64 Works

Data from: The effects of food web structure on ecosystem function exceeds those of precipitation

M. Kurtis Trzcinski, Diane S. Srivastava, Bruno Corbara, Olivier Dézerald, Céline Leroy, Jean-François Carrias, Alain Dejean & Régis Céréghino
Ecosystems are being stressed by climate change, but few studies have tested food web responses to changes in precipitation patterns and the consequences to ecosystem function. Fewer still have considered whether results from one geographic region can be applied to other regions, given the degree of community change over large biogeographic gradients. We assembled, in one field site, three types of macroinvertebrate communities within water-filled bromeliads. Two represented food webs containing both a fast filter...

Data from: Rapid evolution accelerates plant population spread in fragmented experimental landscapes

Jennifer L. Williams, Bruce E. Kendall & Jonathan M. Levine
Predicting the speed of biological invasions and native species migrations requires an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of spreading populations. Theory predicts that evolution can accelerate species’ spread velocity, but how landscape patchiness—an important control over traits under selection—influences this process is unknown. We manipulated the response to selection in populations of a model plant species spreading through replicated experimental landscapes of varying patchiness. After six generations of change, evolving populations spread 11%...

Data from: Assessing conservation risks to populations of an anadromous Arctic salmonid, the northern Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma malma), via estimates of effective and census population sizes and approximate Bayesian computation

Les N. Harris, Friso P. Palstra, Rob Bajno, Colin P. Gallagher, Kimberly L. Howland, Eric B. Taylor, James D. Reist & Robert Bajno
Census population size (Nc) is crucial to the development of resource management strategies, however, monitoring the effective population size (Ne) of managed populations has proliferated because of this parameter’s relationship to the short-term impacts of genetic stochasticity and long-term population viability. Thus, having a sound understanding of both Nc and Ne, including population connectivity, provides valuable insights into both the demographic and genetic risks to extinction. Here, we assessed microsatellite DNA variation in four (of...

Data from: Direct and indirect effects of native range expansion on soil microbial community structure and function

Courtney G. Collins, Chelsea J. Carey, Emma L. Aronson, Christopher W. Kopp & Jeffrey M. Diez
Analogous to the spread of non-native species, shifts in native species’ ranges resulting from climate and land use change are also creating new combinations of species in many ecosystems. These native range shifts may be facilitated by similar mechanisms that provide advantages for non-native species and may also have comparable impacts on the ecosystems they invade. Soil biota, in particular bacteria and fungi, are important regulators of plant community composition and below-ground ecosystem function. Compared...

Data from: Resource selection and landscape change reveal mechanisms suppressing population recovery for the world's most endangered antelope

Abdullahi H. Ali, Adam T. Ford, Jeffrey S. Evans, David P. Mallon, Matthew M. Hayes, Juliet King, Rajan Amin & Jacob R. Goheen
Understanding how bottom-up and top-down forces affect resource selection can inform restoration efforts. With a global population size of <500 individuals, the hirola Beatragus hunteri is the world's most endangered antelope, with a declining population since the 1970s. While the underlying mechanisms are unclear, some combination of habitat loss and predation are thought to be responsible for low abundances of contemporary populations. Efforts to conserve hirola are hindered by a lack of understanding as to...

Data from: Phylogenomics from whole genome sequences using aTRAM

Julie M. Allen, Bret Boyd, Nam-Phuong Nguyen, Pranjal Vachaspati, Tandy Warnow, Daisie I. Huang, Patrick G. S. Grady, Kayce C. Bell, Quentin C.B. Cronk, Lawrence Mugisha, Barry R. Pittendrigh, M. Soledad Leonardi, David L. Reed & Kevin P. Johnson
Novel sequencing technologies are rapidly expanding the size of data sets that can be applied to phylogenetic studies. Currently the most commonly used phylogenomic approaches involve some form of genome reduction. While these approaches make assembling phylogenomic data sets more economical for organisms with large genomes, they reduce the genomic coverage and thereby the long-term utility of the data. Currently, for organisms with moderate to small genomes (<1000 Mbp) it is feasible to sequence the...

