communities—currently the most diverse on Earth—may become depauperate (‘biotic attrition’). In response to temperature changes, animals can adjust their distribution in space or their activity in time, but these two components of the niche are seldom considered together. We assessed the spatio-temporal niches of rainforest mammal...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    64

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    64

Affiliations

  • University of British Columbia
    64
  • Indiana University Bloomington
    6
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    3
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    3
  • University of Vienna
    3
  • University of California System
    2
  • University of Alberta
    2
  • University of Aberdeen
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    2