302 Works

Data from: Reconstructing the migratory behavior and long-term survivorship of juvenile Chinook salmon under contrasting hydrologic regimes

Anna M. Sturrock, J. D. Wikert, Timothy Heyne, Carl Mesick, Alan E. Hubbard, Travis M. Hinkelman, Peter K. Weber, George E. Whitman, Justin J. Glessner & Rachel C. Johnson
The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it...

Data from: Rival assessment among northern elephant seals: evidence of associative learning during male-male contests

Caroline Casey, Isabelle Charrier, Nicolas Mathevon & Colleen Reichmuth
Specialized signals emitted by competing males often convey honest information about fighting ability. It is generally believed that receivers use these signals to directly assess their opponents. Here, we demonstrate an alternative communication strategy used by males in a breeding system where the costs of conflict are extreme. We evaluated the acoustic displays of breeding male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), and found that social knowledge gained through prior experience with signallers was sufficient to...

Data from: Mesoscale activity facilitates energy gain in a top predator

Briana Abrahms, Kylie L. Scales, Elliott L. Hazen, Steven J. Bograd, Robert S. Schick, Patrick W. Robinson & Daniel P. Costa
How animal movement decisions interact with the distribution of resources to shape individual performance is a key question in ecology. However, links between spatial and behavioural ecology and fitness consequences are poorly understood because the outcomes of individual resource selection decisions, such as energy intake, are rarely measured. In the open ocean, mesoscale features (~10-100 km) such as fronts and eddies can aggregate prey and thereby drive the distribution of foraging vertebrates through bottom-up biophysical...

Data from: Energy conserving thermoregulatory patterns and lower disease severity in a bat resistant to the impacts of white-nose syndrome

Marianne S. Moore, Kenneth A. Field, Melissa J. Behr, Gregory G. Turner, Morgan E. Furze, Daniel W. F. Stern, Paul R. Allegra, Sarah A. Bouboulis, Chelsey D. Musante, Megan E. Vodzak, Matthew E. Biron, Melissa B. Meierhofer, Winifred F. Frick, Jeffrey T. Foster, Daryl Howell, Joseph A. Kath, Allen Kurta, Gerda Nordquist, Joseph S. Johnson, Thomas M. Lilley, Benjamin W. Barrett & DeeAnn M. Reeder
The devastating bat fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), does not appear to affect all species equally. To experimentally determine susceptibility differences between species, we exposed hibernating naïve little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). After hibernating under identical conditions, Pd lesions were significantly more prevalent and more severe in little brown myotis. This species difference in pathology correlates with susceptibility to WNS...

Data from: Ovarian fluid allows directional cryptic female choice despite external fertilization

Susan E. Marsh-Rollo, Suzanne H. Alonzo & Kelly A. Stiver
In species with internal fertilization, females can favour certain males over others, not only before mating but also within the female’s reproductive tract after mating. Here, we ask whether such directional post-mating (that is, cryptic) female mate choice can also occur in species with external fertilization. Using an in vitro sperm competition experiment, we demonstrate that female ovarian fluid (ovarian fluid) changes the outcome of sperm competition by decreasing the importance of sperm number thereby...

Data from: Cross-habitat effects shape the ecosystem consequences of co-invasion by a pelagic and a benthic consumer

David C. Fryxell, Amber R. Diluzio, Maya A. Friedman, Nicklaus A. Menge & Eric P. Palkovacs
Invasive species can have major impacts on ecosystems, yet little work has addressed the combined effects of multiple invaders that exploit different habitats. Two common invaders in aquatic systems are pelagic fishes and crayfishes. Pelagic-oriented fish effects are typically strong on the pelagic food web, whereas crayfish effects are strong on the benthic food web. Thus, co-invasion may generate strong ecological responses in both habitats. We tested the effects of co-invasion on experimental pond ecosystems...

Data from: Efficacy of visual surveys for white-nose syndrome at bat hibernacula

Amanda F. Janicki, Winifred F. Frick, A. Marm Kilpatrick, Katy L. Parise, Jeffrey T. Foster & Gary F. McCracken
White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) is an epizootic disease in hibernating bats caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Surveillance for P. destructans at bat hibernacula consists primarily of visual surveys of bats, collection of potentially infected bats, and submission of these bats for laboratory testing. Cryptic infections (bats that are infected but display no visual signs of fungus) could lead to the mischaracterization of the infection status of a site and the inadvertent spread of P. destructans....

Data from: An ultraviolet floral polymorphism associated with life history drives pollinator discrimination in Mimulus guttatus (Phrymaceae)

Megan L. Peterson, Timothy J. Miller & Kathleen M. Kay
Premise of the study: Ultraviolet (UV) floral patterns are common in angiosperms and mediate pollinator attraction, efficiency, and constancy. UV patterns may vary within species, yet are cryptic to human observers. Thus, few studies have explicitly described the distribution or ecological significance of intraspecific variation in UV floral patterning. Here, we describe the geographic distribution and pattern of inheritance of a UV polymorphism in the model plant species Mimulus guttatus (Phrymaceae). We then test whether...

