88 Works

Parental population range expansion before secondary contact promotes heterosis

Ailene MacPherson, Silu Wang, Ryo Yamaguchi, Loren Rieseberg & Sarah Otto
Population genomic analysis of hybrid zones is instrumental to our understanding of the evolution of reproductive isolation. Many temperate hybrid zones are formed by the secondary contact between two parental populations that have undergone post-glacial range expansion. Here we show that explicitly accounting for historical parental isolation followed by range expansion prior to secondary contact is fundamental for explaining genetic and fitness patterns in these hybrid zones. Specifically, ancestral population expansion can result in allele...

Ant predation towards termite and treehopper baits in the Ecuadorian Amazon

Luis Camacho
Animals may develop mutualistic associations with other species, whereby prey offer resources or services in exchange for protection from predators. Alternatively, prey may offer resources or services directly to their would-be predators in exchange for their lives. The latter may be the case of hemipterans that engage in mutualistic interactions with ants by offering a honeydew reward. We test the extent to which a honeydew offering vs. partner recognition may play a role as proximate...

Predicting how climate change threatens the prey base of Arctic marine predators

Katie Florko, Travis Tai, William Cheung, Steve Ferguson, U. Rashid Sumaila, David Yurkowski & Marie Auger-Méthé
Arctic sea ice loss has direct consequences for predators. Climate-driven distribution shifts of native and invasive prey species may exacerbate these consequences. We assessed potential changes by modelling the prey base of a widely distributed Arctic predator (ringed seal; Pusa hispida) in a sentinel area for change (Hudson Bay) under high- and low-greenhouse gas emissions scenarios from 1950 to 2100. All changes were relatively negligible under the low-emission scenario, but under the high-emission scenario, we...

Data from: The ecology of spider sociality – A spatial model

Zsóka Vásárhelyi, István Scheuring & Leticia Avilés
The emergence of animal societies offers unsolved problems for both evolutionary and ecological studies. Social spiders are specially well suited to address this problem given their multiple independent origins and distinct geographical distribution. Based on long term research on the spider genus Anelosimus, we developed a spatial model that recreates observed macroecological patterns in the distribution of social and subsocial spiders. We show that parallel gradients of increasing insect size and disturbance (rain, predation) with...

Data for: Are immigrants outbred and unrelated? Testing standard assumptions in a wild metapopulation

Lisa Dickel, Peter Arcese, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Lukas Keller & Jane Reid
Immigration into small recipient populations is expected to alleviate inbreeding and increase genetic variation, and hence facilitate population persistence through genetic and/or evolutionary rescue. Such expectations depend on three standard assumptions: that immigrants are outbred, unrelated to existing natives at arrival, and unrelated to each other. These assumptions are rarely explicitly verified, including in key field systems in evolutionary ecology. Yet, they could be violated due to non-random or repeated immigration from adjacent small populations....

Data from: Genome-wide investigation of the multiple origins hypothesis for deep-spawning kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) across its pan-Pacific distribution

Farida Samad-Zada, Kouji Nakayama & Michael Russello
Salmonids have emerged as important study systems for investigating molecular processes underlying parallel evolution given their tremendous life history variation. Kokanee, the resident form of anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), have evolved multiple times across the species’ pan-Pacific distribution, exhibiting multiple reproductive ecotypes including those that spawn in streams, on lake-shores, and at lake depths >50 meters. The latter has only been detected in five locations in Japan and British Columbia, Canada. Here, we investigated...

Adaptive divergence and the evolution of hybrid trait mismatch in threespine stickleback

Ken Thompson, Avneet Chhina & Dolph Schluter
Selection against mismatched traits in hybrids is the phenotypic analogue of intrinsic hybrid incompatibilities. Mismatch occurs when hybrids resemble one parent population for some phenotypic traits and the other parent population for other traits, and is caused by dominance in opposing directions or from segregation of alleles in recombinant hybrids. In this study, we used threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) to test the theoretical prediction that trait mismatch in hybrids should increase with the...

