331 Works

Data from: A century of sprawl in the United States

Christopher Barrington-Leigh & Adam Millard-Ball
The urban street network is one of the most permanent features of cities. Once laid down, the pattern of streets determines urban form and the level of sprawl for decades to come. We present a high-resolution time series of urban sprawl, as measured through street network connectivity, in the United States from 1920 to 2012. Sprawl started well before private car ownership was dominant and grew steadily until the mid-1990s. Over the last two decades,...

Data from: Range and niche shifts in response to past climate change in the desert horned lizard (Phrynosoma platyrhinos)

Tereza Jezkova, Jef Jaeger, Viktoria Oláh-Hemmings, K. Bruce Jones, Rafael A. Lara-Resendiz, Daniel G. Mulcahy, Brett R. Riddle & Jef R. Jaeger
During climate change, species are often assumed to shift their geographic distributions (geographic ranges) in order to track environmental conditions – niches – to which they are adapted. Recent work, however, suggests that the niches do not always remain conserved during climate change but shift instead, allowing populations to persist in place or expand into new areas. We assessed the extent of range and niche shifts in response to the warming climate after the Last...

Data from: Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities

Ingrid M. Parker, Megan Saunders, Megan Bontrager, Andrew P. Weitz, Rebecca Hendricks, Roger Magarey, Karl Suiter & Gregory S. Gilbert
Pathogens play an important part in shaping the structure and dynamics of natural communities, because species are not affected by them equally. A shared goal of ecology and epidemiology is to predict when a species is most vulnerable to disease. A leading hypothesis asserts that the impact of disease should increase with host abundance, producing a ‘rare-species advantage. However, the impact of a pathogen may be decoupled from host abundance, because most pathogens infect more...

Data from: Host and pathogen ecology drive the seasonal dynamics of a fungal disease, white-nose syndrome

Kate E. Langwig, Winifred F. Frick, Rick Reynolds, Katy L. Parise, Kevin P. Drees, Joseph R. Hoyt, Tina L. Cheng, Thomas H. Kunz, Jeffrey T. Foster & A. Marm Kilpatrick
Seasonal patterns in pathogen transmission can influence the impact of disease on populations and the speed of spatial spread. Increases in host contact rates or births drive seasonal epidemics in some systems, but other factors may occasionally override these influences. White-nose syndrome, caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is spreading across North America and threatens several bat species with extinction. We examined patterns and drivers of seasonal transmission of P. destructans by measuring...

Data from: Human disturbance causes the formation of a hybrid swarm between two naturally sympatric fish species

Daniel J. Hasselman, Emily E. Argo, Meghan C. McBride, Paul Bentzen, Thomas F. Schultz, Anna A. Perez-Umphrey & Eric P. Palkovacs
Most evidence for hybrid swarm formation stemming from anthropogenic habitat disturbance comes from the breakdown of reproductive isolation between incipient species, or introgression between allopatric species following secondary contact. Human impacts on hybridization between divergent species that naturally occur in sympatry has received considerably less attention. Theory predicts that reinforcement should act to preserve reproductive isolation under such circumstances, potentially making reproductive barriers resistant to human habitat alteration. Using 15 microsatellites we examined hybridization between...

Data from: The anti-predator role of within-nest emergence synchrony in sea turtle hatchlings

Robson G. Santos, Hudson Tercio Pinheiro, Agnaldo Silva Martins, Pablo Riul, Soraya Christina Bruno, Fredric J. Janzen & Christos C. Ioannou
Group formation is a common behaviour among prey species. In egg-laying animals, despite the various factors that promote intra-clutch variation leading to asynchronous hatching and emergence from nests, synchronous hatching and emergence occurs in many taxa. This synchrony may be adaptive by reducing predation risk, but few data are available in any natural system, even for iconic examples of the anti-predator function of group formation. Here, we show for the first time that increased group...

