39 Works

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

Data from: Mitotic recombination and rapid genome evolution in the invasive forest pathogen Phytophthora ramorumm

Angela L. Dale, Nicolas Feau, Sydney E. Everhart, Braham Dhillon, Barbara Wong, Julie Sheppard, Guillaume J. Bilodeau, Avneet Brar, Javier F. Tabima, Danyu Shen, Clive M. Brasier, Brett M. Tyler, Niklaus J. Grünwald & Richard C. Hamelin
Invasive alien species often have reduced genetic diversity and must adapt to new environments. Given the success of many invasions, this is sometimes called the genetic paradox of invasion. Phytophthora ramorum is invasive, limited to asexual reproduction within four lineages, and presumed clonal. NA1 is responsible for sudden oak death in the USA, NA1, NA2 and EU1 are responsible for ramorum blight in the USA and Canada and EU1 and EU2 are responsible for sudden...

Data from: Defining isoscapes in the Northeast Pacific as an index of ocean productivity

Boris Espinasse
Aim: We modeled isoscapes in the Northeast Pacific using satellite-based data with the main objective of testing if isoscapes defined by a few key parameters can be used as a proxy for secondary productivity. Location: Northeast (NE) Pacific; 46 – 60⁰N and 125 – 165⁰W. Time period: From 1998 to 2017 (ongoing). Major taxa studied: Zooplankton with a focus on large herbivores. Methods: Approximately 280 summer zooplankton samples were analyzed for Carbon (δ13C) and Nitrogen...

Data from: Resistance of soil biota and plant growth to disturbance increases with plant diversity

Jonathan Bennett, Alexander Koch, Jennifer Forsythe, Nancy Johnson, David Tilman & John Klironomos
Plant diversity is critical to the functioning of ecosystems, potentially mediated in part by interactions with soil biota. Here, we characterized multiple groups of soil biota across a plant diversity gradient in a long-term experiment. We then subjected soil samples taken along this gradient to drought, freezing, and a mechanical disturbance to test how plant diversity affects the responses of soil biota and growth of a focal plant to these disturbances. High plant diversity resulted...

Data from: Conserving evolutionary history does not result in greater diversity over geological timescales

Juan Cantalapiedra, Tracy Aze, Marc Cadotte, Giulio Valentino Dalla Riva, Danwei Huang, Florent Mazel, Matthew Pennell, María Ríos & Arne Mooers
Alternative prioritization strategies have been proposed to safeguard biodiversity over macro-evolutionary timescales. The first prioritizes the most distantly related species (maximizing phylogenetic diversity) in the hopes of capturing at least some lineages that will successfully diversify into the future. The second prioritizes lineages that are currently speciating, in the hopes that successful lineages will continue to generate species into the future. These contrasting schemes also map onto contrasting predictions about the role of slow diversifiers...

Data from: Evidence for contemporary and historical gene flow between guppy populations in different watersheds, with a test for associations with adaptive traits

Léa Blondel, Lyndsey Baillie, Jessica Quinton, Jahson B. Alemu, Ian Paterson, Andrew P. Hendry & Paul Bentzen
In dendritic river systems, gene flow is expected to occur primarily within watersheds. Yet, rare cross‐watershed transfers can also occur, whether mediated by (often historical) geological events or (often contemporary) human activities. We explored these events and their potential evolutionary consequences by analyzing patterns of neutral genetic variation (microsatellites) and adaptive phenotypic variation (male color) in wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata) distributed across two watersheds in northern Trinidad. We found the expected signatures of within‐watershed gene...

Data from: EFHC1, implicated in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, functions at the cilium and synapse to modulate dopamine signaling

Catrina M. Loucks, Kwangjin Park, Denise S. Walker, Andrea H. McEwan, Tiffany A. Timbers, Evan L. Ardiel, Laura J. Grundy, Chunmei Li, Jacque-Lynne Johnson, Julie Kennedy, Oliver E. Blacque, William R. Schafer, Catharine H. Rankin & Michel R. Leroux
Neurons throughout the mammalian brain possess non-motile cilia, organelles with varied functions in sensory physiology and cellular signaling, yet their roles in these neurons are poorly understood. To shed light into their functions, we studied EFHC1, an evolutionarily conserved protein required for motile cilia function and linked to a common form of inherited epilepsy in humans, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). We demonstrate that C. elegans EFHC1 functions within specialized non-motile mechanosensory cilia, where it regulates...