Data from: Direct and indirect genetic and fine-scale location effects on breeding date in song sparrows

Ryan R. Germain, Matthew E. Wolak, Peter Arcese, Sylvain Losdat & Jane M. Reid
Quantifying direct and indirect genetic effects of interacting females and males on variation in jointly expressed life-history traits is central to predicting microevolutionary dynamics. However, accurately estimating sex-specific additive genetic variances in such traits remains difficult in wild populations, especially if related individuals inhabit similar fine-scale environments. Breeding date is a key life-history trait that responds to environmental phenology and mediates individual and population responses to environmental change. However, no studies have estimated female (direct)...

Data from: Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats

Janosch Sedlacek, Andrés J. Cortés, Julia Wheeler, Oliver Bossdorf, Guenter Hoch, Jaroslav Klápště, Christian Lexer, Christian Rixen, Sonja Wipf, Sophie Karrenberg & Mark Van Kleunen
Alpine ecosystems are seriously threatened by climate change. One of the key mechanisms by which plants can adapt to changing environmental conditions is through evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the evolutionary potential in wild populations of long-lived alpine plants. Here, we investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers....

Data from: Memory for lectures: how lecture format impacts the learning experience

Trish L. Varao-Sousa & Alan Kingstone
The present study investigated what impact the presentation style of a classroom lecture has on memory, mind wandering, and the subjective factors of interest and motivation. We examined if having a professor lecturing live versus on video alters the learning experience of the students in the classroom. During the lectures, students were asked to report mind wandering and later complete a memory test. The lecture format was manipulated such that all the students received two...

Data from: Lowland biotic attrition revisited: body size and variation among climate change ‘winners’ and ‘losers’

Jedediah F. Brodie, Matthew Strimas-Mackey, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Alys Granados, Henry Bernard, Anthony J. Giordano & Olga E. Helmy
The responses of lowland tropical communities to climate change will critically influence global biodiversity but remain poorly understood. If species in these systems are unable to tolerate warming, the communities—currently the most diverse on Earth—may become depauperate (‘biotic attrition’). In response to temperature changes, animals can adjust their distribution in space or their activity in time, but these two components of the niche are seldom considered together. We assessed the spatio-temporal niches of rainforest mammal...

Data from: Biocontrol insect impacts population growth of its target plant species but not an incidentally used nontarget

Haley A. Catton, Robert G. Lalonde, Yvonne M. Buckley & Rosemarie A. De Clerck-Floate
Understanding the impact of herbivory on plant populations is a fundamental goal of ecology. Damage to individual plants can be visually striking and affect the fates of individuals, but these impacts do not necessarily translate into population-level differences in vital rates (survival, growth, or fecundity) or population growth rates. In biological control of weeds, quantitative assessments of population-level impacts of released agents on both target invasive plants and native, nontarget plants are needed to inform...

Data from: The effect of leaf shape on the thermoregulation and frost tolerance of an annual vine, Ipomoea hederacea (Convolvulaceae)

Brandon E. Campitelli, Amanda J. Gorton, Katherine L. Ostevik & John R. Stinchcombe
Premise of study: Leaf shape is predicted to have important ecophysiological consequences; for example, theory predicts that lobed leaves should track air temperature more closely than their entire-margined counterparts. Hence, leaf-lobing may be advantageous during cold nights (∼0°C) when there is the risk of damage by radiation frost (a phenomenon whereby leaves fall below air temperature because of an imbalance between radiational heat loss and convective heat gain). Methods: Here, we test whether radiation frost...