Data from: Ocean acidification affects fish spawning but not paternity at CO2 seeps

Marco Milazzo, Carlo Cattano, Suzanne H. Alonzo, Andrew Foggo, Michele Gristina, Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa, Mauro Sinopoli, Davide Spatafora, Kelly A. Stiver & Jason M. Hall-Spencer
Fish exhibit impaired sensory function and altered behaviour at levels of ocean acidification expected to occur owing to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions during this century. We provide the first evidence of the effects of ocean acidification on reproductive behaviour of fish in the wild. Satellite and sneaker male ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus) compete to fertilize eggs guarded by dominant nesting males. Key mating behaviours such as dominant male courtship and nest defence did not differ...

Data from: Genetic stock composition of marine bycatch reveals disproportional impacts on depleted river herring genetic stocks

Daniel J. Hasselman, Eric C. Anderson, Emily E. Argo, N. David Bethoney, Stephen R. Gephard, David M. Post, Bradley P. Schondelmeier, Thomas F. Schultz, Theodore V. Willis & Eric P. Palkovacs
Bycatch of mid-trophic level anadromous fishes that connect marine and freshwater ecosystems is a growing conservation concern. Anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (A. aestivalis) are important components of coastal freshwater and marine food webs, but have experienced dramatic declines in the abundances of spawning adults. Freshwater-focused restoration efforts have yielded few consistent signs of recovery; raising concerns that bycatch in Northwest Atlantic commercial fisheries may be negating these conservation actions. Using data from...

Data from: Algal toxin impairs sea lion memory and hippocampal connectivity, with implications for strandings

Peter F. Cook, Colleen Reichmuth, Andrew A. Rouse, Laura A. Libby, Sophie E. Dennison, Owen T. Carmichael, Kris T. Kruse-Elliott, Josh Bloom, Baljeet Singh, Vanessa A. Fravel, Lorraine Barbosa, Jim J. Stuppino, William G. Van Bonn, Frances M. D. Gulland & Charan Ranganath
Domoic acid (DA) is a naturally occurring neurotoxin known to harm marine animals. DA-producing algal blooms are increasing in size and frequency. Although chronic exposure is known to produce brain lesions, the influence of DA toxicosis on behavior in wild animals is unknown. We showed, in a large sample of wild sea lions, that spatial memory deficits are predicted by the extent of right dorsal hippocampal lesions related to natural exposure to DA and that...

Data from: Biting disrupts integration to spur skull evolution in eels

David C. Collar, Peter C. Wainwright, Michael E. Alfaro, Liam J. Revell & Rita S. Mehta
The demand that anatomical structures work together to perform biological functions is thought to impose strong limits on morphological evolution. Breakthroughs in diversification can occur, however, when functional integration among structures is relaxed. Although such transitions are expected to generate variation in morphological diversification across the tree of life, empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. Here we show that transitions between suction-based and biting modes of prey capture, which require different degrees of coordination...

Data from: Sex ratio variation shapes the ecological effects of a globally introduced freshwater fish

David C. Fryxell, Heather A. Arnett, Travis M. Apgar, Michael T. Kinnison & Eric P. Palkovacs
Sex ratio and sexual dimorphism have long been of interest in population and evolutionary ecology, but consequences for communities and ecosystems remain untested. Sex ratio could influence ecological conditions whenever sexual dimorphism is associated with ecological dimorphism in species with strong ecological interactions. We tested for ecological implications of sex ratio variation in the sexually dimorphic western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. This species causes strong pelagic trophic cascades and exhibits substantial variation in adult sex ratios....

Data from: Historical environment is reflected in modern population genetics and biogeography of an island endemic lizard (Xantusia riversiana reticulata)

Iris A. Holmes, William J. Mautz & Alison R. Davis Rabosky
The restricted distribution and isolation of island endemics often produces unique genetic and phenotypic diversity of conservation interest to management agencies. However, these isolated species, especially those with sensitive life history traits, are at high risk for the adverse effects of genetic drift and habitat degradation by non-native wildlife. Here, we study the population genetic diversity, structure, and stability of a classic “island giant” (Xantusia riversiana, the Island Night Lizard) on San Clemente Island, California...

