84 Works

Data from: Past and present resource availability affect mating rate but not choice in Drosophila melanogaster

Erin Tudor, Daniel E.L. Promislow, Devin Arbuthnott & Daniel E L Promislow
The choices of when, where, and with whom to mate represent some of the most important decisions an individual can make to increase their fitness. Several studies have shown that the resources available to an individual during development can dramatically alter their mating rate later in life, and even the choice of mate. However, an individual’s surroundings and available resources can change rapidly, and it is not clear how quickly the redistribution of resources towards...

Data from: Divergent temporal trends of net biomass change in western Canadian boreal forests

Yong Luo, Han Y.H. Chen, Eliot J.B. McIntire, David W. Andison, Eliot J. B. McIntire & Han Y. H. Chen
1. Forests play a strong role in the global carbon cycle by absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide through increasing forest biomass. Understanding temporal trends of forest net aboveground biomass change (ΔAGB) can help infer how forest carbon sequestration responds to on-going climate changes. Despite wide spatial variation in the long-term average of climate moisture availability (CMIaverage) across forest ecosystems, temporal trends of ΔAGB associated with CMIaverage remains unclear. 2. We tested the hypothesis that the extent...

Data from: Effects of host colony size and hygiene behaviors on social spider kleptoparasite loads along an elevation gradient

Samantha Straus & Leticia Avilés
1.Group living animals are likely to attract more parasites than solitary ones. Parasite loads, however, should also depend on environmental conditions and on host characteristics and behaviors. Previous work has found that social spider colonies harbor communities of kleptoparasitic spiders thats forego building their own web and, instead, steal prey from their social host. 2.We examined parasite loads and host hygiene behaviors in colonies of social and subsocial spiders in the genus Anelosimus along an...

Data from: Caste ratio adjustments in response to perceived and realised competition in parasites with division of labour

Clément Lagrue, Colin D. MacLeod, Laurent Keller & Robert Poulin
1. Colonial organisms with division of labour are assumed to achieve increased colony-level efficiency in task performance through functional specialisation of individuals into distinct castes. In social insects, ratios of individuals in different castes can adjust adaptively in response to external threats. However, whether flexibility in caste ratio also occurs in other social organisms with division of labour remains unclear. Some parasitic trematodes, in which clonal colonies within the snail intermediate host comprise a reproductive...

Data from: Relative importance of competition and plant-soil feedback, their synergy, context dependency and implications for coexistence

Ylva Lekberg, James D. Bever, Rebecca A. Bunn, Ray M. Callaway, Miranda M. Hart, Stephanie N. Kivlin, John Klironomos, Beau G. Larkin, John L. Maron, Kurt O. Reinhart, Michael Remke, Wim H. Van Der Putten & Ragan M. Callaway
Plants interact simultaneously with each other and with soil biota, yet the relative importance of competition versus plant soil feedback (PSF) on plant performance is poorly understood. Using a meta-analysis of 38 published studies and 150 plant species, we show that effects of interspecific competition (either growing plants with a competitor or singly, or comparing inter- vs. intraspecific competition) and PSF (comparing home vs. away soil, live vs. sterile soil, or control vs. fungicide-treated soil)...

Data from: Evolution during population spread affects plant performance in stressful environments

Nicky Lustenhouwer, Jennifer L. Williams & Jonathan M. Levine
1. Reliable predictions of population spread rates are essential to forecast biological invasions. Recent studies have shown that populations spreading through favourable habitat can rapidly evolve higher dispersal and reproductive rates at the expansion front, which accelerates spread velocity. However, spreading populations are likely to eventually encounter stressful conditions in the expanded range. How evolution during spread in favourable environments affects subsequent population growth in harsher environments is currently unknown. 2. We examined evolutionary change...

