84 Works

Data from: Herbarium specimens reveal increasing herbivory over the past century

Emily K. Meineke, Aimee T. Classen, Nathan J. Sanders & T. Jonathan Davies
Predicting how ecological interactions will respond to global change is a major challenge. Plants and their associated insect herbivores compose much of macroscopic diversity, yet how their interactions have been altered by recent environmental change remains underexplored. To address this gap, we quantified herbivory on herbarium specimens of four plant species with records extending back 112 years. Our study focused on the northeastern US, where temperatures have increased rapidly over the last few decades. This...

Data from: Exploring preferences for variable delays over fixed delays to high-value food rewards as a model of food-seeking behaviours in humans

Laura-Jean G. Stokes, Anna Davies, Paul Lattimore, Catharine Winstanley & Robert D. Rogers
Foraging and operant models suggest that animals will tolerate uncertainty or risk to obtain food quickly. In modern food environments, sustained access to quick energy-dense foods can promote weight gain. Here, we used a discrete-choice procedure to examine peoples' decisions about when next to eat high-value, palatable food rewards, probabilistically delivered immediately or following longer delays. In Experiment 1, moderately hungry young females showed consistent preferences for a variable delay option that delivered food rewards...

Data from: Gene flow improves fitness at a range edge under climate change

Megan Bontrager & Amy L. Angert
Populations at the margins of a species' geographic range are often thought to be poorly adapted to their environment. According to theoretical predictions, gene flow can inhibit these range edge populations if it disrupts adaptation to local conditions. Alternatively, if range edge populations are small or isolated, gene flow can provide beneficial genetic variation, and may facilitate adaptation to environmental change. We tested these competing predictions in the annual wildflower Clarkia pulchella using greenhouse crosses...

Data from: GlobTherm, a global database on thermal tolerances for aquatic and terrestrial organisms

Joanne M. Bennett, Piero Calosi, Susana Clusella-Trullas, Brezo Martínez, Jennifer Sunday, Adam C. Algar, Miguel B. Araújo, Bradford A. Hawkins, Sally Keith, Ingolf Kühn, Carsten Rahbek, Laura Rodríguez, Alexander Singer, Fabricio Villalobos, Miguel Ángel Olalla-Tárraga & Ignacio Morales-Castilla
How climate affects species distributions is a longstanding question receiving renewed interest owing to the need to predict the impacts of global warming on biodiversity. Is climate change forcing species to live near their critical thermal limits? Are these limits likely to change through natural selection? These and other important questions can be addressed with models relating geographical distributions of species with climate data, but inferences made with these models are highly contingent on non-climatic...

Data from: Genetic patterns in Neotropical Magnolias (Magnoliaceae) using de novo developed microsatellite markers

Emily Veltjen, Pieter Asselman, Majela Hernández Rodríguez, Alejandro Palmarola Bejerano, Ernesto Testé Lozano, Luis Roberto González Torres, Paul Goetghebeur, Isabel Larridon & Marie-Stéphanie Samain
Conserving tree populations safeguards forests since they represent key elements of the ecosystem. The genetic characteristics underlying the evolutionary success of the tree growth form: high genetic diversity, extensive gene flow and strong species integrity, contribute to their survival in terms of adaptability. However, different biological and landscape contexts challenge these characteristics. This study employs 63 de novo developed microsatellite or SSR (Single Sequence Repeat) markers in different datasets of nine Neotropical Magnolia species. The...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

A comparison of genomic islands of differentiation across three young avian species pairs

Darren E. Irwin, Borja Milá, David P. L. Toews, Alan Brelsford, Haley L. Kenyon, Alison N. Porter, Christine Grossen, Kira E. Delmore, Miguel Alcaide & Jessica H. Irwin
Detailed evaluations of genomic variation between sister species often reveal distinct chromosomal regions of high relative differentiation (i.e., “islands of differentiation” in FST), but there is much debate regarding the causes of this pattern. We briefly review the prominent models of genomic islands of differentiation and compare patterns of genomic differentiation in three closely related pairs of New World warblers with the goal of evaluating support for the four models. Each pair (MacGillivray's/mourning warblers; Townsend's/black-throated...