Asynchronous Saturation of the Carbon Sink in African and Amazonian tropical forests

Wannes Hubau, Simon Lewis, Oliver Phillips, Kofi Kofi Affum-Baffoe, Hans Hans Beeckman, Aida Cuni-Sanchez, Corneille Ewango, Sophie Fauset, Douglas Sheil, Bonaventure Sonké, Martin Sullivan, Terry Sunderland, Sean Thomas, Katharine Abernethy, Stephen Adu-Bredu, Christian Amani, Timothy Baker, Lindsay Banin, Fidèle Baya, Serge Begne, Amy Bennett, Fabrice Benedet, Robert Bitariho & Yannick Bocko
Data and R-code from Hubau W et al. 2020. 'Asynchronous Saturation of the Carbon Sink in African and Amazonian tropical forests'. Nature 579, 80-87. 2020. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2035-0. ABSTRACT: Structurally intact tropical forests sequestered ~50% of global terrestrial carbon uptake over the 1990s and early 2000s, offsetting ~15% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions1-3. Climate-driven vegetation models typically predict that this tropical forest ‘carbon sink’ will continue for decades4,5. However, recent inventories of intact Amazonian forests show declining...

Data from: Density-dependent space use affects interpretation of camera trap detection rates

Kate Broadley, Cole Burton, Stan Boutin & Tal Avgar
Camera-traps (CTs) are an increasingly popular tool for wildlife survey and monitoring. Estimating relative abundance in unmarked species is often done using detection rate as an index of relative abundance, which assumes a positive linear relationship with true abundance. This assumption may be violated if movement behavior varies with density, but the degree to which movement is density-dependent across taxa is unclear. The potential confounding of population-level relative abundance indices by movement depends on how...

Hydroxyacetophenone defenses in white spruce against spruce budworm

Genevieve Parent, Claudia Méndez-Espinoza, Isabelle Giguère, Melissa H. Mageroy, Martin Charest, Éric Bauce, Joerg Bohlmann & John MacKay
We review a recently discovered white spruce (Picea glauca) chemical defense against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) involving hydroxyacetophenones. These defense metabolites detected in the foliage accumulate variably as the aglycons, piceol and pungenol, or the corresponding glucosides, picein and pungenin. We summarize current knowledge of the genomic, molecular and biochemical as well as genetic underpinnings of this defense and its effects on C. fumiferana. We present an update with new results on the ontogenic variation...

Experimental hybridization studies suggest that pleiotropic alleles commonly underlie adaptive divergence between natural populations

Ken Thompson
The alleles used for adaptation can pleiotropically affect traits under stabilizing selection. The fixation of alleles with deleterious pleiotropic effects causes compensatory alleles to be favoured by selection. Such compensatory alleles might segregate in interpopulation hybrids, resulting in segregation variance for traits where parents have indistinguishable phenotypes. If adaptation typically involves pleiotropy and compensation, then the segregation variance for traits under stabilizing selection is expected to increase with the magnitude of adaptive phenotypic divergence between...

Data from: Habitat size thresholds for predators: why damselflies only occur in large bromeliads

Diane Sheila Srivastava, Sarah Louise Amundrud, Jacqueline T. Ngai, Brian M. Starzomski & Jessica Lee Ware
Predators are often more sensitive to habitat size than their prey, and frequently occur in only the largest habitats. Four explanations have been proposed for this pattern: (1) small habitats do not have enough energy to support higher trophic levels; (2) small habitats are less likely to contain particular prey required by specialist predators; (3) small habitats are risky for predators with slow life histories or large body sizes; (4) small habitats are numerically unlikely...

Assortative mating in hybrid zones is remarkably ineffective in promoting speciation

Darren Irwin
Partial prezygotic isolation is often viewed as more important than partial postzygotic isolation (low fitness of hybrids) early in the process of speciation. I simulate secondary contact between two populations (‘species’) to examine effects of assortative mating and low hybrid fitness in preventing blending. A small reduction in hybrid fitness (e.g., by 10%) produces a narrower hybrid zone than a strong but imperfect mating preference (e.g., 10x stronger preference for conspecific over heterospecific mates). In...