Data from: Resistance in persisting bat populations after white-nose syndrome invasion

Kate E. Langwig, Joseph R. Hoyt, Katy L. Parise, Winifred F. Frick, Jeffrey T. Foster & A. Marm Kilpatrick
Increases in anthropogenic movement have led to a rise in pathogen introductions and the emergence of infectious diseases in naive host communities worldwide. We combined empirical data and mathematical models to examine changes in disease dynamics in little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) populations following the introduction of the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which causes the disease white-nose syndrome. We found that infection intensity was much lower in persisting populations than in declining populations where...

Pinniped censuses at Año Nuevo, California, 1967-2017

Richard Condit, Patricia Morris & Burney Le Boeuf
Regular pinniped censuses at Año Nuevo Island, California, were initiated by our research group in 1967 to support studies of reproductive behavior of male elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris. Research on elephant seals at the colony has continued since, expanding to cover female behavior, reproductive success, physiology and energetics, migrations and foraging, and more. The other species of pinnipeds, Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubata), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), have been...

Data from: The ecological importance of intraspecific variation

Simone Des Roches, David M. Post, Nash E. Turley, Joseph K. Bailey, Andrew P. Hendry, Michael T. Kinnison, Jennifer A. Schweitzer & Eric P. Palkovacs
Human activity is causing wild populations to experience rapid trait change and local extirpation. The resulting effects on intraspecific variation could have substantial consequences for ecological processes and ecosystem services. Although researchers have long acknowledged that variation among species influences the surrounding environment, only recently has evidence accumulated for the ecological importance of variation within species. We conducted a meta-analysis comparing the ecological effects of variation within a species (intraspecific effects) with the effects of...

Data from: Paradoxical escape responses by narwhals (Monodon monoceros)

Terrie M. Williams, Susanna B. Blackwell, Beau Richter, Mikkel-Holger S. Sinding & Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Until recent declines in Arctic sea ice levels, narwhals (Monodon monoceros) have lived in relative isolation from human perturbation and sustained predation pressures. The resulting naïvety has made this cryptic, deep-diving cetacean highly susceptible to disturbance, although quantifiable effects have been lacking. We deployed a submersible, animal-borne electrocardiograph-accelerometer-depth recorder to monitor physiological and behavioral responses of East Greenland narwhals after release from net entanglement and stranding. Escaping narwhals displayed a paradoxical cardiovascular down-regulation (extreme bradycardia...

Data from: Residential development alters behavior, movement, and energetics in an apex predator, the puma

Yiwei Wang, Justine A. Smith & Christopher C. Wilmers
Human development strongly influences large carnivore survival and persistence globally. Behavior changes are often the first measureable responses to human disturbances, and can have ramifications on animal populations and ecological communities. We investigated how a large carnivore responds to anthropogenic disturbances by measuring activity, movement behavior, and energetics in pumas along a housing density gradient. We used log-linear analyses to examine how habitat, time of day, and proximity to housing influenced the activity patterns of...

JAVA software for operating Alvin/Jason Heat Flow Probe

Andrew Fisher, Brecky Morris & Tess Weathers
The Alvin/Jason heat flow probe is operated from a PC (Windows or Mac) using a Java-based program that has a GUI for interaction with probe electronics. This software replaces C-based program that was delivered with the tools in 1996, communicating with the probe using a low-level command language, and allowing the user to monitor system performance during measurement. As described in this document, the system can be tested on the bench before deployment to assure...

Data from: Evaluating the potential for pre-zygotic isolation and hybridization between landlocked and anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) following secondary contact

Katherine A. Littrell, David Ellis, Stephen R. Gephard, Andrew D. MacDonald, Eric P. Palkovacs, Katherine Scranton & David M. Post
The recent increase of river restoration projects is altering habitat connectivity for many aquatic species, increasing the chance that previously isolated populations will come into secondary contact. Anadromous and landlocked alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) are currently undergoing secondary contact as a result of a fishway installation at Rogers Lake in Old Lyme, Connecticut. To determine the degree of pre-zygotic isolation and potential for hybridization between alewife life history forms, we constructed spawning time distributions for two...

