88 Works

Signatures of mito-nuclear climate adaptation in a warbler species complex

Silu Wang, Madelyn Ore, Else Mikkelsen, Julie Lee-Yaw, Sievert Rohwer & Darren Irwin
Mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (nDNA) genes interact to govern metabolic pathways of mitochondria. When differentiated populations interbreed at secondary contact, incompatibilities between mtDNA of one population and nDNA of the other could result in low fitness of hybrids. Hermit Warblers (S. occidentalis) and Townsend’s Warblers (Setophaga townsendi) exhibit distinct mtDNA haplotypes and a few nDNA regions of high differentiation, whereas coastal S. townsendi displays a mix of these genetic patterns consistent with ancient hybridization of...

Data from: Estimating encounter location distributions from animal tracking data

Michael Noonan, Ricardo Martinez-Garcia, Grace H. Davis, Margaret C. Crofoot, Roland Kays, Ben T. Hirsch, Damien Caillaud, Eric Payne, Andrew Sih, David L. Sinn, Orr Spiegel, William F. Fagan, Christen H. Fleming & Justin M. Calabrese
1. Ecologists have long been interested in linking individual behavior with higher-level processes. For motile species, this 'upscaling' is governed by how well any given movement strategy maximizes encounters with positive factors, and minimizes encounters with negative factors. Despite the importance of encounter events for a broad range of ecological processes, encounter theory has not kept pace with developments in animal tracking or movement modeling. Furthermore, existing work has focused primarily on the relationship between...

Among-individual diet variation within a lake trout ecotype: Lack of stability of niche use

Louise Chavarie
In a polymorphic species, predictable differences in resource use are expected among ecotypes, and homogeneity in resource use is expected within an ecotype. Yet, using a broad resource spectrum has been identified as a strategy for fishes living in unproductive northern environments, where food is patchily distributed and ephemeral. We investigated whether specialization of trophic resources by individuals occurred within the generalist piscivore ecotype of lake trout from Great Bear Lake, Canada, reflective of a...

GARD 1.5 range shapefiles used in: Global diversity patterns are explained by diversification rates at ancient, not shallow, timescales

Uri Roll, Shai Meiri, Maxwell Farrell, Jonathan Davies, John Gittleman, John Wiens & Patrick Stephens
Explaining global species richness patterns is a “Holy Grail” of ecology and evolution. These richness patterns are often attributed to spatial variation in diversification rates (speciation minus extinction). Surprisingly, prominent studies of birds, fish, and angiosperms reported higher diversification rates at higher latitudes (mismatched with richness). Yet these studies only examined diversification rates at relatively recent timescales. Here, we quantify global richness patterns among lizard and snake species (10,213; 94%) and explore their underlying causes....

Analysis Data for \"Identifying and characterizing pesticide use on 9,000 fields of organic agriculture\"

Ashley Larsen, Sofie McComb, Claire Powers & Sofie McComb
We identify the location of ~9,000 organic fields from 2013 — 2019 using field-level crop and pesticide use data, along with state certification data, for Kern County, CA, one of the US’ most valuable crop producing counties. We parse apart how being organic relative to conventional affects decisions to spray pesticides and, if spraying, how much to spray. We show the expected probability of spraying any pesticides is reduced by about 30 percentage points for...

Haploid, diploid, and pooled exome capture recapitulate features of biology and paralogy in two non-model tree species

Brandon Lind, Mengmeng Lu, Dragana Obreht Vidakovic, Pooja Singh, Tom Booker, Sally Aikten & Sam Yeaman
Despite their suitability for studying evolution, many conifer species have large and repetitive giga-genomes (16-31Gbp) that create hurdles to producing high coverage SNP datasets that capture diversity from across the entirety of the genome. Due in part to multiple ancient whole genome duplication events, gene family expansion and subsequent evolution within Pinaceae, false diversity from the misalignment of paralog copies creates further challenges in accurately and reproducibly inferring evolutionary history from sequence data. Here, we...

