76 Works

The Effect of Alignment on People’s Ability to Judge Event Sequence Similarity

Roy Ruddle, Jürgen Bernard, Hendrik Lücke-Tieke, Thorsten May & Jörn Kohlhammer

Multiple chromosomal inversions contribute to adaptive divergence of a dune sunflower ecotype

Kaichi Huang, Rose Andrew, Gregory Owens, Katherine Ostevik & Loren Rieseberg
Both models and case studies suggest that chromosomal inversions can facilitate adaptation and speciation in the presence of gene flow by suppressing recombination between locally adapted alleles. Until recently, however, it has been laborious and time-consuming to identify and genotype inversions in natural populations. Here we apply RAD sequencing data and newly developed population genomic approaches to identify putative inversions that differentiate a sand dune ecotype of the prairie sunflower (Helianthus petiolaris) from populations found...

Local adaptation to biotic interactions: a meta-analysis across latitudes

Anna Hargreaves, Rachel Germain, Megan Bontrager, Joshua Persi & Amy Angert
Adaptation to local conditions can increase species’ geographic distributions and rates of diversification, but which components of the environment commonly drive local adaptation—particularly the importance of biotic interactions—is unclear. Biotic interactions should drive local adaptation when they impose consistent divergent selection; if this is common we expect transplant experiments to detect more frequent and stronger local adaptation when biotic interactions are left intact. We tested this hypothesis using a meta-analysis of transplant experiments from >125...

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

Sitticine jumping spiders: phylogeny, classification and chromosomes (Araneae: Salticidae: Sitticini)

Wayne Maddison, David Maddison, Shahan Derkarabetian & Marshal Hedin
We review the systematics of sitticine jumping spiders, with a focus on the Palearctic and Nearctic regions, in order to revise their generic classification, clarify the species of one region (Canada), and study their chromosomes. A genome-wide molecular phylogeny of 23 sitticine species, using more than 700 loci from the arachnid Ultra-Conserved Element (UCE) probeset, confirms the Neotropical origins of sitticines, whose basal divergence separates the new subtribe Aillutticina (a group of 5 Neotropical genera)...

Rainfall and nest site competition delay Mountain Bluebird and Tree Swallow breeding but do not impact productivity

Anna Drake & Kathy Martin
Optimizing breeding phenology, an important aspect of fitness, is complex for migratory species as they must make key timing decisions early, and remotely, from breeding sites. We examined the role of weather (locally and cross-seasonally), cavity availability, and competitive exclusion in determining among-year variation in breeding phenology over 17 years for two migratory, cavity-nesting birds: Mountain Bluebirds (Sialia currucoides; n = 462 nests) and Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor; n = 572) using natural tree cavities...

Data from: RapidRat: development, validation and application of a genotyping-by-sequencing panel for rapid biosecurity and invasive species management

Bryson Sjodin, Robyn Irvine & Michael Russello
Invasive alien species (IAS) are among the main causes of global biodiversity loss. Invasive brown (Rattus norvegicus) and black (R. rattus) rats, in particular, are leading drivers of extinction on islands, especially in the case of seabirds where >50% of all extinctions have been attributed to rat predation. Eradication is the primary form of invasive rat management, yet this strategy has resulted in a ~10-38% failure rate on islands globally. Genetic tools can help inform...

Data from: Prey availability and ambient temperature influence carrion persistence in the boreal forest

Michael Peers, Sean Konkolics, Clayton Lamb, Yasmine Majchrzak, Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Rudy Boonstra, Alice Kenney, Charles Krebs, April Robin Martinig, Baily McCulloch, Joseph Silva, Laura Garland & Stan Boutin
1. Scavenging by vertebrates can have important impacts on food web stability and persistence, and can alter the distribution of nutrients throughout the landscape. However, scavenging communities have been understudied in most regions around the globe, and we lack understanding of the biotic drivers of vertebrate scavenging dynamics. 2. In this paper, we examined how changes in prey density and carrion biomass caused by population cycles of a primary prey species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus...

Data from: The function and evolution of motile DNA replication systems in ciliates

Nicholas Irwin, Alexandros Pittis, Varsha Mathur, LeAnn Howe, Patrick Keeling, Denis Lynn & William Bourland
DNA replication is a ubiquitous, complex, and conserved cellular process. However, regulation of DNA replication is only understood in a small fraction of organisms that poorly represent the diversity of genetic systems in nature. Here we used a combination of computational and experimental approaches to examine the function and evolution of one such system, the replication band (RB) in spirotrich ciliates, which is a localized, motile hub that traverses the macronucleus while replicating DNA. We...