Data from: Measures of effective population size in sea otters reveal special considerations for wide-ranging species

Roderick B. Gagne, M. Timothy Tinker, Kyle D. Gustafson, Katherine Ralls, Larson Shawn, L. Max Tarjan, Melissa A. Miller & Holly B. Ernest
Conservation genetic techniques and considerations of the evolutionary potential of a species are increasingly being applied to species conservation. For example, effective population size (Ne) estimates are useful for determining the conservation status of species, yet accurate estimates of current Ne remain difficult to obtain. The effective population size can contribute to setting federal delisting criteria, as was done for the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). After being hunted to near extinction during the...

Data from: Avoiding tipping points in fisheries management through Gaussian process dynamic programming

Carl Boettiger, Marc Mangel & Stephan Munch
Model uncertainty and limited data are fundamental challenges to robust management of human intervention in a natural system. These challenges are acutely highlighted by concerns that many ecological systems may contain tipping points, such as Allee population sizes. Before a collapse, we do not know where the tipping points lie, if they exist at all. Hence, we know neither a complete model of the system dynamics nor do we have access to data in some...

Data from: Development and evaluation of 200 novel SNP assays for population genetic studies of westslope cutthroat trout and genetic identification of related taxa

Nathan R. Campbell, Stephen J. Amish, Victoria L. Pritchard, K. M. McKelvey, Michael K. Young, Michael K. Schwartz, John C. Garza, Gordon Luikart & Shawn R. Narum
DNA sequence data were collected and screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and also for substitutions that could be used to genetically discriminate rainbow trout (O. mykiss) and cutthroat trout, as well as several cutthroat trout subspecies. In total, 260 expressed sequence tag-derived loci were sequenced and allelic discrimination genotyping assays developed from 217 of the variable sites. Another 50 putative SNPs in westslope cutthroat trout were identified...

Fumigant use on California strawberry fields, 2004-2013

Julie Guthman
This dataset contains an analysis of chemical fumigant usage for nine major strawberry producing counties in California from 2004 to 2013. Five counties are production counties; four are nursery counties. Raw data on all pesticide applications on a county basis was collected from California's Pesticide Use Reporting System and filtered by pesticide category (fumigant) and commodity (strawberry). These data are geo-coded by Township-Range-Section. The data set also contains pivot tables and charts that show trend...

Complete Tree Species of Panama

Richard Condit, Rolando Pérez & Salomón Aguilar
1 June 2020 This data archive presents a complete compilation of the tree species of Panama, including the full geographic range and local abundance of each. The species list is based on the most recent monographs, especially the Flora Mesoamericana, along with herbarium records, especially those online at the Missouri Botanic Garden, and our tree census plots, mostly in the forests around the Panama Canal, including the 50 ha plot at Barro Colorado. The full...

Relaxed predation selection on rare morphs of Ensatina salamanders (Caudata: Plethodontidae) promotes a polymorphic population in a novel dune sand habitat

Sean Reilly, Caitlyn Rich & Barry Sinervo
The Ensatina ring species represents a classic example of locally adapted lineages. The Monterey Ensatina (Ensatina eschscholtzii eschscholtzii) is a cryptic subspecies with brown coloration, however, a recently discovered polymorphic population within a wind-blown sand region also contains leucistic (pink) and xanthistic (orange) morphs. Leucism/xanthism frequency was mapped across the subspecies’ range revealing that these morphs are generally rare or absent except within regions containing light-colored substrate. Attack rates were estimated using clay models of...

Parallel evolution of phenological isolation across the speciation continuum in serpentine-adapted annual wildflowers

Shelley Sianta & Kathleen Kay
Understanding the relative importance of reproductive isolating mechanisms across the speciation continuum remains an outstanding challenge in evolutionary biology. Here we examine a common isolating mechanism, reproductive phenology, between plant sister taxa at different stages of adaptive divergence to gain insight into its relative importance during speciation. We study 17 plant taxa that have independently adapted to inhospitable serpentine soils, and contrast each with a nonserpentine sister taxon to form pairs at either ecotypic or...

Burrowing crabs and physical factors hasten marsh recovery at panne edges

Kathryn Beheshti, Charlie Endris, Peter Goodwin, Annabelle Pavlak & Kerstin Wasson
Salt marsh loss is projected to increase as sea-level rise accelerates with global climate change. Salt marsh loss occurs along both lateral creek and channel edges and in the marsh interior, when pannes expand and coalesce. Often, edge loss is attributed to erosive processes whereas dieback in the marsh interior is linked to excessive inundation or deposition of wrack, but remains poorly understood. We conducted a two-year field investigation in a central California estuary to...