Data from: Examining the dynamics of Epstein-Barr virus shedding in the tonsils and the impact of HIV-1 coinfection on daily saliva viral loads

Catherine Byrne, Christine Johnston, Jackson Orem, Fred Okuku, Meei-Li Huang, Habibur Rahman, Anna Wald, Lawrence Corey, Joshua Schiffer, Corey Casper, Daniel Coombs & Soren Gantt
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is transmitted by saliva and is a major cause of cancer, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS. Here, we describe the frequency and quantity of EBV detection in the saliva of Ugandan adults with and without HIV-1 infection and use these data to develop a novel mathematical model of EBV infection in the tonsils. Eligible cohort participants were not taking antiviral medications, and those with HIV-1 infection had a CD4 count >200...

Type 1 diabetes adolescent transition study

Joseph Leung
Objectives: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes experience dramatic excursions in blood sugars as they transition to adult care. Trials on single interventions have struggled to demonstrate lasting improvements in clinical outcomes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multi-component intervention on glycemic control, clinic attendance, and diabetes distress amongst adolescents with type 1 diabetes transitioning to adult health services. Design: Prospective controlled quasi-experimental study. Setting: Adolescents with type 1...

Soil biogeochemistry across Central and South American tropical dry forests

Bonnie Waring, Mark De Guzman, Dan Du, Juan Dupuy, Maga Gei, Jessica Gutknecht, Catherine Hulshof, Nicolas Jelinski, Andrew Margenot, David Medvigy, Camila Pizano, Beatriz Salgado-Negret, Naomi Schwartz, Annette Trierweiler, Skip Van Bloem, German Vargas G & Jennifer Powers
The availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) controls the flow of carbon (C) among plants, soils, and the atmosphere, thereby shaping terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change. Soil C, N, and P cycles are linked by drivers operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales: landscape-level variation in macroclimate, seasonality, and soil geochemistry; stand-scale heterogeneity in forest composition and structure; and microbial community dynamics at the soil pore scale. Yet in many biomes, we do...

Growth genes are implicated in the evolutionary divergence of sympatric piscivorous and insectivorous rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Jared Grummer, Michael Whitlock, Patricia Schulte & Eric Taylor
Identifying ecologically significant phenotypic traits and the genomic mechanisms that underly them are crucial steps in understanding the traits associated with population divergence. We used genome-wide data to identify genomic regions associated with a key trait that distinguishes two ecotypes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) – insectivores and piscivores – that coexist in Kootenay Lake, southeastern British Columbia, for the non-breeding portion of the year. "Gerrards" are large-bodied (breeding maturity at >60cm) piscivores that spawn...

Protecting the global ocean for biodiversity, food and climate

Enric Sala, Juan Mayorga, Darcy Bradley, Reniel Cabral, Trisha Atwood, Arnaud Auber, William Cheung, Francesco Ferretti, Alan Friedlander, Steven Gaines, Cristina Garilao, Whitney Goodell, Benjamin Halpern, Audra Hinson, Kristin Kaschner, Kathleen Kesner-Reyes, Fabien Leprieur, Jennifer McGowan, Lance Morgan, David Mouillot, Juliano Palacios-Abrantes, Hugh Possingham, Kristin Rechberger, Boris Worm & Jane Lubchenco
The ocean contains unique biodiversity, provides valuable food resources, and is a major sink for anthropogenic carbon. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an effective tool for restoring ocean biodiversity and ecosystem services but at present only 2.7% of the ocean is highly protected. This low level of ocean protection is due largely to conflicts with fisheries and other extractive uses. To address this issue, here we developed a conservation planning framework to prioritize highly protected...

Sequence alignments of Corallicolids, apicomplexan symbionts of coral

Waldan Kwong
Corals (Metazoa; Cnidaria; Anthozoa) have recently been shown to play host to a widespread and diverse group of intracellular symbionts of the phylum Apicomplexa. These symbionts, colloquially called ‘corallicolids’, are mostly known through molecular analyses, and no formal taxonomy has been proposed. Another apicomplexan, Gemmocystis cylindrus (described from the coral Dendrogyra cylindrus), may be related to corallicolids, but lacks molecular data. Here, we isolate and describe motile trophozoite (feeding) corallicolids cells using microscopic (light, SEM,...

