256 Works

Microaggressions Self-Defense: A Workshop for Responding to Microaggressions (Handout)

Christy Byrd
Microaggressions are subtle verbal and non-verbal slights based on group membership, and they are ubiquitous in the lives of racial minorities, women, and LGBTQ individuals (Sue 2010). This is a handout accompanying a paper introducing a role-playing based exercise on effective responses to microaggressions. The workshop draws on the two previous prejudice responding workshops of Plous (2000) and Lawson et al. (2010) but integrates research-based strategies.

Southern Cascadia earthquake catalog 2014-July to 2015-October

Travis Alongi
Fault coupling is vital in determining the amount of strain that is accumulated along faults. The magnitude and location of stored elastic strain energy in highly coupled regions has important implications for understanding the full range of slip behavior at plate boundary faults, as well as earthquake and tsunami hazards. We use the temporary dense amphibious array of seismometers offered by the Cascadia Initiative to create a high-resolution catalog of events to examine the spatio-temporal...

Data for Drought-Net rainfall shelters did not cause non-drought effects on photosynthesis for California central coast plants.

Michael Loik
Rainfall interception shelters are frequently used to study the ecological consequences of drought. One common shelter design employs V-shaped plastic troughs spaced on a supporting frame to intercept rainfall. Shading, reflection, and infrared radiation may alter the radiative environment under shelters in ways independent of their intended effect on soil moisture. We measured microclimate and several photosynthetic variables for watered potted plants under rain-out shelters and in open-air, unsheltered plots. We tested whether the shelter...

Utilizing field collected insects for next generation sequencing: effects of sampling, storage, and DNA extraction methods

Kimberly Ballare, Nathaniel Pope, Antonio Castilla, Sarah Cusser, Richard Metz & Shalene Jha
DNA sequencing technologies continue to advance the biological sciences, expanding opportunities for genomic studies of non-model organisms for basic and applied questions. Despite these opportunities, many next-generation sequencing protocols have been developed assuming a substantial quantity of high molecular weight DNA (>100 ng), which can be difficult to obtain for many study systems. In particular, the ability to sequence field-collected specimens that exhibit varying levels of DNA degradation remains largely unexplored. In this study we...

Heat flux and temperature at depth beneath InSight landing site through time

Szilard Gyalay, Francis Nimmo, Ana-Catalina Plesa & Mark Wieczorek
The heat flux and thus temperature gradient of the Martian crust is critical for comparison with measurements of crustal properties. This allows for constraints upon the inferred thermal history of Mars. Each file contains the heat flux and temperature at several depths as a function of time after Mars formed, but assuming different crustal properties.

Gardener demographics, experience, and motivations drive differences in plant species richness and composition in urban gardens

Stacy Philpott, Monika Egerer, Peter Bichier, Hamutahl Cohen, Roseann Cohen, Heidi Liere, Shalene Jha & Brenda Lin
Urban agriculture has received considerable attention for its role in supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services, and health and well-being for growing urban populations. Urban gardens managed with agroecological practices and higher plant diversity support more biodiversity and may support higher crop production. Plant selection in gardens is a function of temperature and environmental conditions and also depends on gardener socio-demographic characteristics, motivations for gardening, and gardening experience. In this study, we examined how plant richness...

Data from: Global hotspots for coastal ecosystem-based adaptation

Holly P. Jones, Barry A. Nickel, Tanja Srebotnjak, Will Turner, Mariano Gonzalez-Roglich, Erika Zavaleta & David G. Hole
Helping the world’s coastal communities adapt to climate change impacts requires evaluating the vulnerability of coastal communities and assessing adaptation options. This includes understanding the potential for ‘natural’ infrastructure (ecosystems and the biodiversity that underpins them) to reduce communities’ vulnerability, alongside more traditional ‘hard’ infrastructure approaches. Here we present a spatially explicit global evaluation of the vulnerability of coastal-dwelling human populations to key climate change exposures and explore the potential for coastal ecosystems to help...

CT DICOM studies from: In vivo measurements of lung volumes in ringed seals: insights from biomedical imaging

Holly Hermann-Sorensen, Nicole Thometz, Kathleen Woodie, Sophie Dennison-Gibby & Colleen Reichmuth
This dataset supports: Hermann-Sorensen, H., Thometz, N.M., Woodie, K., Dennison-Gibby, S., and Reichmuth, C. In vivo measurements of lung volumes in ringed seals: insights from biomedical imaging. Journal of Experimental Biology. Marine mammals rely on oxygen stored in blood, muscle, and lungs to support breath-hold diving and foraging at sea. Here, we used biomedical imaging to examine lung oxygen stores and other key respiratory parameters in living ringed seals (Pusa hispida). Three-dimensional models created from...

