88 Works

Woodpeckers and other excavators maintain the diversity of cavity-nesting vertebrates

M. Kurtis Trzcinski, Kristina Cockle, Andrea Norris, Max Edworthy, Karen Wiebe & Kathy Martin
Woodpeckers and other excavators create most of the holes used by secondary tree-cavity nesting vertebrates (SCNs) in North American temperate mixedwood forests, but the degree to which excavators release SCNs from nest-site limitation is debated. Our goal was to quantify how excavators maintain the diversity and abundance of secondary cavity nesters in a temperate forest through the creation of tree cavities. We examined the short- and long-term (legacy) effects of excavators (principally woodpeckers, but also...

Clinician-researcher’s perspectives on clinical research during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sarah Silverberg, Lisa Puchalski-Ritchie, Nina Gobat, Alistair Nichol & Srinavas Murthy
Objectives: The outcome of well-performed clinical research is essential for evidence-based patient management during pandemics. However, conducting clinical research amidst a pandemic requires researchers to balance clinical and research demands. We seek to understand the values, experiences, and beliefs of physicians working at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in order to inform clinical research planning. We aim to understand whether pandemic settings affect physician comfort with research practices, and how physician experiences shape their...

Analysis of ancestry heterozygosity suggests that hybrid incompatibilities in threespine stickleback are environment-dependent

Ken Thompson, Catherine Peichel, Diana Rennison, Matthew McGee, Arianne Albert, Timothy Vines, Anna Greenwood, Abigail Wark, Yaniv Brandvain, Molly Schumer & Dolph Schluter
Hybrid incompatibilities occur when interactions between opposite-ancestry alleles at different loci reduce the fitness of hybrids. Most work on incompatibilities has focused on those that are 'intrinsic', meaning they affect viability and sterility in the laboratory. Theory predicts that ecological selection can also underlie hybrid incompatibilities, but tests of this hypothesis using sequence data are scarce. In this article, we compiled genetic data for F2 hybrid crosses between divergent populations of threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus...

Economies of scale shape energetics of solitary and group living spiders and their webs

Samantha Straus, Angélica Gonzalez, Philip Matthews & Leticia Avilés
Metabolic scaling, whereby larger individuals use less energy per unit mass than smaller ones, may apply to the combined metabolic rate of group-living organisms as group size increases. Spiders that form groups in high disturbance environments can serve to test the hypothesis that economies of scale benefit social groups. Using solitary and group-living spiders, we tested the hypothesis that spiders exhibit negative allometry between body or colony mass and the standing mass of their webs...

Data and code for: Infected juvenile salmon can experience increased predation during freshwater migration

Nathan Furey, Arthur Bass, Kristi Miller, Shaorong Li, Andrew Lotto, Stephen Healy, S Matthew Drenner & Scott Hinch
This submission constitutes the data and code for the manuscript titled "Infected juvenile salmon can experience increased predation during freshwater migration" submitted by Furey et al. It includes R code for conducting analyses, a custom-built R package (authored by Bass) for conducting analyses, data files, R objects for predicting fish lengths, and sample metadata on juvenile sockeye salmon smolts that were sampled. Please see the file "DryadData_titles_and_captions_RSOS_Furey_et_al" for list of file names included.

Species interactions limit the predictability of community responses to environmental change

Patrick Thompson, Samuel Hürlemann & Florian Altermatt
Predicting how ecological communities respond to environmental change is challenging, but highly relevant in this global change era. Ecologists commonly use current spatial relationships between species and environmental conditions to make predictions about the future. This assumes that species will track conditions by shifting their distributions. However, theory and experimental evidence suggest that species interactions prevent communities from predictably tracking temporal changes in environmental conditions, based on current spatial relationships between species and environmental gradients....

Aquatic biodiversity enhances multiple nutritional benefits to humans

Joey R. Bernhardt & Mary I. O'Connor
Humanity depends on biodiversity for health, well-being and a stable environment. As biodiversity change accelerates, we are still discovering the full range of consequences for human health and well-being. Here, we test the hypothesis -- derived from biodiversity - ecosystem functioning theory -- that species richness and ecological functional diversity allow seafood diets to fulfill multiple nutritional requirements, a condition necessary for human health. We analyzed a newly synthesized dataset of 7245 observations of nutrient...

Adherence to wearing facemasks during the COVID-19 pandemic

Steven Taylor & Gordon Asmundson
This study reports a comprehensive empirical investigation of the nature and correlates of anti-mask attitudes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Accumulating evidence underscores the importance of facemasks, as worn by the general public, in limiting the spread of infection. Accordingly, mask wearing has become increasingly mandatory in public places such as stores and on public transit. Although the public has been generally adherent to mask wearing, a small but vocal group of individuals refuse to wear...

Dark Extinction: Bird dataset

Quentin Cronk
The extinction of species before they are discovered and named (dark extinction) is widely inferred as a significant part of species loss in the early modern period (1500-1800). The discovery of oceanic islands and other pristine habitats by European navigators and the consequent introduction of rodents and herbivores started a process of anthropogenic extinction. Much ecosystem change happened before systematic scientific recording, so has led to dark extinction. Methods are available to robustly estimate dark...

