302 Works

Data from: Genomic signatures of spatially divergent selection at clownfish range margins

Rene Clark, Matthew Aardema, Peter Andolfatto, Paul Barber, Akihisa Hattori, Jennifer Hoey, & Malin Pinsky
Understanding how evolutionary forces interact to drive patterns of selection and distribute genetic variation across a species’ range is of great interest in ecology and evolution, especially in an era of global change. While theory predicts how and when populations at range margins are likely to undergo local adaptation, empirical evidence testing these models remains sparse. Here, we address this knowledge gap by investigating the relationship between selection, gene flow, and genetic drift in the...

Data from: Leaf litter arthropod responses to tropical forest restoration

Rebecca J. Cole, Karen D. Holl, Rakan A. Zahawi, Philipp Wickey & Alan R. Townsend
Soil and litter arthropods represent a large proportion of tropical biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, but little is known about the efficacy of different tropical forest restoration strategies in facilitating their recovery in degraded habitats. We sampled arthropods in four 7‐ to 8‐year‐old restoration treatments and in nearby reference forests. Sampling was conducted during the wet and dry seasons using extractions from litter and pitfall samples. Restoration treatments were replicated in 50 × 50‐m...

Data and code for: Microalgae-blend tilapia feed eliminates fishmeal and fish oil, improves growth, and is cost viable

Pallab Sarker, Anne Kapuscinski, Brandi McKuin, Devin Fitzgerald, Hannah Nash & Connor Greenwood
Aquafeed manufacturers have reduced, but not fully eliminated, fishmeal and fish oil and are seeking cost competitive replacements. We combined two commercially available microalgae, to produce a high-performing fish-free feed for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) —the world’s second largest group of farmed fish. We substituted protein-rich defatted biomass of Nannochloropsis oculata (leftover after oil extraction for nutraceuticals) for fishmeal and whole cells of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich Schizochytrium sp. as substitute for fish oil. Here, we...

Giant clam growth and isotope data

Daniel Killam, Matthew Clapham & Tariq Al-Najjar
The health of reef-building corals has declined due to climate change and pollution. However, less is known about whether giant clams, reef-dwelling bivalves with a photosymbiotic partnership similar to that found in reef-building corals, are also threatened by environmental degradation. To compare giant clam health against a prehistoric baseline, we collected fossil and modern Tridacna shells from the Gulf of Aqaba, Northern Red Sea. After calibrating daily/twice-daily growth lines from the outer shell layer, we...

Weights of northern elephant seal weanlings from Año Nuevo Reserve

Patrick Robinson, Daniel Costa, Richard Condit, Patricia Morris, Joanne Reiter, Daniel Crocker, Roxanne Beltran & Burney Le Beouf
Long-term observations of foraging success at the population scale are key to understanding demographic and ecological patterns. Northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, are capital breeders and the resources delivered to the pup during the 4-week lactation period are related to both the past foraging success of the mother and the future survival of the pup post-weaning. We collected weight and basic morphometric data from more than 7,000 recently weaned elephant seals at the Año Nuevo...

A consensus phylogenomic approach highlights paleopolyploid and rapid radiation in the history of Ericales

Drew A. Larson, Joseph F. Walker, Oscar M. Vargas & Stephen A. Smith
Premise of study: Large genomic datasets offer the promise of resolving historically recalcitrant species relationships. However, different methodologies can yield conflicting results, especially when clades have experienced ancient, rapid diversification. Here, we analyzed the ancient radiation of Ericales and explored sources of uncertainty related to species tree inference, conflicting gene tree signal, and the inferred placement of gene and genome duplications. Methods: We used a hierarchical clustering approach, with tree-based homology and orthology detection, to...

Climate-driven habitat change causes evolution in Threespine Stickleback

Simone Des Roches
Climate change can shape evolution directly by altering abiotic conditions or indirectly by modifying habitats, yet few studies have investigated the effects of climate-driven habitat change on contemporary evolution. We resampled populations of Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) along a latitudinal gradient in California bar-built estuaries to examine their evolution in response to changing climate and habitat. We took advantage of the strong association between stickleback lateral plate phenotypes and Ectodysplasin A (Eda) genotypes to infer...