Adapting a propane turkey fryer to manipulate temperature in aquatic environments - Thermal manipulation datasets

Cassandra Konecny, Graham Brownlee & Christopher Harley
There is a growing need to better understand the potential impacts of altered thermal regimes on biodiversity and ecosystem function as mean temperatures, and the likelihood of extreme temperatures, continue to increase. One valuable approach to identify mechanisms and pathways of thermally-driven change at the community level is through the manipulation of temperature in the field. However, where methods exist, they are often costly or unable to produce ecologically relevant changes in temperature. Here, we...

Data: Avian cultural services peak in tropical wet forests

Alejandra Echeverri, Daniel Karp, Luke Frishkoff, Jaya Krishnan, Robin Naidoo, Jiaying Zhao, Jim Zook & Kai Chan
The current biodiversity crisis involves major shifts in biological communities at local and regional scales. The consequences for Earth’s life-support systems are increasingly well-studied, but knowledge of how community shifts affect cultural services associated with wildlife lags behind. We integrated bird census data (three years across 150 point-count locations) with questionnaire surveys (>400 people) to evaluate changes in culturally important species across climate and land-use gradients in Costa Rica. For farmers, urbanites, and birdwatchers alike,...

Genome-wide shifts in climate-related variation underpin responses to selective breeding in a widespread conifer

Ian MacLachlan, Tegan McDonald, Brandon Lind, Loren Rieseberg, Samuel Yeaman & Sally Aitken
Locally adapted temperate tree populations exhibit genetic trade-offs among climate-related traits that can be exacerbated by selective breeding, and are challenging to manage under climate change. To inform climatically adaptive forest management, we investigated the genetic architecture and impacts of selective breeding on four climate-related traits in 105 natural and 20 selectively bred lodgepole pine populations from western Canada. Growth, cold injury and growth initiation and growth cessation phenotypes were tested for associations with 18,600...

Supplementary material: How should functional relationships be evaluated using phylogenetic comparative methods? A case study using metabolic rate and body temperature

Josef Uyeda, Nic Bone, Sean McHugh, Jonathan Rolland & Matthew Pennell
Phylogenetic comparative methods are often used to test functional relationships between traits. However, million-year macroevolutionary observational datasets cannot definitively prove causal links between traits --- correlation does not equal causation and experimental manipulation over such timescales is impossible. While this caveat is widely understood, it is far less appreciated that different phylogenetic approaches make different causal assumptions about the functional relationships of traits. In order to make meaningful inferences, it is critical that our statistical...

Human-induced reduction in mammalian movements impacts seed dispersal in the tropics

Marlee Tucker, Michela Busana, Mark Huijbregts & Adam Ford
Seed dispersal is a key process affecting the structure, composition and spatial dynamics of plant populations. Numerous plant species in the tropics rely upon animals to disperse their seeds. Humans have altered mammalian movements, which will likely affect seed dispersal distances (SDD). Altered SDD may have a range of consequences for plant communities including reduced seedling recruitment and plant biomass, seed trait homogenization, altered gene flow and a reduced capacity to respond to environmental changes....

Data from: Systematic evaluation of horizontal gene transfer between eukaryotes and viruses

Nicholas Irwin, Alexandros Pittis, Thomas Richards & Patrick Keeling
Gene exchange between viruses and their hosts acts as a key facilitator of horizontal gene transfer and is hypothesized to be a major driver of evolutionary change. Our understanding of this process comes primarily from bacteria and phage co-evolution, but the mode and functional importance of gene transfers between eukaryotes and their viruses remains anecdotal. Here we systematically characterized viral-eukaryotic gene exchange across eukaryotic and viral diversity, identifying thousands of transfers, and revealing their frequency,...