Data from: Remarkable life history polymorphism may be evolving under divergent selection in the silverleaf sunflower

Brook T. Moyers & Loren H. Rieseberg
Substantial intraspecific variation in life history is rare and potentially a signal of incipient ecological speciation, if variation is driven by geographically heterogenous natural selection. We present the first report of extensive life history polymorphism in Helianthus argophyllus, the silverleaf sunflower, and examine evidence for its evolution by divergent selection. In 18 populations sampled from across the species range and grown in a common garden, most quantitative traits covaried such that individuals could be assigned...

Data from: Papuaneon, a new genus of jumping spiders from Papua New Guinea (Araneae: Salticidae: Neonini)

Wayne P. Maddison
The genus Neon Simon stands alone as a phylogenetically isolated astioid jumping spider, the only member of the Neonini. The new genus Papuaneon is established for the jumping spider Papuaneon tualapa sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea. Resembling a large, hirsute Neon, it is here shown to be the sister group to Neon, based on data from the nuclear 28S and Actin 5C, and the mitochondrial 16SND1 region. Photographs of living specimens are provided.

Data from: Phylogenetic evidence for cladogenetic polyploidization in land plants

Shing Hei Zhan, Michal Drori, Emma E. Goldberg, Sarah P. Otto & Itay Mayrose
Premise of the study: Polyploidization is a common and recurring phenomenon in plants and is often thought to be a mechanism of "instant speciation." Whether polyploidization is associated with the formation of new species ("cladogenesis") or simply occurs over time within a lineage ("anagenesis") has never, however, been assessed systematically. Methods: Here, we tested this hypothesis using phylogenetic and karyotypic information from 235 plant genera (mostly angiosperms). We first constructed a large database of combined...

Data from: Genomic and functional approaches reveal a case of adaptive introgression from Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) in P. trichocarpa (black cottonwood)

Adriana Suarez-Gonzalez, Charles Hefer, Camille Christie, Oliver Corea, Christian Lexer, Quentin C. B. Cronk, Carl J. Douglas, Charles A. Hefer & Camille Christe
Natural hybrid zones in forest trees provide systems to study the transfer of adaptive genetic variation by introgression. Previous landscape genomic studies in Populus trichocarpa, a keystone tree species, indicated genomic footprints of admixture with its sister species P. balsamifera and identified candidate genes for local adaptation. Here, we explored patterns of introgression and signals of local adaptation in P. trichocarpa and P. balsamifera, employing genome resequencing data from three chromosomes in pure species and...

Data from: Assessing reproductive isolation using a contact zone between parapatric lake-stream stickleback ecotypes

Dieta Hanson, Jean-Sébastien Moore, Eric B. Taylor, Rowan D.H. Barrett, Andrew P. Hendry, J.-S. Moore & R. D. H. Barrett
Ecological speciation occurs when populations evolve reproductive isolation as a result of divergent natural selection. This isolation can be influenced by many potential reproductive barriers, including selection against hybrids, selection against migrants, and assortative mating. How and when these barriers act and interact in nature is understood for relatively few empirical systems. We used a mark-recapture experiment in a contact zone between lake and stream three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus, Linnaeus) to evaluate the occurrence of...

Data from: Measuring engagement in advance care planning: a cross-sectional multicentre feasibility study.

Michelle Howard, Aaron Bonham, Daren Heyland, Rebecca Sudore, Konrad Fassbender, Carole Robinson, Michael McKenzie, Dawn Elston & John J. You
Objectives: To assess feasibility, acceptability, and clinical sensibility of a novel survey, the Advance Care Planning (ACP) Engagement Survey in various health care settings. Setting: A target sample of 50 patients from each of primary care, hospital, cancer care, and dialysis care settings. Participants: A convenience sample of patients without cognitive impairment who could speak and read English was recruited. Patients 50 years and older were eligible in primary care; patients 80 and older or...

