84 Works

Data from: Small montane cloud forest fragments are important for conserving tree diversity in the Ecuadorian Andes

Sarah Jane Wilson & Jeanine M. Rhemtulla
Montane tropical cloud forests, with their complex topography, biodiversity, high numbers of endemic species, and rapid rates of clearing are a top global conservation priority. However, species distributions at local and landscape scales in cloud forests are still poorly understood, in part because few regions have been surveyed. Empirical work has focused on species distributions along elevation gradients, but spatial variation among forests at the same elevation is less commonly investigated. In this study, the...

Data from: Relative importance of competition and plant-soil feedback, their synergy, context dependency and implications for coexistence

Ylva Lekberg, James D. Bever, Rebecca A. Bunn, Ray M. Callaway, Miranda M. Hart, Stephanie N. Kivlin, John Klironomos, Beau G. Larkin, John L. Maron, Kurt O. Reinhart, Michael Remke, Wim H. Van Der Putten & Ragan M. Callaway
Plants interact simultaneously with each other and with soil biota, yet the relative importance of competition versus plant soil feedback (PSF) on plant performance is poorly understood. Using a meta-analysis of 38 published studies and 150 plant species, we show that effects of interspecific competition (either growing plants with a competitor or singly, or comparing inter- vs. intraspecific competition) and PSF (comparing home vs. away soil, live vs. sterile soil, or control vs. fungicide-treated soil)...

Data from: Functional traits and environmental conditions predict community isotopic niches and energy pathways across spatial scales

Olivier Dézerald, Diane S. Srivastava, Régis Céréghino, Jean-François Carrias, Bruno Corbara, Vinicius F. Farjalla, Céline Leroy, Nicholas A. C. Marino, Gustavo C. O. Piccoli, Barbara A. Richardson, Michael J. Richardson, Gustavo Q. Romero & Angélica L. González
1. Despite ongoing research in food web ecology and functional biogeography, the links between food-web structure, functional traits and environmental conditions across spatial scales remain poorly understood. Trophic niches, defined as the amount of energy and elemental space occupied by species and food webs, may help bridge this divide. 2. Here, we ask how the functional traits of species, the environmental conditions of habitats and the spatial scale of analysis jointly determine the characteristics of...

Data from: Effects of host colony size and hygiene behaviors on social spider kleptoparasite loads along an elevation gradient

Samantha Straus & Leticia Avilés
1.Group living animals are likely to attract more parasites than solitary ones. Parasite loads, however, should also depend on environmental conditions and on host characteristics and behaviors. Previous work has found that social spider colonies harbor communities of kleptoparasitic spiders thats forego building their own web and, instead, steal prey from their social host. 2.We examined parasite loads and host hygiene behaviors in colonies of social and subsocial spiders in the genus Anelosimus along an...

Data from: An experimental test of the mutation-selection balance model for the maintenance of genetic variance in fitness components

Nathaniel P. Sharp & Aneil F. Agrawal
Despite decades of research, the factors that maintain genetic variation for fitness are poorly understood. It is unclear what fraction of the variance in a typical fitness component can be explained by mutation-selection balance and whether fitness components differ in this respect. In theory, the level of standing variance in fitness due to mutation-selection balance can be predicted using the rate of fitness decline under mutation accumulation, and this prediction can be directly compared to...

Data from: Interactive effects of climate change and biodiversity loss on ecosystem functioning

Aliny P. F. Pires, Diane S. Srivastava, Nicholas A. C. Marino, A. Andrew M. MacDonald, Marcos Paulo Figueiredo-Barros & Vinicius F. Farjalla
Climate change and biodiversity loss are expected to simultaneously affect ecosystems, however research on how each driver mediates the effect of the other has been limited in scope. The multiple stressor framework emphasizes non-additive effects, but biodiversity may also buffer the effects of climate change, and climate change may alter which mechanisms underlie biodiversity-function relationships. Here, we performed an experiment using tank bromeliad ecosystems to test the various ways that rainfall changes and litter diversity...

Data from: Nonlinear averaging of thermal experience predicts population growth rates in a thermally variable environment

Joey R. Bernhardt, Jennifer M. Sunday, Patrick L. Thompson & Mary I. O'Connor
As thermal regimes change worldwide, projections of future population and species persistence often require estimates of how population growth rates depend on temperature. These projections rarely account for how temporal variation in temperature can systematically modify growth rates relative to projections based on constant temperatures. Here,we tested the hypothesis that time-averaged population growth rates in fluctuating thermal environments differ from growth rates in constant conditions as a consequence of Jensen’s inequality, and that the thermal...

Data from: Caste ratio adjustments in response to perceived and realised competition in parasites with division of labour

Clément Lagrue, Colin D. MacLeod, Laurent Keller & Robert Poulin
1. Colonial organisms with division of labour are assumed to achieve increased colony-level efficiency in task performance through functional specialisation of individuals into distinct castes. In social insects, ratios of individuals in different castes can adjust adaptively in response to external threats. However, whether flexibility in caste ratio also occurs in other social organisms with division of labour remains unclear. Some parasitic trematodes, in which clonal colonies within the snail intermediate host comprise a reproductive...