Integrating high-speed videos in capture-mark-recapture studies of insects

Rassim Khelifa
Capture-mark-recapture (CMR) studies have been used extensively in ecology and evolution. While it is feasible to apply CMR in some animals, it is considerably more challenging in small fast-moving species such as insects. In these groups, low recapture rates can bias estimates of demographic parameters, thereby, handicapping effective analysis and management of wild populations. Here we use high-speed videos (HSV) to capture two large dragonfly species, Anax junius and Rhionaeschna multicolor, that rarely land and,...

Stable isotopes unravel the feeding mode-trophic position relationship in trematode parasites

Amandine Sabadel & Colin MacLeod
1. Stable isotopes have been sporadically used over the last two decades to characterise host-parasite trophic relationships. The main reason for this scarcity is the lack of an obvious pattern in the ratio of nitrogen stable isotope values (δ15N) of parasites in comparison to their host tissues, which would be key to understand any host-parasite system dynamics. 2. To circumvent this, we focused on a single snail host, Zeacumantus subcarinatus, and three of its trematode...

Morphologic and metabolic data of Philaenus spumarius froghoppers

Elisabeth Bergman, Emma Green & Philip Matthews
The xylem sap of vascular plants is an unlikely source of nutrition, being both nutrient poor and held under tensions (negative pressures) that can exceed 1 MPa. But some insects feed on xylem sap exclusively, extracting copious quantities using a muscular cibarial pump. However, neither the strength of the insect’s suction, nor the direct energetic cost of xylem ingestion, have ever been quantified. Philaenus spumarius froghoppers were used to address these gaps in our knowledge....

Data from: Evidence for ephemeral ring species formation during the diversification history of Western Fence Lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis)

Nassima Bouzid, James Archie, Roger Anderson, Jared Grummer & Adam Leaché
Divergence is often ephemeral, and populations that diverge in response to regional topographic and climatic factors may not remain reproductively isolated when they come into secondary contact. We investigated the geographic structure and evolutionary history of population divergence within Sceloporus occidentalis (Western Fence Lizards), a habitat generalist with a broad distribution that spans the major biogeographic regions of Western North America. We used double digest RAD sequencing to infer population structure, phylogeny, and demography. Population...

Zostera marina microsatellite and environmental data

Erin Foster, Jane Watson, Matthew Lemay, Tim Tinker, James Estes, Rebecca Piercey, Lauren Henson, Carol Ritland, Allyson Miscampbell, Linda Nichol, Margot Hessing-Lewis, Anne Salomon & Chris Darimont
Microsatellite data for Zostera marina, sea otter occupancy information, and environmental data from the west coast of British Columbia, Canada.

Participatory Mapping Reveals Sociocultural Drivers of Forest Fires in Protected Areas of the Post-Conflict Colombian Amazon

Charles Tebbutt, Tahia Devisscher, Laura Obando-Cabrera, Gustavo Adolfo Gutiérrez García, María Meza Elizalde, Dolors Armenteras & Imma Oliveras
1. Wildfires have increased in protected areas (PAs) of the Colombian Amazon following the 2016 peace agreement between the Government and the Revolutionary Armed Forced of Colombia (FARC – Spanish acronym). Recent study efforts to understand this issue suffer from data scarcity and limited consultation of local stakeholder perspectives on factors affecting wildfires. 2. This study uses a social-ecological systems framework to investigate local perceptions of factors driving and / or preventing wildfires in the...

Data from: Global origins of invasive brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the Haida Gwaii archipelago

Bryson Sjodin, Emily Puckett, Robyn Irvine, Jason Munshi-South & Michael Russello
Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) have commensally spread from northern China and Mongolia to become among the most invasive species on the planet. Understanding the proximate source(s) of invasion can inform biosecurity plans and eradication strategies for preventing or mitigating impacts to native biodiversity. The Haida Gwaii archipelago, located off the coast of British Columbia, Canada, is a significant nesting site for 1.5 million seabirds across 12 species, half of which are now threatened by brown...