Data from: Physiological and genomic signatures of evolutionary thermal adaptation in redband trout from extreme climates

Zhongqi Chen, Anthony P. Farrell, Amanda Matala, Nicholas Hoffman & Shawn R. Narum
Temperature is a master environmental factor that limits the geographical distribution of species, especially in ectotherms. To address challenges in biodiversity conservation under ongoing climate change, it is essential to characterize relevant functional limitations and adaptive genomic content at population and species levels. Here, we present evidence for adaptive divergence in cardiac function and genomic regions in redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) populations from desert and montane streams. Cardiac phenotypes of individual fish were measured...

Data from: Urban rat races: spatial population genomics of brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) compared across multiple cities

Matthew Combs, Kaylee A. Byers, Bruno M. Ghersi, Michael J. Blum, Adalgisa Caccone, Federico Costa, Chelsea G. Himsworth, Jonathan L. Richardson & Jason Munshi-South
Urbanization often substantially influences animal movement and gene flow. However, few studies to date have examined gene flow of the same species across multiple cities. In this study, we examine brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) to test hypotheses about the repeatability of neutral evolution across four cities: Salvador, Brazil; New Orleans, USA; Vancouver, Canada; New York City, USA. At least 150 rats were sampled from each city and genotyped for a minimum of 15,000 genome-wide SNPs....

Data from: Purifying selection in the toll-like receptors of song sparrows Melospiza melodia

Martha J. Nelson-Flower, Ryan R. Germain, Elizabeth A. MacDougall-Shackleton, Sabrina S. Taylor & Peter Arcese
Variation in immune gene sequences is known to influence resistance to infectious diseases and parasites, and hence survival and mate choice, across animal taxa. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise one essential gene family in the vertebrate innate immune system, and recognize evolutionarily conserved structures from all major microorganism classes. However, the causes and consequences of TLR variation in passerine birds remain largely unexplored. We examined seven TLR genes in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), a species that...

Data from: Estimating density for species conservation: comparing camera trap spatial count models to genetic spatial capture-recapture models

Joanna M. Burgar, Frances E. C. Stewart, John P. Volpe, Jason T. Fisher, A. Cole Burton & Frances E.C. Stewart
Density estimation is integral to the effective conservation and management of wildlife. Camera traps in conjunction with spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models have been used to accurately and precisely estimate densities of “marked” wildlife populations comprising identifiable individuals. The emergence of spatial count (SC) models holds promise for cost-effective density estimation of “unmarked” wildlife populations when individuals are not identifiable. We evaluated model agreement, precision, and survey costs, between i) a fully marked approach using SCR...

Data from: Ergogenic effects of an epidural neuroprosthesis in one individual with spinal cord injury

Tom E. Nightingale, Matthias Walter, Alison M. M. Williams, Tania Lam & Andrei V. Krassioukov
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Data from: Maternal provisioning is structured by species’ competitive neighborhoods

Rachel M. Germain, Tess N. Grainger, Natalie T. Jones & Benjamin Gilbert
Differential maternal provisioning of offspring in response to environmental conditions has been argued as ‘the missing link’ in plant life histories. Although empirical evidence suggests that maternal provisioning responses to abiotic conditions are common, there is little understanding of how differences in maternal provisioning manifest in response to competition. Frequency manipulations are commonly employed in ecological studies to assess the strength of interspecific competition, relative to intraspecific competition, and we used frequency manipulations to test...

Data from: Rethinking phylogenetic comparative methods

Josef C. Uyeda, Rosana Zenil-Ferguson & Matthew W. Pennell
As a result of the process of descent with modification, closely related species tend to be similar to one another in a myriad different ways. In statistical terms, this means that traits measured on one species will not be independent of traits measured on others. Since their introduction in the 1980s, phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) have been framed as a solution to this problem. In this paper, we argue that this way of thinking about...

Data from: Do correlated responses to multiple environmental changes exacerbate or mitigate species loss?

Luke O. Frishkoff, Alejandra Echeverri, Kai M.A. Chan, Daniel S. Karp & Kai M. A. Chan
Biological communities face multiple global changes simultaneously, and predicting how they will respond remains a key challenge. Co-tolerance theory offers a framework for understanding how species-level responses to multiple stressors affect community properties. Co-tolerance theory predicts that positive correlations in species responses (i.e., species that are susceptible to one stressor are more likely to be highly susceptible to a second) lessen total species loss, essentially because species cannot be eliminated from a community twice. However,...