Data from: Zooming in on mechanistic predator-prey ecology: integrating camera traps with experimental methods to reveal the drivers of ecological interactions

Justine Smith, Justin Suraci, Jennifer Hunter, Kaitlyn Gaynor, Carson Keller, Meredith Palmer, Justine Atkins, Irene Castañeda, Michael Cherry, Patrick Garvey, Sarah Huebner, Dana Morin, Lisa Teckentrup, Martijn Weterings & Lydia Beaudrot
1. Camera trap technology has galvanized the study of predator-prey ecology in wild animal communities by expanding the scale and diversity of predator-prey interactions that can be analyzed. While observational data from systematic camera arrays have informed inferences on the spatiotemporal outcomes of predator-prey interactions, the capacity for observational studies to identify mechanistic drivers of species interactions is limited. 2. Experimental study designs that utilize camera traps uniquely allow for testing hypothesized mechanisms that drive...

The effect of influenza vaccination for the elderly on hospitalization and mortality: an observational study with a regression-discontinuity design

, Carlos Dobkin & Devon Gorry
Replication files for "The Effect of Influenza Vaccination for the Elderly on Hospitalization and Mortality: An Observational Study with a Regression-Discontinuity Design", published in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Mixed-species herding levels the landscape of fear

Keenan Stears, Melissa Schmitt, Christopher Wilmers & Adrian Shrader
Prey antipredator behaviours are influenced by perceived predation risk in a landscape and social information gleaned from herd mates regarding predation risk. It is well documented that high-quality social information about risk can come from heterospecific herd mates. Here, we integrate social information with the landscape of fear to quantify how these landscapes are modified by mixed-species herding. To do this, we investigated zebra vigilance in single- and mixed-species herds across different levels of predation...

Data from: Carnivoran resource and habitat use in the context of a Late Miocene faunal turnover episode

Laura Domingo, M. Soledad Domingo, Paul L. Koch, Jorge Morales & M. Teresa Alberdi
We investigate resource and habitat use by apex predators through stable isotope analysis at two Spanish Late Miocene localities: Los Valles de Fuentidueña (~9.6 Ma, LVF) and Cerro de los Batallones (~9.1 Ma, BAT). The temporal window represented by LVF and BAT was crucial in the shaping of the current Iberian mammalian structure because it corresponds to the initial stages of a faunal turnover episode and regional environmental change at ~9.5–8.5 Ma (Vallesian–Turolian transition), associated...

Data from: Carnivory maintains cranial dimorphism between males and females: evidence for niche divergence in extant Musteloidea

Chris Law, Rita S. Mehta & Chris J. Law
The evolution and maintenance of sexual dimorphism has long been attributed to sexual selection. Niche divergence, however, serves as an alternative but rarely tested selective pressure also hypothesized to drive phenotypic disparity between males and females. We reconstructed ancestral social systems and diet and used Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) modeling approaches to test whether niche divergence is stronger than sexual selection in driving the evolution of sexual dimorphism in cranial size and bite force across extant Musteloidea....

Data from: The socially parasitic ant Polyergus mexicanus has host-associated genetic population structure and related neighboring nests

Joseph Sapp, Jenn Yost & Bruce Lyon
The genetic structure of populations can be both a cause and a consequence of ecological interactions. For parasites, genetic structure may be a consequence of preferences for host species or of mating behavior. Conversely, genetic structure can determine where conspecific interactions among parasites lay on a spectrum from cooperation to conflict. We used microsatellite loci to characterize the genetic structure of a population of the socially parasitic dulotic (aka “slave-making”) ant (Polyergus mexicanus), which is...

Community-level reorganizations following migratory pollinator dynamics along a latitudinal gradient

Ainhoa Magrach, Carlos Lara, Márquez-Luna Ubaldo, Sergio Díaz-Infante & Ingrid M. Parker
Predicting how communities re-arrange in response to changes in species composition remains a key challenge in ecology. Migratory species, which enter and leave communities across latitudinal gradients, offer us a unique opportunity to evaluate community and species-level responses to a shift in community composition. We focused on a migratory hummingbird and the communities that host it along a latitudinal and species diversity gradient. Our results show higher niche overlap in more diverse communities, allowing resident...

Recent warming reduces the reproductive advantage of large size and contributes to evolutionary downsizing in nature

David C Fryxell, Alexander N. Hoover, Daniel A. Alvarez, Finn J. Arnesen, Javiera N. Benavente, Emma R. Moffett, Michael T. Kinnison, Kevin S. Simon & Eric P. Palkovacs
Body size is a key functional trait that is predicted to decline under warming. Warming is known to cause size declines via phenotypic plasticity, but evolutionary responses of body size to warming are poorly understood. To test for warming-induced evolutionary responses of body size and growth rates, we used populations of mosquitofish ( Gambusia affinis ) recently established (less than 100 years) from a common source across a strong thermal gradient (19–33°C) created by geothermal...

Data from: Puma energetics: laboratory oxygen consumption and GPS information from free-ranging individuals

Terrie Williams, Nikki Marks, Christopher Wilmers, Caleb Bryce, Barry Nickel, Lisa Wolfe, David Scantlebury & Carolyn Dunford
Abstract Background Under current scenarios of climate change and habitat loss, many wild animals, especially large predators, are moving into novel energetically challenging environments. Consequently, changes in terrain associated with such moves may heighten energetic costs and effect the decline of populations in new localities. Methods To examine locomotor costs of a carnivorous mammal moving in mountainous habitats, the oxygen consumption of captive pumas (Puma concolor) was measured during treadmill locomotion on level and incline...