Data from: Reduction of baseline corticosterone secretion correlates with climate warming and drying across wild lizard populations

Andréaz Dupoué, Alexis Rutschmann, Jean F. Le Galliard, Jean Clobert, Pauline Blaimont, Barry Sinervo, Donald B. Miles, Claudy Haussy & Sandrine Meylan
1. Climate change should lead to massive loss of biodiversity in most taxa but the detailed physiological mechanisms underlying population extinction remain largely elusive so far. In vertebrates, baseline levels of hormones such as glucocorticoids (GCs) may be indicators of population state since their secretion to chronic stress can impair survival and reproduction. However, the relationship between GC secretion, climate change and population extinction risk remains unclear. 2. In this study we investigated whether levels...

A sample of Saturn interior density profiles derived with MCMC and gravity-based likelihood.

Naor Movshovitz, Jonathan Fortney, Chris Mankovich, Daniel Thorngren & Ravit Helled
We ran a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to derive the posterior distribution of density profiles for Saturn, where the likelihood function was a chi-squared distributed distance of each curve's gravity coefficients from the values reported for that planet by the Cassini radio science team (Iess et al., 2019). The result is a large sample of interior profiles of Saturn consistent with observation and minimally constrained by model assumptions. This sample is archived here in sufficiently...

Census data from 65 tree plots in Panama, 1994-2015

Richard Condit, Rolando Pérez, Salomón Aguilar & Suzanne Lao
These are data from 65 tree plots in Panama established over 1994-2014; 43 of the plots have been recensused, while 22 plots have just a single census. Details of census methods are described in Condit (1998) and Condit et al. (2013). The 65 plots here are mostly 1 ha in area, though several are 0.32 ha, one is 4 ha, and one is 6 ha. Those two larger censuses are the Sherman and Cocoli plots...

Data from: Dispersal of a near-shore marine fish connects marine reserves and adjacent fished areas along an open coast

Diana Baetscher, Eric Anderson, Elizabeth Gilbert-Horvath, Daniel Malone, Emily Saarman, Mark Carr & John Garza
Marine species with pelagic larvae typically exhibit little population structure, suggesting long distance dispersal and high gene flow. Directly quantifying dispersal of marine fishes is challenging but important, particularly for design of marine protected areas (MPAs). Here, we studied kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens) sampled along ~25 km of coastline in a boundary current-driven ecosystem and used genetic parentage analysis to identify dispersal events and characterize them, since the distance between sedentary parents and their settled...

Data from: Evolutionary shifts in mustelid (Mustelidae: Carnivora) cranial shape, body size, and body shape coincides with the Mid-Miocene Climate Transition

Chris Law
Environmental changes can lead to evolutionary shifts in phenotypic traits, which in turn facilitate exploitation of novel adaptive landscapes and lineage diversification. The global cooling, increased aridity, and expansion of open grasslands during the past 50 million years are prime examples of new adaptive landscapes that spurred lineage and ecomorphological diversity of several mammalian lineages such as rodents and large herbivorous megafauna. However, whether these environmental changes facilitated evolutionary shifts in small to mid-sized predator...

The promise and the perils of resurveying to understand global change impacts

Katharine Stuble, Sharon Bewick, Mark Fisher, Matthew Forister, Susan Harrison, Arthur Shapiro, Andrew Latimer & Laurel Fox
Historical datasets can be useful tools to aid in understanding the impacts of global change on natural ecosystems. Resampling of historically sampled sites (“snapshot resampling”) has often been used to detect long-term shifts in ecological populations and communities, because it allows researchers to avoid long-term monitoring costs and investigate a large number of potential trends. But recent simulation-based research has called the reliability of resampling into question, and its utility has not been comprehensively evaluated....

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