Data from: Short-term microbial effects of a large-scale mine-tailing storage facility collapse on the local natural environment

Heath W. Garris, Susan A. Baldwin, Jon Taylor, David B. Gurr, Daniel R. Denesiuk, Jonathan D. Van Hamme & Lauchlan H. Fraser
We investigated the impacts of the Mount Polley tailings impoundment failure on chemical, physical, and microbial properties of substrates within the affected watershed, comprised of 70 hectares of riparian wetlands and 40 km of stream and lake shore. We established a biomonitoring network in October of 2014, two months following the disturbance, and evaluated riparian and wetland substrates for microbial community composition and function via 16S and full metagenome sequencing. A total of 234 samples...

Data from: Genome-wide assessment of diversity and divergence among extant Galápagos giant tortoise species

Joshua M. Miller, Maud C. Quinzin, Danielle L. Edwards, Deren A.R. Eaton, Evelyn L. Jensen, Michael A. Russello, James P. Gibbs, Washington Tapia, Danny Rueda, Adalgisa Caccone & Deren A R Eaton
Genome-wide assessments allow for fuller characterization of genetic diversity, finer-scale population delineation, and better detection of demographically significant units to guide conservation compared to those based on “traditional” markers. Galapagos giant tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) have long provided a case study for how evolutionary genetics may be applied to advance species conservation. Ongoing efforts to bolster tortoise populations, which have declined by 90%, have been informed by analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequence and microsatellite genotypic data,...

ASHRAE global database of thermal comfort field measurements

Thomas Parkinson, Federico Tartarini, Veronika Földváry Ličina, Toby Cheung, Hui Zhang, Richard De Dear, Peixian Li, Edward Arens, Chungyoon Chun, Stefano Schiavon, Maohui Luo & Gail Brager
Recognizing the value of open-source research databases in advancing the art and science of HVAC, in 2014 the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II project was launched under the leadership of University of California at Berkeley’s Center for the Built Environment and The University of Sydney’s Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Laboratory. The ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II (as it is known) is intended to support diverse inquiries about thermal comfort in field settings. The...

Data from: Phylogeny, evidence for a cryptic plastid, and distribution of Chytriodinium parasites (Dinophyceae) infecting copepods

Jürgen F.H. Strassert, Elisabeth Hehenberger, Javier Del Campo, Noriko Okamoto, Martin Kolisko, Thomas A. Richards, Alexandra Z. Worden, Alyson E. Santoro, Patrick J. Keeling & Javier Campo
Spores of the dinoflagellate Chytriodinium are known to infest copepod eggs causing their lethality. Despite the potential to control the population of such an ecologically important host, knowledge about Chytriodinium parasites is limited: we know little about phylogeny, parasitism, abundance, or geographical distribution. We carried out genome sequence surveys on four manually isolated sporocytes from the same sporangium to analyse the phylogenetic position of Chytriodinium based on SSU and concatenated SSU/LSU rRNA gene sequences, and...

Data from: Cognitive function after spinal cord injury: a systematic review

Rahul Sachdeva, Feng Gao, Chetwyn C. H. Chan & Andrei V. Krassioukov
Objective: To systematically examine the incidence of cognitive impairment in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as identify potential contributing and confounding factors. Methods: Studies quantitatively reporting cognitive ability after spinal cord injury were searched electronically via Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO. Manual screening for references within articles was also performed. A total of 2,481 studies were screened and a total of 70 were included in this review, 21 reporting cognitive function after...