Data for: Nectar-dwelling microbes of common tansy are attractive to its mosquito pollinator, Culex pipiens

Daniel Peach, C. Carroll, S. Meraj, S. Gomes, E. Galloway, A. Balcita, H. Coatsworth, N. Young, Y. Uriel, R. Gries, C. Lowenberger, M. Moore & G. Gries
There is widespread interkingdom signalling between insects and microbes. For example, microbes found in floral nectar may modify its nutritional composition and produce odorants that alter the floral odor bouquet which may attract insect pollinators. Mosquitoes consume nectar and can pollinate flowers. We identified microbes isolated from nectar of common tansy, Tanacetum vulgare , identified the microbial odorants, and tested their effect on attracting the common house mosquito, Culex pipiens . Results We collected 19...

Multispecies modelling reveals potential for habitat restoration to re-establish boreal vertebrate community dynamics

Christopher Beirne, Catherine Sun, Erin Tattersall, Joanna Burgar, Jason Fisher & Cole Burton
1. The restoration of habitats degraded by industrial disturbance is essential for achieving conservation objectives in disturbed landscapes. In boreal ecosystems, disturbances from seismic exploration lines and other linear features have adversely affected biodiversity, most notably leading to declines in threatened woodland caribou. Large-scale restoration of disturbed habitats is needed, yet empirical assessments of restoration effectiveness on wildlife communities remain rare. 2. We used 73 camera trap deployments from 2015-2019 and joint species distribution models...

Response of Avian communities to edges of tropical montane forests: Implications for the future of endemic habitat specialists

Jill Jankowski, Keiller Kyle, Matthew Gasner, Anna Ciecka & Kerry Rabenold
Tropical montane landscapes harbor diverse flora and fauna, and many species there are ecological specialists with narrow elevational distributions, limited geographic ranges, and small global populations. Along elevational gradients, environmental conditions and community composition change dramatically over small spatial scales. As forests are disturbed and edges formed with modified habitat, natural communities could be affected differently across elevations by the many physical and biotic changes at edges. We asked whether forest edges produced altered patterns...

Changes in arthropod community but not plant quality benefit a specialist herbivore on plants under reduced water availability

Po-An Lin, Chia-Ming Liu, Jia-Ang Ou, Cheng-Han Sun, Wen-Po Chuang, Chuan-Kai Ho, Natsuko Kinoshita & Gary Felton
Plants growing under reduced water availability can affect insect herbivores differently, in some instances benefitting them. However, the forces mediating these positive impacts remain mostly unclear. To identify how water availability impacts plant quality and multitrophic interactions, we conducted manipulative field studies with two populations of the specialist herbivore Pieris rapae, and its host plant, Rorippa indica. We found that P. rapae larvae experienced higher survival on R. indica growing under low water availability compared...

Progressive neurochemical abnormalities in cognitive and motor subgroups of ALS: a prospective multicentre study

Daniel Ta, Abdullah Ishaque, Ojas Srivastava, Chris Hanstock, Peter Seres, Dean Eurich, Collin Luk, Hannah Briemberg, Richard Frayne, Angela Genge, Simon Graham, Lawrence Korngut, Lorne Zinman & Sanjay Kalra
Objective: To evaluate progressive cerebral degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by assessing alterations in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) ratios in the motor and prefrontal cortex within clinical subgroups of ALS. Methods: Seventy-six ALS patients and 59 healthy controls were enrolled a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study in the Canadian ALS Neuroimaging Consortium (CALSNIC). Participants underwent serial clinical evaluations and MRS at baseline, 4 and 8 months using a harmonized protocol across 5 centers. NAA ratios were quantified...

Adaptation across geographic ranges is consistent with strong selection in marginal climates and legacies of range expansion

Megan Bontrager, Takuji Usui, Julie Lee-Yaw, Daniel Anstett, Haley Branch, Anna Hargreaves, Christopher Muir & Amy Angert
Every species experiences limits to its geographic distribution. Some evolutionary models predict that populations at range edges are less well-adapted to their local environments due to drift, expansion load, or swamping gene flow from the range interior. Alternatively, populations near range edges might be uniquely adapted to marginal environments. In this study, we use a database of transplant studies that quantify performance at broad geographic scales to test how local adaptation, site quality, and population...

Predators override rainfall effects on tropical food webs

Fabiola Ospina, Diane Srivastava, Angélica González, Jed Sparks & Emilio Realpe
Predators alter ecological communities by inducing changes in prey abundance and phenotypes, including elemental and isotopic composition. Climatic factors are known to often moderate predator effects on prey abundance, but few studies consider the combined effects of climate and predators on prey phenotype. We examined how altered precipitation moderates the effects of predators on the abundance and the chemical composition of prey, as well as the indirect effects on the basal resource: leaf litter coated...