Data from: Phylogenomics reveals novel relationships among Neotropical crocodiles (Crocodylus spp.)

Yoamel Milian-Garcia, George Amato, John Gatesy, Evon Hekkala, Natalia Rossi & Michael Russello
Extant species in the order Crocodylia are remnants of an ancient lineage of large-bodied archosaur reptiles. Despite decades of systematic studies, phylogenetic relationships among members of the genus Crocodylus (true crocodiles) in the Neotropics are poorly understood. Here we estimated phylogenomic relationships among the four extant Crocodylus species in the Americas. Species-tree reconstructions using genotypic data from 17,538 SNPs collected for 33 individuals spanning six Crocodylus species (four ingroup and two outgroup) revealed novel relationships...

Data for: Low predictability of energy balance traits and leaf temperature metrics in desert, montane, and alpine plant communities

Benjamin Blonder, Sabastian Escobar, Rozália Kapás & Sean Michaletz
Leaf energy balance may influence plant performance and community composition. While biophysical theory can link leaf energy balance to many traits and environment variables, predicting leaf temperature and key driver traits with incomplete parameterizations remains challenging. Predicting thermal offsets (δ, Tleaf – Tair difference) or thermal coupling strengths (β, Tleaf vs. Tair slope) is challenging. We ask: 1) whether environmental gradients predict variation in energy balance traits (absorptance, leaf angle, stomatal distribution, maximum stomatal conductance,...

Data for: Immigration counter-acts local micro-evolution of a major fitness component: migration-selection balance in free-living song sparrows

Jane Reid, Peter Arcese, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Matthew Wolak, Stefanie Muff, Lisa Dickel & Lukas Keller
Ongoing adaptive evolution, and resulting ‘evolutionary rescue’ of declining populations, requires additive genetic variation in fitness. Such variation can be increased by gene flow resulting from immigration, potentially facilitating evolution. But, gene flow could in fact constrain rather than facilitate local adaptive evolution if immigrants have low additive genetic values for local fitness. Local migration-selection balance and micro-evolutionary stasis could then result. However, key quantitative genetic effects of natural immigration, comprising the degrees to which...

Predicting the strength of urban-rural clines in a Mendelian polymorphism along a latitudinal gradient

James Santangelo, Ken Thompson, Beata Cohan, Jibran Syed, Rob Ness & Marc Johnson
Cities are emerging as models for addressing the fundamental question of whether populations evolve in parallel to similar environments. Here, we examine the environmental factors that drive the evolution of parallel urban-rural clines in a Mendelian trait—the cyanogenic antiherbivore defense of white clover (Trifolium repens). Previous work suggested urban-rural gradients in frost and snow depth could drive the evolution of reduced hydrogen cyanide (HCN) frequencies in urban populations. Here, we sampled over 700 urban and...

Interspecific competition slows range expansion and shapes range boundaries

Geoffrey Legault, Matthew Bitters, Alan Hastings & Brett Melbourne
Species expanding into new habitats as a result of climate change or human introductions will frequently encounter resident competitors. Theoretical models suggest that such interspecific competition can alter the speed of expansion and the shape of expanding range boundaries. However, competitive interactions are rarely considered when forecasting the success or speed of expansion, in part because there has been no direct experimental evidence that competition affects either expansion speed or boundary shape. Here we demonstrate...

Landscape context mediates the physiological stress response of birds to farmland diversification

Christopher Latimer, Olivia Smith, Joseph Taylor, Amanda Edworthy, Jeb Owen, William Snyder & Christina M. Kennedy
1. Farmland diversification practices are increasingly adopted to help reverse biodiversity declines in agroecosystems. However, evidence for the effectiveness of this approach often comes from documenting the species attracted to particular farming systems or landscapes, rather than their underlying physiological states that ultimately determine population growth or decline over the longer term. 2. Across 38 organic, mixed-produce farms spanning the U.S. west coast, we quantified three physiological biomarkers that are widely used to capture variation...

Scientific shortcomings in environmental impact statements internationally

Gerald Singh, Jackie Lerner, Megan Mach, Cathryn Clarke Murray, Bernardo Ranieri, Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent, Janson Wong, Alice Guimaraes, Gustavo Yunda-Guarin, Terre Satterfield & Kai Chan
1. Governments around the world rely on environmental impact assessment to understand the environmental risks of proposed developments. 2. To examine the basis for these appraisals, we examine the output of environmental impact assessment processes in jurisdictions within seven countries, focusing on scope (spatial and temporal), mitigation actions, and whether impacts were identified as ‘significant’. 3. We find that the number of impacts characterized as significant is generally low. While this finding may indicate that...