Data from: The effect of range overlap on ecological niche divergence depends on spatial scale in monkeyflowers

Qin Li, Dena L. Grossenbacher & Amy L. Angert
Patterns of niche divergence and geographical range overlap of closely related species provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics of ecological niches. When ranges overlap, shared selective pressures may preserve niche similarity along coarse‐scale macrohabitat axes (e.g., bioclimates). Alternatively, competitive interactions may drive greater divergence along local‐scale microhabitat axes (e.g., micro‐topographical features). We tested these hypotheses in 16 species pairs of western North American monkeyflowers (Erythranthe and Diplacus, formerly Mimulus) with species’ niches, geographic ranges and...

Data from: Mapping the imprint of biotic interactions on β-diversity

Marc Ohlmann, Florent Mazel, Loïc Chalmandrier, Stéphane Bec, Eric Coissac, Ludovic Gielly, Johan Pansu, Vincent Schilling, Pierre Taberlet, Lucie Zinger, Jerome Chave & Wilfried Thuiller
Investigating how trophic interactions influence the β-diversity of meta-communities is of paramount importance to understanding the processes shaping biodiversity distribution. Here, we apply a statistical method for inferring the strength of spatial dependencies between pairs of species groups. Using simulated community data generated from a multi-trophic model, we showed that this method can approximate biotic interactions in multi-trophic communities based on β-diversity patterns across groups. When applied to soil multi-trophic communities along an elevational gradient...

Data from: Habitat-mediated effects of diurnal and seasonal migration strategies on juvenile salmon survival

Michael C. Melnychuk & David W. Welch
Behavioral decisions during periods of vulnerability to predation risk, such as migrations during the juvenile life-history stage, may strongly affect the probability of survival. Habitats through which animals migrate are heterogeneous, and risk-reducing behaviors may be more important in some habitats than others. Using biotelemetry data, diurnal and seasonal riverine migration patterns of >3800 juvenile salmon across four species, 12 watersheds, and five years were quantified to evaluate possible effects of migration timing on survival...

Data from: Stabilizing selection, mutational bias and the evolution of sex

Eloïse Vanhoenacker, Linnéa Sandell & Denis Roze
Stabilizing selection around a fixed phenotypic optimum is expected to disfavor sexual reproduction, since asexually reproducing organisms can maintain a higher fitness at equilibrium, while sex disrupts combinations of compensatory mutations. This conclusion rests on the assumption that mutational effects on phenotypic traits are unbiased, that is, mutation does not tend to push phenotypes in any particular direction. In this paper, we consider a model of stabilizing selection acting on an arbitrary number of polygenic...

Data from: Reproduction as a bottleneck to treeline advance across the circumarctic forest tundra ecotone

Carissa D. Brown, Geneviève Dufour-Tremblay, Ryan G. Jameson, Steven D. Mamet, Andrew J. Trant, Xanthe J. Walker, Stéphane Boudraeu, Karen A. Harper, Greg H.R. Henry, Luise Hermanutz, Annika Hofgaard, Ludmila Isaeva, G. Peter Kershaw, Jill F. Johnstone & Gregory H. R. Henry
The fundamental niche of many species is shifting with climate change, especially in sub-arctic ecosystems with pronounced recent warming. Ongoing warming in sub-arctic regions should lessen environmental constraints on tree growth and reproduction, leading to increased success of trees colonising tundra. Nevertheless, variable responses of treeline ecotones have been documented in association with warming temperatures. One explanation for time lags between increasingly favourable environmental conditions and treeline ecotone movement is reproductive limitations caused by low...

Data from: Environmental stress does not increase the mean strength of selection

Devin Arbuthnott & Michael C. Whitlock
A common intuition among evolutionary biologists and ecologists is that environmental stress will increase the strength of selection against deleterious alleles and among alternate genotypes. However, the strength of selection is determined by the relative fitness differences among genotypes, and there is no theoretical reason why these differences should be exaggerated as mean fitness decreases. We update a recent review of the empirical results pertaining to environmental stress and the strength of selection and find...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    84

Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • University of British Columbia
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  • University of Toronto
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  • Harvard University
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  • Duke University
    4
  • Cornell University
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  • Princeton University
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  • University of California System
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    3
  • University of Alberta
    3