Data from: Domesticated tomatoes are more vulnerable to negative plant-soil feedbacks than their wild relatives

Juli Carrillo, Laura L. Ingwell, Xiaohong Li & Ian Kaplan
Domesticated plants can differ from their wild counterparts in the strength and outcome of species interactions, both above- and belowground. Plant-soil feedbacks influence plant success, and plant-associated soil microbial communities can influence plant interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies, yet, it is unclear if domestication has changed these relationships. To determine the effects of domestication on plant-soil interactions, we characterized soil microbial communities associated with various cultivars of domesticated tomato and some of its...

Data from: Cryptic genetic variation shapes the adaptive evolutionary potential of enzymes

Florian Baier, Nansook Hong, Gloria Yang, Anna Pabis, Charlotte M. Miton, Alexandre Barrozo, Paul D. Carr, Shina C. L. Kamerlin, Colin J. Jackson & Nobuhiko Tokuriki
Genetic variation among orthologous proteins can cause cryptic phenotypic properties that only manifest in changing environments. Such variation may impact the evolvability of proteins, but the underlying molecular basis remains unclear. Here, we performed comparative directed evolution of four orthologous metallo-β-lactamases toward a new function and found that different starting genotypes evolved to distinct evolutionary outcomes. Despite a low initial fitness, one ortholog reached a significantly higher fitness plateau than its counterparts, via increasing catalytic...

Data from: The prevalence of MS in the United States: a population-based estimate using health claims data

Mitchell T. Wallin, William J. Culpepper, Jonathan D. Campbell, Lorene M. Nelson, Annette Langer-Gould, Ruth Ann Marrie, Gary R. Cutter, Wendy E. Kaye, Laurie Wagner, Helen Tremlett, Stephen L. Buka, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul, Barbara Topol, Lie H. Chen & Nicholas G. LaRocca
Objective: To generate a national multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence estimate for the United States by applying a validated algorithm to multiple administrative health claims (AHC) datasets. Methods: A validated algorithm was applied to private, military, and public AHC datasets to identify adult cases of MS between 2008 and 2010. In each dataset, we determined the 3-year cumulative prevalence overall and stratified by age, sex, and census region. We applied insurance-specific and stratum-specific estimates to the...

Data from: City sicker? a meta-analysis of wildlife health and urbanization

Maureen H. Murray, Cecilia A. Sanchez, Daniel J. Becker, Kaylee A. Byers, Katherine E. L. Worsley-Tonks & Meggan E. Craft
Urban development can alter resource availability, land use, and community composition, in turn influencing wildlife health. Generalizable relationships between wildlife health and urbanization have yet to be quantified, and could vary across health metrics and animal taxonomy. We present a phylogenetic meta-analysis of 516 records spanning 81 wildlife species from 106 studies comparing the toxicant loads, parasitism, body condition, or stress of urban and non-urban wildlife populations in 30 countries. We find a significantly negative...

Juvenile Sockeye Diets Hakai 2015-2016

Samantha James & Brian Hunt
Pacific salmon hold tremendous ecological, cultural, and economic value to communities and ecosystems throughout British Columbia. The productivity of several populations, however, has declined since the early 1990s. The cause of the decline is still not fully understood, though bottom-up drivers and trophic interactions during the early marine migration are believed to be contributing factors. For juveniles leaving the Fraser River, their migration crosses a range of stratified and well-mixed waters with varying levels of...

Data from: Predation risk and resource abundance mediate foraging behaviour and intraspecific resource partitioning among consumers in dominance hierarchies

Sean M. Naman, Rui Ueda & Takuya Sato
Dominance hierarchies and the resulting unequal resource partitioning among individuals are key mechanisms of population regulation. The strength of dominance hierarchies can be influenced by size-dependent trade-offs between foraging and predator avoidance whereby competitively inferior subdominants can access a larger proportion of limiting resources by accepting higher predation risk. Foraging-predation risk trade-offs also depend on resource abundance. Yet, few studies have manipulated predation risk and resource abundance simultaneously; consequently, their joint effect on resource partitioning...