How latex film formation and adhesion at the nanoscale correlate to performance of pressure sensitive adhesives with cellulose nanocrystals

Elina Niinivaara, Alexandra Ouzas, Carole Fraschini, Richard M. Berry, Marc A. Dubé & Emily D. Cranston
Emulsion polymerized latex-based pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are more environmentally benign because they are synthesized in water but often underperform compared to their solution polymerized counterparts. Studies have shown a simultaneous improvement in the tack, and peel and shear strength of various acrylic PSAs upon the addition of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). This work uses atomic force microscopy (AFM) to examine the role of CNCs in (i) the coalescence of hydrophobic 2‐ethyl hexyl acrylate/n‐butyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate...

Argos and GPS data for a polar bear track

Marie Auger-Méthé & Andrew E. Derocher
It is rare to be able to validate state-space models for Argos data. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to do so, because it contains simultaneous Argos and GPS data for a polar bear. The GPS locations are extremely accurate (≤30 m) compared to Argos data, which can have errors as large as 36 km depending on the quality class. The dataset contains one year of movement data, starting on April 20, 2009. The dataset...

Ongoing production of low-fitness hybrids limits range overlap between divergent cryptic species

Else Mikkelsen & Darren Irwin
Contact zones between recently-diverged taxa provide opportunities to examine the causes of reproductive isolation and the processes that determine whether two species can coexist over a broad region. The Pacific Wren (Troglodytes pacificus) and Winter Wren (Troglodytes hiemalis) are two morphologically similar songbirds that started diverging about 4 million years ago, older than most sister species pairs of temperate songbirds. The ranges of these species come into narrow contact in western Canada, where the two...

Data from: Descriptive multi-agent epidemiology via molecular screening on Atlantic salmon farms in the northeast Pacific Ocean

Andrew Bateman, Angela D. Schulze, Karia H. Kaukinen, Amy Tabata, Gideon Mordecai, Kelsey Flynn, Arthur Bass, Emiliano Di Cicco & Kristina M. Miller
Rapid expansion of salmon aquaculture has resulted in high-density populations that host diverse infectious agents, for which surveillance and monitoring are critical to disease management. Screening can reveal infection diversity from which disease arises, differential patterns of infection in live and dead fish that are difficult to collect in wild populations, and potential risks associated with agent transmission between wild and farmed hosts. We report results from a multi-year infectious-agent screening program of farmed salmon...

Data from: Genome-wide analysis reveals demographic and life history patterns associated with habitat modification in land-locked, deep-spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

Farida Samad-Zada, Brett Van Poorten, Shannon Harris, Lyse Godbout & Michael Russello
Human-mediated habitat fragmentation in freshwater ecosystems can negatively impact genetic diversity, demography and life history of native biota, while disrupting the behaviour of species that are dependent on spatial connectivity to complete their life cycles. In the Alouette River system (British Columbia, Canada), dam construction in 1928 impacted passage of anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), with the last records of migrants occurring in the 1930’s. Since that time, O. nerka persisted as a resident population...

Hakai Institute Nutrients (Dosser et al., 2021)

Hayley Dosser, Hayley Dosser, Jennifer Jackson, Wiley Evans, Chris Mackenzie, Brian Hunt, Stephanie Waterman & Charles Hannah
This repository contains the Hakai Institute nutrient dataset for measurements of nitrate+nitrite, silicate, and phosphate concentration used in the publication: Dosser, H. V., Waterman, S., Jackson, J. M., Hannah, C. G., Evans, W., Hunt, B. P. V. (2021). Stark physical and biogeochemical differences and implications for ecosystem stressors in the Northeast Pacific coastal ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126, e2020JC017033. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JC017033. Dissolved nutrient profiles for Nitrate + Nitrite, Phosphate and Silicate collected at Hakai...

Adapting a propane turkey fryer to manipulate temperature in aquatic environments - Thermal manipulation datasets

Cassandra Konecny, Graham Brownlee & Christopher Harley
There is a growing need to better understand the potential impacts of altered thermal regimes on biodiversity and ecosystem function as mean temperatures, and the likelihood of extreme temperatures, continue to increase. One valuable approach to identify mechanisms and pathways of thermally-driven change at the community level is through the manipulation of temperature in the field. However, where methods exist, they are often costly or unable to produce ecologically relevant changes in temperature. Here, we...

Data from: Estimating encounter location distributions from animal tracking data

Michael Noonan, Ricardo Martinez-Garcia, Grace H. Davis, Margaret C. Crofoot, Roland Kays, Ben T. Hirsch, Damien Caillaud, Eric Payne, Andrew Sih, David L. Sinn, Orr Spiegel, William F. Fagan, Christen H. Fleming & Justin M. Calabrese
1. Ecologists have long been interested in linking individual behavior with higher-level processes. For motile species, this 'upscaling' is governed by how well any given movement strategy maximizes encounters with positive factors, and minimizes encounters with negative factors. Despite the importance of encounter events for a broad range of ecological processes, encounter theory has not kept pace with developments in animal tracking or movement modeling. Furthermore, existing work has focused primarily on the relationship between...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of British Columbia
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
  • Simon Fraser University
  • University of Toronto
  • University of Washington
  • University of Minnesota
  • Stanford University
  • The Nature Conservancy
  • University of Alberta
  • Dalhousie University