Enabling conditions for an equitable and sustainable blue economy

Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor, Marcia Moreno-Baez, Gabriel Reygondeau, William W.L. Cheung, Katherine M. Crosman, Pedro C. Gonzalez-Espinosa, Vicky W.Y. Lam, Muhammed A. Oyinlola, Gerald G. Singh, Wilf Swartz, Yoshitaka Ota & Chong-Wei Zheng
The future of the global ocean economy is currently envisioned as an advancement towards a ‘Blue Economy’—socially equitable, environmentally sustainable, and economically viable ocean industries. However, there are current tensions between development discourses from perspectives of natural capital versus social equity and environmental justice. Here we show there are stark differences in Blue Economy outlooks when social conditions and governance capacity beyond resource availability are considered, and highlight limits to establishing multiple overlapping industries. The...

Methodological approach to generate reflection and reflective notes

Mario Brondani
The objective of this data note is twofold: 1) to illustrate the methodological approach used to generate guided reflections at undergraduate level aided by a patient-based vignette portraying an individual with a history of substance use and mental health disorders; 2) to provide a summary of the raw data set in the form brief educational reflections submitted anonymously by undergraduate dental and dental hygiene students. These reflections were used in our recent publication titled ‘The...

Projected climate risk of aquatic food system benefits

Michelle Tigchelaar, William Cheung, Essam Mohammed, Michael Phillips, Hanna Payne, Elizabeth Selig, Colette Wabnitz, Muhammed Oyinlola, Thomas Frölicher, Jessica Gephart, Christopher Golden, Edward Allison, Abigail Bennett, Ling Cao, Jessica Fanzo, Benjamin Halpern, Fiorenza Micheli, Rosamond Naylor, Rashid Sumaila, Alessandro Tagliabue & Max Troell
Aquatic foods from marine and freshwater systems are critical to the nutrition, health, livelihoods, economies and culture of billions of people worldwide – but climate-related hazards may compromise their ability to provide these benefits. This analysis estimates national-level aquatic food system climate risk using a fuzzy logic modeling approach that connects climate hazards impacting marine and freshwater capture fisheries and aquaculture to their contributions to sustainable food system outcomes, and vulnerability to losing those contributions....

Rapid evolution of life history traits in response to warming, predation and competition: a meta-analysis

Tess Grainger & Jonathan Levine
Although studies quantifying evolutionary change in response to the selective pressures that organisms face in the wild have demonstrated that organisms can evolve rapidly, we lack a systematic assessment of the frequency, magnitude and direction of rapid evolutionary change across taxa. To address this gap, we conducted a meta-analysis of 58 studies that document the effects of warming, predation or competition on the evolution of body size, development rate or fecundity in natural or experimental...

Juvenile Salmon Migration Dynamics in the Discovery Islands and Johnstone Strait; 2015–2017

Brett Johnson, Julian Gan, Carly Janusson & Brian Hunt
In this report, we analyze migration dynamics of sockeye salmon in the Discovery Islands to Johnstone Strait region based on purse seine data collected by the Hakai Institute Juvenile Salmon Program from 2015–2017. The majority of out-migrating juvenile Fraser River salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) pass northwest through the Strait of Georgia, the Discovery Islands, and Johnstone Strait. The Discovery Islands to Johnstone Strait leg of the migration is a region of poor survival for sockeye salmon...

Predation shapes behavioral lateralization: insights from an adaptive radiation of livebearing fish

Kaj Hulthén, Heinen-Kay Justa Lee, Danielle Schmidt & R. Brian Langerhans
Hemispheric brain lateralization can drive the expression of behavioral asymmetry, or laterality, which varies notably both within and among species. To explain these left–right behavioral asymmetries in animals, predator-mediated selection is often invoked. Recent studies have revealed that a relatively high degree of lateralization correlates positively with traits known to confer survival benefits against predators, including escape performance, multitasking abilities, and group coordination. Yet, we still know comparatively little about 1) how consistently predators shape...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of British Columbia
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
  • Simon Fraser University
  • University of Toronto
  • University of Washington
  • University of Minnesota
  • Stanford University
  • The Nature Conservancy
  • University of Alberta
  • Dalhousie University