Merging computational fluid dynamics and machine learning to reveal animal migration strategies

Simone Olivetti
Understanding how migratory animals interact with dynamic physical environments remains a major challenge in migration biology. Interactions between migrants and wind and water currents are often poorly resolved in migration models due to both the lack of a high-resolution environmental data, and a lack of understanding of how migrants respond to fine scale structure in the physical environment. Here we develop a generalizable, data-driven methodology to study the migration of animals through complex physical environments....

Predicting the population consequences of acoustic disturbance, with application to an endangered gray whale population

Elizabeth McHuron, Elizabeth McHuron, Lisanne Aerts, Glenn Gailey, Olga Sychenko, Daniel Costa, Marc Mangel & Lisa Schwarz
Acoustic disturbance is a growing conservation concern for wildlife populations because it can elicit physiological and behavioral responses that can have cascading impacts on population dynamics. State-dependent behavioral and life history models implemented via Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) provide a natural framework for quantifying biologically meaningful population changes resulting from disturbance by linking environment, physiology, and metrics of fitness. We developed an SDP model using the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) as a case...

Data from: Consumer trait responses track change in resource supply along replicated thermal gradients

Emma Moffett, David Fryxell, Finnbar Lee, Eric Palkovacs & Kevin Simon
Temperature rise may alter consumer diets through increased metabolic demand and altered resource availability. However, current theories assessing dietary shifts with warming do not account for change in resource availability. It is unknown whether consumers will increase consumption rates or consume different resources to meet increased energy requirements and whether dietary change will lead to associated variation in morphology and nutrient utilisation. Here, we used populations of Gambusia affinis across parallel thermal gradients in New...

How to learn to recognize conspecific brood parasitic offspring

Daizaburo Shizuka & Bruce Lyon
Recognition systems evolve to reduce the risk and costs of making recognition errors. Two sources of recognition error include perceptual error (error arising from inability to discriminate between objects) and template error (error arising from using the wrong recognition template). We focus on how template error shapes host defense against avian brood parasites. Prior experiments in American coots (Fulica americana), a conspecific brood parasite, demonstrated how hosts learn to recognize brood parasitic chicks by using...

Tree mycorrhizal type mediates the strength of negative density dependence in temperate forests

Feng Jiang, Kai Zhu, Marc Cadotte & Guangze Jin
1. Recent plant-soil feedback experiments suggest that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree species experience stronger conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD) than ectomycorrhizal (EM) tree species. Yet how these findings inform our understanding of natural systems is limited because the roles of local soil conditions, light environments and tree species abundances in influencing CNDD for AM and EM species are not clear. 2. Here we examined seedling and sapling survival in two temperate old-growth forests (broadleaved pine...

Data from: Krill hotspot formation and phenology in the California Current Ecosystem

Jerome Fiechter
In the California Current Ecosystem (CCE), krill represent a key link between primary production and higher trophic level species owing to their central position in the food web and tendency to form dense aggregations. However, the strongly advective circulation associated with coastal upwelling may spatiotemporally decouple the occurrence and persistence of krill hotspots from phytoplankton biomass and nutrient sources. Results from a physical-biological model provide insights into fundamental mechanisms controlling the phenology of krill hotspots...

Simulated wood duck maternity analysis results from COLONY and CERVUS

Caroline Thow, Caitlin Wells, John Eadie & Bruce Lyon
Modern genetic parentage methods reveal that alternative reproductive strategies are common in both males and females. Under ideal conditions, genetic methods accurately connect the parents to offspring produced by extra-pair matings or conspecific brood parasitism. However, some breeding systems and sampling scenarios present significant complications for accurate parentage assignment. We used simulated genetic pedigrees to assess the reliability of parentage assignment for a series of challenging sampling regimes that reflect realistic conditions for many brood-parasitic...

Projected shifts in 21st century sardine distribution and catch in the California Current

Jerome Fiechter
Predicting changes in the abundance and distribution of small pelagic fish species in response to anthropogenic climate forcing is of paramount importance due to the ecological and socioeconomic importance of these species, especially in Eastern boundary current upwelling regions. Coastal upwelling systems are notorious for the wide range of spatial (from local to basin) and temporal (from days to decades) scales influencing their physical and biogeochemical environments and, thus, forage fish habitat. Bridging those scales...

Data from: Scale-dependent effects of forest restoration on Neotropical fruit bats

J. Leighton Reid, Chase D. Mendenhall, Rakan A. Zahawi & Karen D. Holl
Neotropical fruit bats (family Phyllostomidae) facilitate forest regeneration on degraded lands by dispersing shrub and tree seeds. Accordingly, if fruit bats can be attracted to restoration sites, seed dispersal could be enhanced. We surveyed bat communities at 10 sites in southern Costa Rica to evaluate whether restoration treatments attracted more fruit bats if trees were planted on degraded farmlands in plantations or island configurations versus natural regeneration. We also compared the relative influence of tree...

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