Data from: Evolution during population spread affects plant performance in stressful environments

Nicky Lustenhouwer, Jennifer L. Williams & Jonathan M. Levine
1. Reliable predictions of population spread rates are essential to forecast biological invasions. Recent studies have shown that populations spreading through favourable habitat can rapidly evolve higher dispersal and reproductive rates at the expansion front, which accelerates spread velocity. However, spreading populations are likely to eventually encounter stressful conditions in the expanded range. How evolution during spread in favourable environments affects subsequent population growth in harsher environments is currently unknown. 2. We examined evolutionary change...

Data from: Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf

Daniel Pauly, Myriam Khalfallah, Dalal Al-Abdulrazzak, Lydia C. L. Teh, Gabriel Reygondeau, Colette C. C. Wabnitz, Maria L. Deng Palomares, Dirk Zeller, William W. L. Cheung & Vicky W. Y. Lam
Climate change - reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions - is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a 'business-as-usual' climate change scenario, we projected...

Data from: Assessment of plasma proteomics biomarker’s ability to distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules

Gerard A. Silvestri, Nichole T. Tanner, Paul Kearney, Anil Vachani, Pierre P. Massion, Alexander Porter, Steven C. Springmeyer, Kenneth C. Fang, David Midthun, Peter J. Mazzone, D. Madtes, J. Landis, A. Levesque, K. Rothe, M. Balaan, B. Dimitt, B. Fortin, N. Ettinger, A. Pierre, L. Yarmus, K. Oakjones-Burgess, N. Desai, Z. Hammoud, A. Sorenson, R. Murali … & F. Allison
Background: Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge, with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of cancer (pCA) ≤ 50%. Methods: A prospective, multicenter observational trial of 685 patients with 8- to 30-mm lung nodules was conducted. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative abundance of two...

Data from: Divergent temporal trends of net biomass change in western Canadian boreal forests

Yong Luo, Han Y.H. Chen, Eliot J.B. McIntire, David W. Andison, Eliot J. B. McIntire & Han Y. H. Chen
1. Forests play a strong role in the global carbon cycle by absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide through increasing forest biomass. Understanding temporal trends of forest net aboveground biomass change (ΔAGB) can help infer how forest carbon sequestration responds to on-going climate changes. Despite wide spatial variation in the long-term average of climate moisture availability (CMIaverage) across forest ecosystems, temporal trends of ΔAGB associated with CMIaverage remains unclear. 2. We tested the hypothesis that the extent...

Data from: Disentangling the genetic effects of refugial isolation and range expansion in a trans-continentally distributed species

Brendan N. Reid, Jamie M. Kass, Seth Wollney, Evelyn L. Jensen, Michael A. Russello, Ella M. Viola, Jenna Pantophlet, John B. Iverson, Marcus Z. Peery, Christopher J. Raxworthy & Eugenia Naro-Maciel
In wide-ranging taxa with historically dynamic ranges, past allopatric isolation and range expansion can both influence the current structure of genetic diversity. Considering alternate historical scenarios involving expansion from either a single refugium or from multiple refugia can be useful in differentiating the effects of isolation and expansion. Here, we examined patterns of genetic variability in the trans-continentally distributed painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). We utilized an existing phylogeographic dataset for the mitochondrial control region and...

Data from: Past and present resource availability affect mating rate but not choice in Drosophila melanogaster

Erin Tudor, Daniel E.L. Promislow, Devin Arbuthnott & Daniel E L Promislow
The choices of when, where, and with whom to mate represent some of the most important decisions an individual can make to increase their fitness. Several studies have shown that the resources available to an individual during development can dramatically alter their mating rate later in life, and even the choice of mate. However, an individual’s surroundings and available resources can change rapidly, and it is not clear how quickly the redistribution of resources towards...

Data from: Climate and leaf traits, not latitude, explain variation in plant‐herbivore interactions across a species’ range

Deirdre Loughnan & Jennifer L. Williams
1. Spatial variation in abiotic and biotic factors creates local contexts that influence the intensity of plant‐herbivore interactions. Some previous studies have accounted for the complexity of these interactions with latitudinal clines, while the absence of such clines in many other systems suggests other, often unknown, local community factors may instead explain the variation in herbivory across populations. 2. We investigated plant‐herbivore interactions across the entire range of a long‐lived tree (Quercus garryana), evaluating the...

Data from: Similar hybrid composition among different age and sex classes in the Myrtle–Audubon's warbler hybrid zone

David P. L. Toews, Irby J. Lovette, Darren E. Irwin & Alan Brelsford
Hybrid zones provide a key natural context within which to study the barriers between incipient species. In some avian hybrid zones, there is indirect evidence of selection against hybrid offspring, yet the source of that selection is often unclear. We examined the frequency distribution of hybrids between Myrtle Warblers (Setophaga coronata coronata) and Audubon's Warblers (S. c. auduboni), using data to quantify—for the first time at a genomic scale—the composition of hybrids in this hybrid...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Exposure to predators does not lead to the evolution of larger brains in experimental populations of threespine stickleback

Kieran Samuk, Jan Xue, Diana Jessie Rennison & Diana J. Rennision
Natural selection is often invoked to explain differences in brain size among vertebrates. However, the particular agents of selection that shape brain size variation remain obscure. Recent studies suggest that predators may select for larger brains because increased cognitive and sensory abilities allow prey to better elude predators. Yet, there is little direct evidence that exposure to predators causes the evolution of larger brains in prey species. We experimentally tested this prediction by exposing families...