Data from: Dental ontogeny in extinct synapsids reveals a complex evolutionary history of the mammalian tooth attachment system

Aaron R.H. LeBlanc, Kirstin S. Brink, Megan R. Whitney, Fernando Abdala, Robert R. Reisz & Aaron R. H. LeBlanc
The mammalian dentition is uniquely characterized by a combination of precise occlusion, permanent adult teeth, and a unique tooth attachment system. Unlike the ankylosed teeth in most reptiles, mammal teeth are supported by a ligamentous tissue that suspends each tooth in its socket, providing flexible and compliant tooth attachment that prolongs the life of each tooth and maintains occlusal relationships. Here we investigate dental ontogeny through histological examination of a wide range of extinct synapsid...

Data from: Ecological mechanisms and phylogeny shape invertebrate stoichiometry: a test using detritus-based communities across Central and South America

Angélica L. González, Régis Céréghino, Olivier Dézerald, Vinicius F. Farjalla, Céline Leroy, Barbara A. Richardson, Michael J. Richardson, Gustavo Q. Romero & Diane S. Srivastava
1. Stoichiometric differences among organisms can affect trophic interactions and rates of nutrient cycling within ecosystems. However, we still know little about either the underlying causes of these stoichiometric differences, or the consistency of these differences across large geographic extents. 2. Here we analyze elemental (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) composition of 872 aquatic macroinvertebrates (71 species) inhabiting tank bromeliads (n = 140) from five distantly located sites across Central and South America to (1) test phylogenetic,...

Data from: Testing for latitudinal gradients in defense at the macroevolutionary scale

Daniel N. Anstett, Jeffery R. Ahern, Marc T.J. Johnson, Juha-Pekka Salminen & Jeffrey R. Ahern
Plant defences against herbivores are predicted to evolve to be greater in warmer climates, such as lower latitudes where herbivore pressure is also thought to be higher. Instead, recent findings are often inconsistent with this expectation, suggesting alternative hypotheses are needed. We tested for latitudinal gradients in plant defence evolution at the macroevolutionary scale by characterizing plant chemical defences across 80 species of the evening primroses, spanning both North and South America. We quantified phenolics...

Data from: Validation of an algorithm for identifying MS cases in administrative health claims datasets

William J. Culpepper, Ruth Anne Marrie, Annette Langer-Gould, Mitchell T. Wallin, Jonathan D. Campbell, Lorene M. Nelson, Wendy E. Kaye, Laurie Wagner, Helen Tremlett, Lie H. Chen, Stella Leung, Charity Evans, Shenzhen Yao & Nicholas G. LaRocca
Objective: To develop a valid algorithm for identifying multiple sclerosis (MS) cases in administrative health claims (AHC) datasets. Methods: We used 4 AHC datasets from the Veterans Administration (VA), Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), Manitoba (Canada), and Saskatchewan (Canada). In the VA, KPSC, and Manitoba, we tested the performance of candidate algorithms based on inpatient, outpatient, and disease-modifying therapy (DMT) claims compared to medical records review using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and...

Data from: Plant–insect interactions: double-dating associated insect and plant lineages reveals asynchronous radiations

Diana M. Percy, Roderic D. M. Page, Quentin C. B. Cronk, Quentin C.B. Cronk & Roderic D.M. Page
An increasing number of plant-insect studies using phylogenetic analysis suggest that cospeciation events are rare in plant–insect systems. Instead, nonrandom patterns of phylogenetic congruence are produced by phylogenetically conserved host switching (to related plants) or tracking of particular resources or traits (e.g., chemical). The dominance of host switching in many phytophagous insect groups may make the detection of genuine cospeciation events difficult. One important test of putative cospeciation events is to verify whether reciprocal speciation...

Data from: Evolution of invasiveness by genetic accommodation

Dan G. Bock, Michael B. Kantar, Celine Caseys, Remi Matthey-Doret & Loren H. Rieseberg
Invasion success of species introduced to novel environments may be facilitated by adaptive evolution and by phenotypic plasticity. Here we investigate the independent and joint contribution of both mechanisms as drivers of invasiveness in the perennial sunflower Helianthus tuberosus. We show that invasive genotypes have multiple origins, and that invasive spread was facilitated by the repeated evolution of extreme values in a single trait, clonality. In line with genetic accommodation theory, we establish that this...