Season, anthocyanin supplementation, and flight training have mixed effects on the antioxidant system of migratory European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

Abigail Frawley, Kristen J. DeMoranville, Katherine M. Carbeck, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryła, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger, Barbara J. Pierce & Scott McWilliams
Migratory birds engage in two periods of endurance flight annually as they travel between summer breeding and overwintering grounds, and such endurance flights likely incur oxidative costs. These costs may differ between fall and spring migration, especially for females who must prepare for breeding and egg laying in spring. The objective of this study of a migratory bird was to test proposed hypotheses about how key components of the female’s antioxidant system differ in response...

Capture-mark-recapture of Calopteryx exul in 2011

Rassim Khelifa
While climate change severely affects some aquatic ecosystems, it may also interact with anthropogenic factors and exacerbate their impact. In dry climates, dams can cause hydrological drought during dry periods following a great reduction in dam water discharge. However, impact of these severe hydrological droughts on lotic fauna is poorly documented, despite climate change expected to increase drought duration and intensity. We document here how dam water discharge was affected by climate variability during 2011–2018...

Hybridization and the coexistence of species: HZAM-Sym code and data files

Darren Irwin & Dolph Schluter
It is thought that two species can coexist if they use different resources present in the environment, yet this assumes that species are completely reproductively isolated. We model coexistence outcomes for two sympatric species that are ecologically differentiated but have incomplete reproductive isolation. The consequences of interbreeding depend crucially on hybrid fitness. When hybrid fitness is high, just a small rate of hybridization can lead to collapse of two species into one. Low hybrid fitness...

Flight training and dietary antioxidants have mixed effects on the oxidative status of multiple tissues in a female migratory songbird

Abigail Frawley, Kristen DeMoranville, Katherine Carbeck, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryła, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger, Barbara Pierce & Scott McWilliams
Birds, like other vertebrates, rely on a robust antioxidant system to protect themselves against oxidative imbalance caused by energy-intensive activities such as flying. Such oxidative challenges may be especially acute for females during spring migration, since they must pay the oxidative costs of flight while preparing for reproduction; however, little previous work has examined how the antioxidant system of female spring migrants responds to dietary antioxidants and the oxidative challenges of regular flying. We fed...

Food availability and long-term predation risk interactively affect antipredator response

Shotaro Shiratsuru, Yasmine Majchrzak, Michael Peers, Emily Studd, Allyson Menzies, Rachael Derbyshire, Murray Humphries, Charles Krebs, Dennis Murray & Stan Boutin
Food availability and temporal variation in predation risk are both important determinants of the magnitude of antipredator responses, but their effects have rarely been examined simultaneously, particularly in wild prey. Here, we determine how food availability and long-term predation risk affect antipredator responses to acute predation risk by monitoring the foraging response of free-ranging snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) to an encounter with a Canada lynx Lynx canadensis) in Yukon, Canada, over 4 winters (from 2015-2016...

Spinning in the rain: interactions between spider web morphology and microhabitat use

Andrea M. Haberkern, Philippe Fernandez-Fournier & Leticia Avilés
Although the effects of abiotic factors on species distributions and habitat selection have been widely investigated, studies have rarely succeeded at identifying the factors behind selection at the microhabitat level. Spider webs are extended phenotypes expected to be subject to fitness trade-offs. We tested the hypothesis that spiders with three-dimensional webs (tangle and sheet-and-tangle), which require more material to be built than two-dimensional orbicular webs, occupy microhabitats where they are better protected from strong rains....

Combining point counts and autonomous recording units improves avian survey efficacy across elevational gradients on two continents

Anna Drake, Devin R. De Zwaan, Tomás A. Altamirano, Scott Wilson, Kristina Hick, Camila Bravo, José Tomás Ibarra & Kathy Martin
Accurate biodiversity and population monitoring is a requirement for effective conservation decision-making. Survey method bias is therefore a concern, particularly when research programs face logistical and cost limitations. We employed point counts (PCs) and autonomous recording units (ARUs) to survey avian biodiversity within comparable, high elevation, temperate mountain habitats at opposite ends of the Americas: 9 mountains in British Columbia (BC), Canada and 10 in southern Chile. We compared detected species richness against multi-year species...