Data from: Spatial variation in herbivory, climate and isolation predict plant height and fruit phenotype in Plectritis congesta island populations

Cora L. Skaien & Peter Arcese
Climate and herbivory can each drive natural selection on plant traits, but may interact to give rise to different patterns in trait distributions when surveyed across island populations. These different patterns may arise because the occurrence of ungulate herbivores often varies across archipelagos, potentially leading to strong and abrupt spatial heterogeneity in the direction or intensity of natural selection. In contrast, climate tends to vary gradually and thus is more likely to lead to gradual...

Data from: Sex differences in the drivers of reproductive skew in a cooperative breeder

Martha J. Nelson-Flower, Tom P. Flower & Amanda R. Ridley
Many cooperatively breeding societies are characterized by high reproductive skew, such that some socially dominant individuals breed, while socially subordinate individuals provide help. Inbreeding avoidance serves as a source of reproductive skew in many high-skew societies, but few empirical studies have examined sources of skew operating alongside inbreeding avoidance, or compared individual attempts to reproduce (reproductive competition) with individual reproductive success. Here we use long-term genetic and observational data to examine factors affecting reproductive skew...

Data from: Nest boxes increase reproductive output for Tree Swallows in a forest grassland matrix in central British Columbia

Andrea R. Norris, Kathryn E. H. Aitken, Kathy Martin & Stanley Pokorny
Secondary cavity-nesting birds depend on tree cavities for nesting and roosting, but many studies of these birds are conducted using nest boxes. Implementation of effective conservation strategies for cavity-nesting species such as nest-site supplementation requires careful comparisons of fecundity and other vital rates for birds using both natural and artificial nest site types. We compared breeding phenology, clutch and brood sizes, and fledging success of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in tree cavities and nest...

Data from: Meta‐analysis of chromosome‐scale crossover rate variation in eukaryotes and its significance to evolutionary genomics

Quiterie Haenel, Telma G. Laurentino, Marius Roesti & Daniel Berner
Understanding the distribution of crossovers along chromosomes is crucial to evolutionary genomics because the crossover rate determines how strongly a genome region is influenced by natural selection. Nevertheless, generalities in the chromosome-scale distribution of crossovers have not been investigated formally. We fill this gap by synthesizing joint information on genetic and physical maps across 62 animal, plant, and fungal species. Our quantitative analysis reveals a strong and taxonomically wide-spread reduction of the crossover rate in...

Data from: Similarities in temperature-dependent gene expression plasticity across time-scales in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

David C.H. Metzger, Patricia M. Schulte & David C. H. Metzger
Phenotypic plasticity occurs at a variety of time-scales, but little is known about the degree to which plastic responses at different time-scales are associated with similar underlying molecular processes, which is critical for assessing the effects of plasticity on evolutionary trajectories. To address this issue, we identified differential gene expression in response to developmental temperature in the muscle transcriptome of adult threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) exposed to 12, 18, and 24 °C until hatch and...

Data from: General trust impedes perception of self-reported primary psychopathy in thin slices of social interaction

Joseph H. Manson, Matthew M. Gervais & Gregory A. Bryant
Little is known about people’s ability to detect subclinical psychopathy from others’ quotidian social behavior, or about the correlates of variation in this ability. This study sought to address these questions using a thin slice personality judgment paradigm. We presented 108 undergraduate judges (70.4% female) with 1.5 minute video thin slices of zero-acquaintance triadic conversations among other undergraduates (targets: n = 105, 57.1% female). Judges completed self-report measures of general trust, caution, and empathy. Target...

Data from: Early arrival and climatically-linked geographic expansion of New World monkeys from tiny African ancestors

Daniele Silvestro, Marcelo F. Tejedor, Martha L. Serrano-Serrano, Oriane Loiseau, Victor Rossier, Jonathan Rolland, Alexander Zizka, Sebastian Höhna, Alexandre Antonelli & Nicolas Salamin
New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are one of the most diverse groups of primates, occupying today a wide range of ecosystems in the American tropics and exhibiting large variations in ecology, morphology, and behavior. Although the relationships among the almost 200 living species are relatively well understood, we lack robust estimates of the timing of origin, ancestral morphology, and geographic range evolution of the clade. Here we integrate paleontological and molecular evidence to assess the evolutionary...

Registration Year

  • 2018
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  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • University of British Columbia
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  • University of Toronto
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  • Harvard University
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  • Duke University
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  • Cornell University
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  • University of Washington
    3
  • Princeton University
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  • University of California System
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    3
  • University of Alberta
    3