Data from: Reproductive losses due to climate change-induced earlier flowering are not the primary threat to plant population viability in a perennial herb

Amy M. Iler, Aldo Compagnoni, David W. Inouye, Jennifer L. Williams, Paul J. CaraDonna, Aaron Anderson & Tom E.X. Miller
1. Despite a global footprint of shifts in flowering phenology in response to climate change, the reproductive consequences of these shifts are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unknown whether altered flowering times affect plant population viability. 2. We examine whether climate change-induced earlier flowering has consequences for population persistence by incorporating reproductive losses from frost damage (a risk of early flowering) in population models of a subalpine sunflower (Helianthella quinquenervis). Using long-term demographic data for...

Data from: Survival is negatively related to basal metabolic rate in tropical Andean birds

Micah N. Scholer, Peter Arcese, Martin L. Puterman, Gustavo A. Londono & Jill E. Jankowski
1. Life history theory postulates that physiological traits, such as energy metabolism, can be understood in terms of allocation trade-offs between self-maintenance and reproduction over an organism’s lifespan, and data show that metabolic intensity and survival vary inversely with latitude, with tropical birds exhibiting a ‘slow’ pace of life relative to temperature species. However, tropical regions harbor strong environmental gradients of their own, and it remains to be shown whether similar life history trade-offs between...

Data from: Complex indirect effects of epiphytic bromeliads on the invertebrate food webs of their support tree

Pierre Rogy, Edd Hammill & Diane S. Srivastava
Ecosystem engineers are species that affect others through the provision of habitat rather than consumptive resources. The extent to which ecosystem engineers can indirectly affect entire food webs, however, is poorly understood. Epiphytic tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) are ecosystem engineers that are common throughout the Neotropics, and are associated with a variety of predatory arthropods. Here, we examine if bromeliads, by increasing predator densities, indirectly benefit their support tree through reduction in herbivorous insects and leaf...

Data from: Over the hills, but how far away? estimates of mushroom geographic range extents

Anna L. Bazzicalupo, Jeannette Whitton & Mary L. Berbee
Aim: Geographic distributions of mushroom species remain poorly understood despite their importance for advancing our understanding of the habitat requirements, species interactions and ecosystem functions of this key group of organisms. Here, we estimate geographic range extents (maximum within-species geographic distance) of genetically defined operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Location: World-wide, with emphasis on the American Pacific Northwest Taxa: Amanita, Agaricus, Cortinarius, Galerina, Hebeloma, Hydnum, Hygrocybe, Hygrophorus, Inocybe, Lepiota, Pholiota, and Russula+Lactarius; other genera in Agaricomycotina...

Data from: Species interactions mediate thermal evolution

Michelle Tseng, Joey R. Bernhardt & Alexander E. Chila
Understanding whether populations and communities can evolve fast enough to keep up with ongoing climate change is one of the most pressing issues in biology today. A growing number of studies have documented rapid evolutionary responses to warming, suggesting that populations may be able to persist despite temperature increases. The challenge now is to better understand how species interactions, which are ubiquitous in nature, mediate these population responses to warming. Here we use laboratory natural...

Data from: Reciprocal abundance shifts of the intertidal sea stars, Evasterias troschelii and Pisaster ochraceus, following sea star wasting disease

Sharon Kay, Alyssa-Lois Gehman & Christopher Harley
Disease emergence occurs within the context of ecological communities, and disease driven declines in host populations can lead to complex direct and indirect ecological effects. Varying effects of a single disease among multiple susceptible hosts could benefit relatively resistant species. Beginning in 2013, an outbreak of sea star wasting disease (SSWD) led to population declines of many sea star species along the west coast of North America. Through field surveys and laboratory experiments, we investigated...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    39

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    39

Affiliations

  • University of British Columbia
    39
  • Simon Fraser University
    3
  • University of Toronto
    3
  • University of Alabama at Birmingham
    2
  • University of Pennsylvania
    2
  • Stanford University
    2
  • Utah State University
    2
  • University of Saskatchewan
    2
  • University of Alberta
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2