295 Works

A comparative study between outcomes of an in-person vs. online introductory field course

Alexandra Race, Maria De Jesus, Roxanne Beltran & Erika Zavaleta
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many standard approaches to STEM education. Particularly impacted were field courses, which rely on specific natural spaces often accessed through shared vehicles. As in-person field courses have been found to be particularly impactful for undergraduate student success in the sciences, we aimed to compare and understand what factors may have been lost or gained during the conversion of an introductory field course to an online format. Using a mixed methods...

Effects of insect herbivory on seedling mortality in restored and remnant tropical forest

Andy J. Kulikowski, Rakan A. Zahawi & Karen D. Holl
Insect herbivory is one of the major drivers of seedling mortality in the tropics and influences plant abundances and community composition. Anthropogenic disturbance can alter patterns of insect herbivory with potential consequences on plant communities in restored forests. We planted seedlings of early- and later-stage successional tree species in 13–15-year-old restored and remnant tropical forests. We then either excluded insect herbivores or left seedlings exposed to examine how insect herbivory-affected seedling mortality. Early-successional seedlings experienced...

Vocal behavior in spotted seals (Phoca largha) and implications for passive acoustic monitoring

Jillian Sills & Colleen Reichmuth
Passive acoustic methods enable remote monitoring of marine species and habitats. These methods can be applied to investigate distribution and abundance of populations, to evaluate behavioral and physiological states of individuals, and to inform management efforts for animals that live in hard-to-reach places. Spotted seals (Phoca largha) inhabit high-latitude, light-limited sub-Arctic and Arctic waters and move seasonally with unstable sea ice. They are high trophic level predators vulnerable to changing conditions associated with environmental warming....

Genomic basis for skin phenotype and cold adaptation in the extinct Steller's sea cow

Diana Le Duc, Akhil Velluva, Molly Cassatt-Johnstone, Remi-Andre Olsen, Sina Baleka, Chen-Ching Lin, Johannes R. Lemke, John R. Southon, Alexander Burdin, Ming-Shan Wang, Sonja Grunewald, Wilfried Rosendahl, Ulrich Joger, Sereina Rutschmann, Thomas B. Hildebrandt, Guido Fritsch, James A. Estes, Janet Kelso, Love Dalén, Michael Hofreiter, Beth Shapiro & Torsten Schöneberg
Steller’s sea cow, an extinct sirenian and one of the largest Quaternary mammals, was described by Georg Steller in 1741 and eradicated by humans within 27 years. Here, we complement Steller’s descriptions with paleogenomic data from 12 individuals. We identified convergent evolution between Steller’s sea cow and cetaceans but not extant sirenians, suggesting a role of several genes in adaptation to cold environments. Among these are inactivations of lipoxygenase genes, which in humans and mouse...

Microaggressions Self-Defense: A Workshop for Responding to Microaggressions (Handout)

Christy Byrd
Microaggressions are subtle verbal and non-verbal slights based on group membership, and they are ubiquitous in the lives of racial minorities, women, and LGBTQ individuals (Sue 2010). This is a handout accompanying a paper introducing a role-playing based exercise on effective responses to microaggressions. The workshop draws on the two previous prejudice responding workshops of Plous (2000) and Lawson et al. (2010) but integrates research-based strategies.

Data from: Convergent evolution of vascular optimization in kelp (Laminariales)

Sarah Tepler Drobnitch, Kaare H. Jensen, Paige Prentice & Jarmila Pittermann
Terrestrial plants and mammals, although separated by a great evolutionary distance, have each arrived at a highly conserved body plan in which universal allometric scaling relationships govern the anatomy of vascular networks and key functional metabolic traits. The universality of allometric scaling suggests that these phyla have each evolved an ‘optimal’ transport strategy that has been overwhelmingly adopted by extant species. To truly evaluate the dominance and universality of vascular optimization, however, it is critical...