Selection on a small genomic region underpins differentiation in multiple color traits between two warbler species

Silu Wang, Sievert Rohwer, Devin De Zwaan, David Toews, Irby Lovette, Jacqueline Mackenzie & Darren Irwin
Speciation is one of the most important processes in biology, yet the study of the genomic changes underlying this process is in its infancy. North American warbler species Setophaga townsendi and S. occidentalis hybridize in a stable hybrid zone, following a period of geographic separation. Genomic differentiation accumulated during geographic isolation can be homogenized by introgression at secondary contact, while genetic regions that cause low hybrid fitness can be shielded from such introgression. Here we...

Data from: Thermal tolerances and species interactions determine the elevational distributions of insects

Sarah Amundrud & Diane Srivastava
Aim: While physiological limits to thermal extremes are often thought to determine the abundance and geographic distribution of species, more recent evidence suggests that species interactions may be equally important. Moreover, the relative importance of these constraints may shift with changing abiotic conditions, such as climate change. Here, we explore the relative importance of physiological tolerances to heat and species interactions in determining the distribution of insects along two elevational gradients. The gradients contrast in...

Beyond seedlings: ectomycorrhizal fungal networks and growth of mature Pseudotsuga menziesii

Joseph D. Birch, Suzanne Simard, Kevin Beiler & Justine Karst
1. Mycorrhizal networks are conduits for the transfer of resources between hosts. While ectomycorrhizal networks (EMN) are known to influence seedlings, their effect on adult tree growth remains unknown and may have important implications for forest responses to future climates. 2. We used annual basal area increment of trees and previously described Rhizopogon vesiculosus and Rhizopogon vinicolor EMNs to examine an association between the number of connections between trees through an EMN and the growth...

Ancestral reconstruction of sunflower karyotypes reveals non-random chromosomal evolution

Kate Ostevik, Kieran Samuk & Loren Rieseberg
Mapping the chromosomal rearrangements between species can inform our understanding of genome evolution, reproductive isolation, and speciation. Here we present a novel algorithm for identifying regions of synteny in pairs of genetic maps, which is implemented in the accompanying R package, syntR. The syntR algorithm performs as well as previous methods while being systematic and repeatable and can be used to map chromosomal rearrangements in any group of species. In addition, we present a systematic...

Data from: Cooperation can promote rescue or lead to evolutionary suicide during environmental change

Gil Henriques & Matthew Osmond
The adaptation of populations to changing conditions may be affected by interactions between individuals. For example, when cooperative interactions increase fecundity, they may allow populations to maintain high densities and thus keep track of moving environmental optima. Simultaneously, changes in population density alter the marginal benefits of cooperative investments, creating a feedback loop between population dynamics and the evolution of cooperation. Here we model how the evolution of cooperation interacts with adaptation to changing environments....

Insights from Fisher's geometric model on the likelihood of speciation under different histories of environmental change

Ryo Yamaguchi & Sarah P. Otto
All code and simulation data necessary to repeat the analysis described in "Insights from Fisher’s geometric model on the likelihood of speciation under different histories of environmental change."

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Growth, metabolism, anatomy, behaviour, invertebrate drift

Gauthier Monnet
Adaptive trade-offs are fundamental mechanisms underlying phenotypic diversity, but the presence of generalizable patterns in multivariate adaptation and their mapping onto environmental gradients remain unclear. To understand how life-history affects multivariate trait associations, we examined relationships among growth, metabolism, anatomy and behaviour in rainbow trout juveniles from piscivore vs. insectivore ecotypes along an experimental gradient of food availability. We hypothesized that i) selection for larger size in piscivorous adults would select for higher juvenile growth...

Patterns, predictors, and consequence of dominance in hybrids

Kenneth Thompson, Mackenzie Urquhart-Cronish, Kenneth D. Whitney, Loren H. Rieseberg & Dolph Schluter
Compared to those of their parents, are the traits of first-generation (F1) hybrids typically intermediate, biased toward one parent, or mismatched for alternative parental phenotypes? And how does hybrid trait expression affect fitness? To address this empirical gap, we compiled data from 198 studies in which traits were measured in a common environment for two parent taxa and their F1 hybrids. We find that individual traits in F1s are, on average, halfway between the parental...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • University of British Columbia
    76
  • Duke University
    4
  • University of Alberta
    4
  • University of California, Berkeley
    4
  • McGill University
    4
  • Cornell University
    4
  • University of California, Davis
    4
  • University of Georgia
    3
  • University of Bern
    3
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    3