Climate change exacerbates nutrient disparities from seafood

William Cheung, Eva Maire, Muhammed Oyinlola, James Robinson, Nicholas Graham, Aaron MacNeil & Christina Hicks
Seafood is an important source of bioavailable micronutrients supporting human health, yet it is unclear how climate change will influence its availability. Here, combining observational databases and predictive models, we assess nutrient availability from fisheries and mariculture in the past, and project their future under climate change. Since the 1990s, availability of iron, calcium, omega-3 and protein from seafood has declined, with increasing contributions of invertebrates and mariculture failing to compensate for these loses. Nutrient...

Data from: Phylogenetic history of vascular plant metabolism revealed using a macroevolutionary common garden

Barbara Neto-Bradley, Christopher Muir, Jeannette Whitton & Matthew Pennell
While the fundamental biophysics of C3 photosynthesis is highly conserved across plants, substantial variation in leaf structure and enzymatic activity translates into variability in rates of photosynthesis. Although this variation is well-documented, it remains poorly understood how photosynthetic rates evolve over short and long time scales, and whether these macroevolutionary changes are related to the evolution of key morphological and biochemical leaf traits. Large-scale comparative studies have been hampered by the substantial logistical and statistical...

Disease-driven mass mortality event leads to widespread extirpation and variable recovery potential of a marine predator across the eastern Pacific

Sara Hamilton, Vienna Saccomanno, Walter Heady, Alyssa-Lois Gehman, Steve Lonhart, Rodrigo Beas-Luna, Fiona Francis, Lynn Lee, Laura Rogers-Bennett, Anne Salomon & Sarah Gravem
The prevalence of disease-driven mass mortality events is increasing, but our understanding of spatial variation in their magnitude, timing, and triggers are often poorly resolved. Here, we use a novel range-wide dataset comprised of 48,810 surveys to quantify how Sea Star Wasting Disease affected Pycnopodia helianthoides, the sunflower sea star, across its range from Baja California, Mexico to the Aleutian Islands, USA. We found that the outbreak occurred more rapidly, killed a greater percentage of...

Beyond leaf habit: generalities in plant function across 97 tropical dry forest tree species

German Vargas G., Tim J. Brodribb, Juan M. Dupuy, Roy González‐M., Catherine M. Hulshof, David Medvigy, Tristan A. P. Allerton, Camila Pizano, Beatriz Salgado‐Negret, Naomi B. Schwartz, Skip J. Van Bloem, Bonnie G. Waring & Jennifer S. Powers
Leaf habit has been hypothesized to define a linkage between the slow-fast plant economic spectrum and the drought resistance-avoidance trade-off in tropical forests (‘slow-safe versus fast-risky’). However, variation in hydraulic traits as a function of leaf habit has rarely been explored for a large number of species. We sampled leaf and branch functional traits of 97 tropical dry forest tree species from four sites to investigate whether patterns of trait variation varied consistently in relation...

Incomplete reproductive isolation and strong transcriptomic signature of hybridization between sympatric sister species of salmon

Jessica McKenzie
Global change is altering ecosystems at an unprecedented rate. The resulting shifts in species ranges and reproductive timing are opening the potential for hybridization between closely-related species which could dramatically alter the genetic diversity, adaptive capacity, and evolutionary trajectory of interbreeding taxa. Here, we used behavioural breeding experiments, in vitro fertilization experiments, and whole-transcriptome gene expression data to assess the potential for and consequences of hybridization between Chinook and Coho salmon. We show that behavioural...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of British Columbia
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
  • Simon Fraser University
  • University of Toronto
  • University of Washington
  • University of Minnesota
  • Stanford University
  • The Nature Conservancy
  • University of Alberta
  • Dalhousie University