Mixed-species herding levels the landscape of fear

Keenan Stears, Melissa Schmitt, Christopher Wilmers & Adrian Shrader
Prey antipredator behaviours are influenced by perceived predation risk in a landscape and social information gleaned from herd mates regarding predation risk. It is well documented that high-quality social information about risk can come from heterospecific herd mates. Here, we integrate social information with the landscape of fear to quantify how these landscapes are modified by mixed-species herding. To do this, we investigated zebra vigilance in single- and mixed-species herds across different levels of predation...

Heat flux and temperature at depth beneath InSight landing site through time

Szilard Gyalay, Francis Nimmo, Ana-Catalina Plesa & Mark Wieczorek
The heat flux and thus temperature gradient of the Martian crust is critical for comparison with measurements of crustal properties. This allows for constraints upon the inferred thermal history of Mars. Each file contains the heat flux and temperature at several depths as a function of time after Mars formed, but assuming different crustal properties.

Data from: The socially parasitic ant Polyergus mexicanus has host-associated genetic population structure and related neighboring nests

Joseph Sapp, Jenn Yost & Bruce Lyon
The genetic structure of populations can be both a cause and a consequence of ecological interactions. For parasites, genetic structure may be a consequence of preferences for host species or of mating behavior. Conversely, genetic structure can determine where conspecific interactions among parasites lay on a spectrum from cooperation to conflict. We used microsatellite loci to characterize the genetic structure of a population of the socially parasitic dulotic (aka “slave-making”) ant (Polyergus mexicanus), which is...

Data from: Puma energetics: laboratory oxygen consumption and GPS information from free-ranging individuals

Terrie Williams, Nikki Marks, Christopher Wilmers, Caleb Bryce, Barry Nickel, Lisa Wolfe, David Scantlebury & Carolyn Dunford
Abstract Background Under current scenarios of climate change and habitat loss, many wild animals, especially large predators, are moving into novel energetically challenging environments. Consequently, changes in terrain associated with such moves may heighten energetic costs and effect the decline of populations in new localities. Methods To examine locomotor costs of a carnivorous mammal moving in mountainous habitats, the oxygen consumption of captive pumas (Puma concolor) was measured during treadmill locomotion on level and incline...

Recent warming reduces the reproductive advantage of large size and contributes to evolutionary downsizing in nature

David C Fryxell, Alexander N. Hoover, Daniel A. Alvarez, Finn J. Arnesen, Javiera N. Benavente, Emma R. Moffett, Michael T. Kinnison, Kevin S. Simon & Eric P. Palkovacs
Body size is a key functional trait that is predicted to decline under warming. Warming is known to cause size declines via phenotypic plasticity, but evolutionary responses of body size to warming are poorly understood. To test for warming-induced evolutionary responses of body size and growth rates, we used populations of mosquitofish ( Gambusia affinis ) recently established (less than 100 years) from a common source across a strong thermal gradient (19–33°C) created by geothermal...

Data from: Zooming in on mechanistic predator-prey ecology: integrating camera traps with experimental methods to reveal the drivers of ecological interactions

Justine Smith, Justin Suraci, Jennifer Hunter, Kaitlyn Gaynor, Carson Keller, Meredith Palmer, Justine Atkins, Irene Castañeda, Michael Cherry, Patrick Garvey, Sarah Huebner, Dana Morin, Lisa Teckentrup, Martijn Weterings & Lydia Beaudrot
1. Camera trap technology has galvanized the study of predator-prey ecology in wild animal communities by expanding the scale and diversity of predator-prey interactions that can be analyzed. While observational data from systematic camera arrays have informed inferences on the spatiotemporal outcomes of predator-prey interactions, the capacity for observational studies to identify mechanistic drivers of species interactions is limited. 2. Experimental study designs that utilize camera traps uniquely allow for testing hypothesized mechanisms that drive...

Versatile simulations of admixture and accurate local ancestry inference with mixnmatch and ancestryinfer

Molly Schumer, Daniel Powell & Russell Corbett-Detig
It is now clear that hybridization between species is much more common than previously recognized. As a result, we now know that the genomes of many modern species, including our own, are a patchwork of regions derived from past hybridization events. Increasingly researchers are interested in disentangling which regions of the genome originated from each parental species using local ancestry inference methods. Due to the diverse effects of admixture, this interest is shared across disparate...