Data from: Taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of vascular plants at Ma’anling volcano urban park in tropical Haikou, China: Reponses to soil properties

Xia-Lan Cheng, Lang-Xing Yuan, Mir Mohammad Nizamani, Zhi-Xin Zhu, Cynthia Ross Friedman, Huafeng Wang & Hua-Feng Wang
Anthropogenic processes and socio-economic factors play important roles in shaping plant diversity in urban parks. To investigate how plant diversity of Ma’ anling urban volcano park in Hainan Province, China respond to these factors, we carried out a field investigation on the taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of vascular plants and soil properties in this area. We found 284 species of vascular plants belonging to 88 families and 241 genera, which included 194 native species, 23...

Data from: Phylogeny with introgression in Habronattus jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae)

Geneviève Leduc-Robert & Wayne P. Maddison
Background: Habronattus is a diverse clade of jumping spiders with complex courtship displays and repeated evolution of Y chromosomes. A well-resolved species phylogeny would provide an important framework to study these traits, but has not yet been achieved, in part because the few genes available in past studies gave conflicting signals. Such discordant gene trees could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) in recently diverged parts of the phylogeny, but there are indications...

Data from: Population genomics through time provides insights into the consequences of decline and rapid demographic recovery through head-starting in a Galapagos giant tortoise

Evelyn L. Jensen, Danielle L. Edwards, Ryan C. Garrick, Joshua M. Miller, James P. Gibbs, Linda J. Cayot, Washington Tapia, Aldalgisa Caccone, Michael A. Russello & Adalgisa Caccone
Population genetic theory related to the consequences of rapid population decline is well-developed, but there are very few empirical studies where sampling was conducted before and after a known bottleneck event. Such knowledge is of particular importance for species restoration, given links between genetic diversity and the probability of long-term persistence. To directly evaluate the relationship between current genetic diversity and past demographic events, we collected genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from pre-bottleneck historical (c.1906)...

Data from: Scale and direction of adaptive introgression between black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera)

Adriana Suarez-Gonzalez, Charles A. Hefer, Christian Lexer, Quentin C.B. Cronk, Carl J. Douglas & Quentin C. B. Cronk
Introgression can introduce novel genetic variation at a faster rate than mutation alone, and result in adaptive introgression when adaptive alleles are maintained in the recipient genome over time by natural selection. A previous study from our group demonstrated adaptive introgression from Populus balsamifera into P. trichocarpa in a target genomic region. Here we expanded our local ancestry analysis to the whole genome of both parents to provide a comprehensive, unbiased view of introgression patterns...

Data from: Acid secretion by the boring organ of the burrowing giant clam, Tridacna crocea

Richard W. Hill, Eric J. Armstrong, Kazuo Inaba, Masaya Morita, Martin Tresguerres, Jonathon H. Stillman, Jinae N. Roa & Garfield T. Kwan
The giant clam Tridacna crocea, native to Indo-Pacific coral reefs, is noted for its unique ability to bore fully into coral rock and is a major agent of reef bioerosion. However, T. crocea’s mechanism of boring has remained a mystery despite decades of research. By exploiting a new, two-dimensional pH-sensing technology and manipulating clams to press their presumptive boring tissue (the pedal mantle) against pH-sensing foils, we show that this tissue lowers the pH of...

Data from: Individual dispersal decisions in a cooperative breeder: ecological constraints, the benefits of philopatry, and the social queue for dominance

Martha J. Nelson-Flower, Elizabeth M. Wiley, Thomas P. Flower, Amanda R. Ridley & Tom P. Flower
1. Delayed dispersal is a key step in the evolution of familial animal societies and cooperative breeding. However, no consensus has been reached on the ecological and social circumstances driving delayed dispersal. 2. Here we test predictions from the ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry hypotheses as well as the recently-proposed dual benefits hypothesis to better understand the evolution of group-living and cooperative breeding. Furthermore, we consider how individual social circumstances within groups affect dispersal...