Data from: Spartina alterniflora genotypic identity affects plant and consumer responses in an experimental marsh community

Robyn A. Zerebecki, Gregory M. Crutsinger & A. Randall Hughes
1. Competition and herbivory are ubiquitous processes known to interactively shape plant performance, distribution and community assembly. Likewise, plant genetic variation and associated trait differences can impact both plant-plant and plant-herbivore interactions individually, yet few studies have explored these interactions simultaneously. 2. Salt marsh communities are an ideal system to study these questions, as they are dominated along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States by a foundation plant species, Spartina alterniflora, with...

Data from: Geographic shifts in the effects of habitat size on trophic structure and decomposition

Robin M. LeCraw, Gustavo Q. Romero & Diane S. Srivastava
Habitat size is known to affect community structure and ecosystem function, but few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms over sufficient size gradients or in enough geographic contexts to determine their generality. Our goal in this study was to determine if the relationship between habitat size and leaf decomposition varied across geographic sites, and which factors may be driving the differences. We conducted replicated observations in a coastal forest in Brazil, and in rainforests in...

Data from: Genetic specificity of a plant-insect food web: implications for linking genetic variation to network complexity

Matthew A. Barbour
Theory predicts that intraspecific genetic variation can increase the complexity of an ecological network. To date, however, we are lacking empirical knowledge of the extent to which genetic variation determines the assembly of ecological networks, as well as how the gain or loss of genetic variation will affect network structure. To address this knowledge gap, we used a common garden experiment to quantify the extent to which heritable trait variation in a host plant determines...

Data from: Piscivore addition causes a trophic cascade within and across ecosystem boundaries

Seth M. Rudman, Julian Heavyside, Diana J. Rennison & Dolph Schluter
The addition of predators can play a key role in structuring ecological communities through both consumptive and non-consumptive effects. Stocking of piscivorous fish in lakes and similar experimental introductions have provided fundamental evidence in support of trophic cascade theory. Yet, the impact of piscivore addition on cross ecosystem subsidies and meso-predator resource use has not been well studied. Here, we use a replicated pond experiment to document the trophic impacts of a piscivore, cutthroat trout...

Data from: Sumakuru, a deeply-diverging new genus of lyssomanine jumping spiders from Ecuador (Araneae: Salticidae)

Wayne P. Maddison
The lyssomanine jumping spider genus Sumakuru gen. n. is here described for Sumakuru bigal sp. n., from the Bigal River Biological Reserve in Ecuador. Known from a single male, the embolus of the palp takes the form of a smoothly arching curve, and appears fully mobile, being connected to the tegulum by a thin sclerite and a twisted hematodocha. Data from four gene regions (28S, 16SND1, CO1, wingless) indicate that Sumakuru is the sister group...

Data from: Large benefits to marine fisheries of meeting the 1.5°C global warming target

William W. L. Cheung, Gabriel Reygondeau & Thomas L. Froelicher
Translating the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to 1.5°C above preindustrial level into impact-related targets facilitates communication of the benefits of mitigating climate change to policy-makers and stakeholders. Developing ecologically relevant impact-related targets for marine ecosystem services, such as fisheries, is an important step. Here, we use maximum catch potential and species turnover as climate-risk indicators for fisheries. We project that potential catches will decrease by more than 3 million metric tons per degree...

Data from: Mitochondrial genotype and phenotypic plasticity of gene expression in response to cold acclimation in killifish

Timothy M. Healy, Heather J. Bryant & Patricia M. Schulte
Adjustments of aerobic metabolic processes are critical components of organismal responses to environmental change that require tight co-ordination between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Intraspecific differences in mitochondrial genotype can affect gene transcription in both genomes. Thus, variation in mitochondrial genotype may be associated with differences in the plasticity of gene expression when organisms are faced with changes in environmental conditions. Cold acclimation is known to result in metabolic responses involving increases in mitochondrial amount...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    64

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    64

Affiliations

  • University of British Columbia
    64
  • Indiana University Bloomington
    6
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    3
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    3
  • University of Vienna
    3
  • University of California System
    2
  • University of Alberta
    2
  • University of Aberdeen
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    2