Data from: Genomic divergence across ecological gradients in the Central African rainforest songbird (Andropadus virens)

Ying Zhen, Ryan J. Harrigan, Kristen C. Ruegg, Eric C. Anderson, Thomas C. Ng, Sirena Lao, Kirk E. Lohmueller & Thomas B. Smith
The little greenbul, a common rainforest passerine from sub-Saharan Africa, has been the subject of long-term evolutionary studies to understand the mechanisms leading to rainforest speciation. Previous research found morphological and behavioural divergence across rainforest–savannah transition zones (ecotones), and a pattern of divergence with gene flow suggesting divergent natural selection has contributed to adaptive divergence and ecotones could be important areas for rainforests speciation. Recent advances in genomics and environmental modelling make it possible to...

Data from: Ancient mitochondrial DNA provides high-resolution time scale of the peopling of the Americas

Bastien Llamas, Lars Fehren-Schmitz, Guido Valverde, Julien Soubrier, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Susanne Nordenfelt, Cristina Valdiosera, Stephen M. Richards, Adam Rohrlach, Maria Inés Barreto Romero, Isabel Flores Espinoza, Elsa Tomasto Cagigao, Lucía Watson Jiménez, Krzysztof Makowski, Ilán Santiago Leboreiro Reyna, Josefina Mansilla Lory, Julio Alejandro Ballivián Torrez, Mario A. Rivera, Richard L. Burger, Maria Constanza Ceruti, Johan Reinhard, R. Spencer Wells, Gustavo Politis, Calogero M. Santoro … & Wolfgang Haak
The exact timing, route, and process of the initial peopling of the Americas remains uncertain despite much research. Archaeological evidence indicates the presence of humans as far as southern Chile by 14.6 thousand years ago (ka), shortly after the Pleistocene ice sheets blocking access from eastern Beringia began to retreat. Genetic estimates of the timing and route of entry have been constrained by the lack of suitable calibration points and low genetic diversity of Native...

Data from: Genetic structure of Pacific trout at the extreme southern end of their native range

Alicia Abadía-Cardoso, John Carlos Garza, Richard L. Mayden & Francisco Javier García De León
Salmonid fishes are cold water piscivores with a native distribution spanning nearly the entire temperate and subarctic northern hemisphere. Trout in the genus Oncorhynchus are the most widespread salmonid fishes and are among the most important fish species in the world, due to their extensive use in aquaculture and valuable fisheries. Trout that inhabit northwestern Mexico are the southernmost native salmonid populations in the world, and the least studied in North America. They are unfortunately...

Data from: Carnivoran resource and habitat use in the context of a Late Miocene faunal turnover episode

Laura Domingo, M. Soledad Domingo, Paul L. Koch, Jorge Morales & M. Teresa Alberdi
We investigate resource and habitat use by apex predators through stable isotope analysis at two Spanish Late Miocene localities: Los Valles de Fuentidueña (~9.6 Ma, LVF) and Cerro de los Batallones (~9.1 Ma, BAT). The temporal window represented by LVF and BAT was crucial in the shaping of the current Iberian mammalian structure because it corresponds to the initial stages of a faunal turnover episode and regional environmental change at ~9.5–8.5 Ma (Vallesian–Turolian transition), associated...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Genetic structure of the Painted Bunting and its implications for conservation of migratory populations

Andrea Contina, Jose L. Alcantara, Eli S. Bridge, Jeremy D. Ross, Oakley F. William, Jeffrey F. Kelly, Kristen C. Ruegg & William F. Oakley
The Painted Bunting Passerina ciris is a Neotropical songbird which breeds primarily in the United States during the summer and migrates to Mexico, Central America, southern Florida, and the Caribbean over the winter. Male Painted Buntings are brightly coloured, which makes them highly sought after as pets, particularly in Mexico, Central America and Europe. We used short sequence repeats (microsatellite DNA) to investigate the population genetic structure of the Painted Bunting and its implications in...