Versatile simulations of admixture and accurate local ancestry inference with mixnmatch and ancestryinfer

Molly Schumer, Daniel Powell & Russell Corbett-Detig
It is now clear that hybridization between species is much more common than previously recognized. As a result, we now know that the genomes of many modern species, including our own, are a patchwork of regions derived from past hybridization events. Increasingly researchers are interested in disentangling which regions of the genome originated from each parental species using local ancestry inference methods. Due to the diverse effects of admixture, this interest is shared across disparate...

Data from: Higher fat stores contribute to persistence of little brown bat populations with white-nose syndrome

Tina L. Cheng, Alexander Gerson, Marianne S. Moore, Jonathon D. Reichard, Joely DeSimone, Craig K.R. Willis, Winifred F. Frick & A. Marm Kilpatrick
1. The persistence of populations declining from novel stressors depends, in part, on their ability to respond by trait change via evolution or plasticity. White-nose syndrome (WNS) has caused rapid declines in several North America bat species by disrupting hibernation behavior, leading to body fat depletion and starvation. However, some populations of Myotis lucifugus now persist with WNS by unknown mechanisms. 2. We examined whether persistence of M. lucifigus with WNS could be explained by...

Data from: Fire history and plant community composition outweigh decadal multi‐factor global change as drivers of microbial composition in an annual grassland

Clara Qin, Kai Zhu, Nona Chiariello, Christopher Field & Kabir Peay
Soil microbial communities regulate and respond to key biogeochemical cycles and influence plant community patterns. However, microbial communities also respond to disturbance events, motivating an assessment of the relative roles of decadal multi-factor global change, disturbance, and plant community structure on microbial community responses. We used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to characterize the diversity and composition of bacterial and fungal communities in bulk soil (0–7 cm) collected in 2014 from the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment,...

Data from: Water availability and temperature induce changes in oxidative status during pregnancy in a viviparous lizard

Andréaz Dupoué, Pauline Blaimont, David Rozen-Rechels, Murielle Richard, Sandrine Meylan, Jean Clobert, Donald Miles, Rémi Martin, Beatriz Decencière, Simon Agostini & Jean-François Le Galliard
Reproduction involves considerable reorganization in an organism’s physiology that incurs potential toxicity for cells (e.g., oxidative stress) and decrease in fitness. This framework has been the cornerstone of the so-called ‘oxidative cost of reproduction’, a theory that remains controversial and relatively overlooked in non-model ectotherms. Here, we used two complementary approaches in natural and controlled conditions to test whether altered access to climate conditions (water and temperature resources) alters oxidative status and mediates reproductive trade-offs...

Eco-evolutionary feedbacks link prey adaptation to predator performance

David Fryxell, David C. Fryxell, Zachary T. Wood, Rebecca Robinson, Michael T. Kinnison & Eric P. Palkovacs
Eco-evolutionary feedbacks may determine the outcome of predator-prey interactions in nature, but little work has been done to quantify the feedback effect of short-term prey adaptation on predator performance. We tested the effects of prey availability and recent (< 100 years) prey adaptation on the feeding and growth rate of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), foraging on western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). Field surveys showed higher densities and larger average body sizes of mosquitofish in recently introduced...

Complete data from the Barro Colorado 50-ha plot: 423617 trees, 35 years

Richard Condit, Rolando Pérez, Salomón Aguilar, Suzanne Lao, Robin Foster & Stephen Hubbell
The 50-ha plot at Barro Colorado Island was initially demarcated and fully censused in 1982, and has been fully censused 7 times since, every 5 years from 1985 through 2015 (Hubbell and Foster 1983, Hubbell et al. 1990, Condit et al. 2012, Condit et al. 2017). Every measurement of every stem over 8 censuses is included in this archive. Most users will need only the 8 R Analytical Tables in the format tree, which come...

Data from: Convergent evolution of vascular optimization in kelp (Laminariales)

Sarah Tepler Drobnitch, Kaare H. Jensen, Paige Prentice & Jarmila Pittermann
Terrestrial plants and mammals, although separated by a great evolutionary distance, have each arrived at a highly conserved body plan in which universal allometric scaling relationships govern the anatomy of vascular networks and key functional metabolic traits. The universality of allometric scaling suggests that these phyla have each evolved an ‘optimal’ transport strategy that has been overwhelmingly adopted by extant species. To truly evaluate the dominance and universality of vascular optimization, however, it is critical...

Data from: Sympatric serpentine endemic Monardella (Lamiaceae) species maintain habitat differences despite hybridization

Kathleen M. Kay, Suzie Woolhouse, Brett A. Smith, Nathaniel S. Pope & Nishanta Rajakaruna
Ecological differentiation and genetic isolation are thought to be critical in facilitating coexistence between related species, but the relative importance of these phenomena, and the interactions between them, are not well understood. Here we examine divergence in abiotic habitat affinity and the extent of hybridization and introgression between two rare species of Monardella (Lamiaceae) that are both restricted to the same serpentine soil exposure in California. Although broadly sympatric, they are found in microhabitats that...

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