Data from: Herbivory enhances the resistance of mangrove forest to cordgrass invasion

Yihui Zhang, Hanyu Meng, Yi Wang & Qiang He
The biotic resistance hypothesis proposes that biotic interactions, such as competition and herbivory, resist the establishment and spread of non-native species. The relative and interactive role of competition and herbivory in resisting plant invasions, however, remains poorly understood. We investigated the interactive role of competition and herbivory (by the native rodent Rattus losea) in resisting Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) invasions into mangrove forests. In southern China, although exotic cordgrass numerically dominates intertidal mudflats and open gaps...

Data from: The ‘filtering’ metaphor revisited: competition and environment jointly structure invasibility and coexistence

Rachel M. Germain, Margaret M. Mayfield & Benjamin Gilbert
‘Filtering’, or the reduction in species diversity that occurs because not all species can persist in all locations, is thought to unfold hierarchically, controlled by the environment at large scales and competition at small scales. However, the ecological effects of competition and the environment are not independent, and observational approaches preclude investigation into their interplay. We use a demographic approach with 30 plant species to experimentally test (i) the effect of competition on species persistence...

Data from: Population genomic analyses reveal a highly differentiated and endangered genetic cluster of northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis laingi) in Haida Gwaii

Armando Geraldes, Kenneth K. Askelson, Ellen Nikelski, Frank I. Doyle, William L. Harrower, Kevin Winker & Darren E. Irwin
Accurate knowledge of geographic ranges and genetic relationships among populations is important when managing a species or population of conservation concern. Along the western coast of Canada, a subspecies of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis laingi) is legally designated as Threatened. The range and distinctness of this form, in comparison to the broadly distributed North American subspecies (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus), is unclear. Given this morphological uncertainty, we analyzed genomic relationships in thousands of single nucleotide...

Data from: Effects of host colony size and hygiene behaviors on social spider kleptoparasite loads along an elevation gradient

Samantha Straus & Leticia Avilés
1.Group living animals are likely to attract more parasites than solitary ones. Parasite loads, however, should also depend on environmental conditions and on host characteristics and behaviors. Previous work has found that social spider colonies harbor communities of kleptoparasitic spiders thats forego building their own web and, instead, steal prey from their social host. 2.We examined parasite loads and host hygiene behaviors in colonies of social and subsocial spiders in the genus Anelosimus along an...

Data from: Relative importance of competition and plant-soil feedback, their synergy, context dependency and implications for coexistence

Ylva Lekberg, James D. Bever, Rebecca A. Bunn, Ray M. Callaway, Miranda M. Hart, Stephanie N. Kivlin, John Klironomos, Beau G. Larkin, John L. Maron, Kurt O. Reinhart, Michael Remke, Wim H. Van Der Putten & Ragan M. Callaway
Plants interact simultaneously with each other and with soil biota, yet the relative importance of competition versus plant soil feedback (PSF) on plant performance is poorly understood. Using a meta-analysis of 38 published studies and 150 plant species, we show that effects of interspecific competition (either growing plants with a competitor or singly, or comparing inter- vs. intraspecific competition) and PSF (comparing home vs. away soil, live vs. sterile soil, or control vs. fungicide-treated soil)...

Data from: Evolution during population spread affects plant performance in stressful environments

Nicky Lustenhouwer, Jennifer L. Williams & Jonathan M. Levine
1. Reliable predictions of population spread rates are essential to forecast biological invasions. Recent studies have shown that populations spreading through favourable habitat can rapidly evolve higher dispersal and reproductive rates at the expansion front, which accelerates spread velocity. However, spreading populations are likely to eventually encounter stressful conditions in the expanded range. How evolution during spread in favourable environments affects subsequent population growth in harsher environments is currently unknown. 2. We examined evolutionary change...

Registration Year

  • 2018
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • University of British Columbia
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  • University of Toronto
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  • Harvard University
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  • Duke University
    4
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    3
  • Princeton University
    3
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    3
  • University of Alberta
    3