Data from: Vegetation connectivity increases ant activity and potential for ant-provided biocontrol services in a tropical agroforest

Estelí Jimenez-Soto, Jonathan R. Morris, Deborah K. Letourneau, Stacy M. Philpott. & Stacy M. Philpott
In natural and managed systems, connections between trees are important structural resources for arboreal ant communities with ecosystem-level effects. However, ongoing agricultural intensification in agroforestry systems, which reduces shade trees and connectivity between trees and crop plants, may hinder ant recruitment rates to resources and pest control services provided by ants. We examined whether increasing connectivity between coffee plants and shade trees in coffee plantations increases ant activity and enhances biological control of the coffee...

Data from: Sympatric serpentine endemic Monardella (Lamiaceae) species maintain habitat differences despite hybridization

Kathleen M. Kay, Suzie Woolhouse, Brett A. Smith, Nathaniel S. Pope & Nishanta Rajakaruna
Ecological differentiation and genetic isolation are thought to be critical in facilitating coexistence between related species, but the relative importance of these phenomena, and the interactions between them, are not well understood. Here we examine divergence in abiotic habitat affinity and the extent of hybridization and introgression between two rare species of Monardella (Lamiaceae) that are both restricted to the same serpentine soil exposure in California. Although broadly sympatric, they are found in microhabitats that...

Data from: Sex and occupation time influence niche space of a recovering keystone predator

Erin U. Rechsteiner, Jane C. Watson, M. Tim Tinker, Linda M. Nichol, Matthew J. Morgan Henderson, Christie J. McMIllan, Mike DeRoos, Marie C. Fournier, Anne K. Salomon, Leah D. Honka & Chris T. Darimont
Predators exert strong effects on ecological communities, particularly when they re-occupy areas after decades of extirpation. Within species, such effects can vary over time and by sex, and cascade across trophic levels. We used a space-for-time substitution to make foraging observations of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) across a gradient of re-occupation (1–30 yrs), and nMDS analysis to ask if 1) sea otter niche space varies as a function of occupation time, and 2) if niche...

Data from: Carnivory maintains cranial dimorphism between males and females: evidence for niche divergence in extant Musteloidea

Chris Law, Rita S. Mehta & Chris J. Law
The evolution and maintenance of sexual dimorphism has long been attributed to sexual selection. Niche divergence, however, serves as an alternative but rarely tested selective pressure also hypothesized to drive phenotypic disparity between males and females. We reconstructed ancestral social systems and diet and used Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) modeling approaches to test whether niche divergence is stronger than sexual selection in driving the evolution of sexual dimorphism in cranial size and bite force across extant Musteloidea....

Data from: Drought and immunity determine the intensity of West Nile virus epidemics and climate change impacts

Sara H. Paull, Daniel E. Horton, Moetasim Ashfaq, Deeksha Rastogi, Laura D. Kramer, Noah S. Diffenbaugh & A. Marm Kilpatrick
The effect of global climate change on infectious disease remains hotly debated because multiple extrinsic and intrinsic drivers interact to influence transmission dynamics in nonlinear ways. The dominant drivers of widespread pathogens, like West Nile virus, can be challenging to identify due to regional variability in vector and host ecology, with past studies producing disparate findings. Here, we used analyses at national and state scales to examine a suite of climatic and intrinsic drivers of...

Data from: Conservation implications of ameliorating survival of little brown bats with White-Nose Syndrome

Brooke Maslo, Mick Valent, John F. Gumbs & Winifred F. Frick
Management of wildlife populations impacted by novel threats is often challenged by a lack of data on temporal changes in demographic response. Populations may suffer rapid declines from the introduction of new stressors, but how demography changes over time is critical to determining long-term outcomes for populations. White-nose syndrome (WNS), an infectious disease of hibernating bats, has caused massive and rapid population declines in several hibernating species of bats in North America since the disease...

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