Ant-scale mutualism increases scale infestation, decreases folivory, and disrupts biological control in restored tropical forests

Andy Kulikowski
Ant-hemipteran mutualisms can have positive and negative effects on host plants depending on the level of hemipteran infestation and plant protection conferred by ants against folivory. Differential effects of such mutualisms on plant survival are well documented in undisturbed and ant-invaded systems, but few have explored how anthropogenic disturbance affects interactions between hemipterans and native ant species and what the consequences may be for recovering ecosystems. Within a fragmented landscape in Costa Rica, restored tropical...

Power and punishment influence negotiations over parental care

Tina Barbasch, Suzanne Alonzo & Peter Buston
Asymmetries in power, the ability to influence the outcome of conflict, are ubiquitous in social interactions because interacting individuals are rarely identical. It is well-documented that asymmetries in power influence the outcome of reproductive conflict in social groups. Yet power asymmetries have received little attention in the context of negotiations between caring parents, which is surprising given that parents are often markedly different in size. Here we built on an existing negotiation model to examine...

Extreme offspring ornamentation in American coots is favored by selection within families, not benefits to conspecific brood parasites

Daizaburo Shizuka & Bruce E. Lyon
Offspring ornamentation typically occurs in taxa with parental care, suggesting that selection arising from social interactions between parents and offspring may underlie signal evolution. American coot babies are among the most ornamented offspring found in nature, sporting vividly orange-red natal plumage, a bright red beak, and other red parts around the face and pate. Previous plumage manipulation experiments showed that ornamented plumage is favored by strong parental choice for chicks with more extreme ornamentation but...

Reductions in the dietary niche of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the Holocene to the Anthropocene.

Emma Elliott Smith, M. Tim Tinker, Emily Whistler, Douglas Kennett, René Vellanoweth, Diane Gifford-Gonzalez, Mark Hylkema & Seth Newsome
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal hunted to near extinction during the 1800s. Despite their well-known importance as a keystone species, we know little about historical sea otter ecology. Here, we characterize the ecological niche of ancient southern sea otters (E. lutris nereis) using d13C and d15N analysis of bones recovered from archaeological sites spanning ~7,000 to 350 years before present (N=112 individuals) at five regions along the coast of California. These...

Data from: Habitat modeling of Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) in the eastern Gulf of Thailand

Justine Jackson-Ricketts, Chalatip Junchompoo, Ellen Hines, Elliot Hazen, Louisa Ponnampalam, Anoukchika Ilangakoon & Somchai Monanunsap
Aim: The Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is an endangered cetacean found throughout Southeast Asia. The main threat to this species is human encroachment, led by entanglement in fishing gear. Information on this data-poor species’ ecology and habitat use is needed to effectively inform spatial management. Location: We investigated the habitat of a previously unstudied group of Irrawaddy dolphins in the eastern Gulf of Thailand, between the villages of Laem Klat and Khlong Yai, in Trat...

Microbial predictors of healing and short-term effect of debridement on the microbiome of chronic wounds

Samuel Verbanic, Yuning Shen, Juhee Lee, John Deacon & Irene Chen
Chronic wounds represent a large and growing disease burden. Infection and biofilm formation are two of the leading impediments of wound healing, suggesting an important role for the microbiome of these wounds. However, microbial taxa that may impact healing are poorly understood. Debridement is an effective treatment for chronic wounds, but the effect on the microbiome is unknown. Based on prior literature, we hypothesized that anaerobic organisms are exposed to the surface by debridement, contributing...

A migratory sparrow has personality in winter that is independent of other traits

Theadora Block, Rachel Star, Alexis Chaine, Daizaburo Shizuka & Bruce Lyon
Small birds in winter face trade-offs between predation risk and foraging, and alternate life-history strategies may arise from these trade-offs. Animal personality shows similarities with alternative life-history strategies, and using a life-history context to understand personality can provide valuable insights. Golden-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia atricapilla, a small migratory bird, have a complex winter social system with high site-fidelity, long-term social associations between individuals and competition mediated by badges of status. We asked whether golden-crowned sparrows show...

Walruses produce intense impulse sounds by clap-induced cavitation during breeding displays

Colleen Reichmuth & Ole Næsbye Larsen
Male walruses produce the longest continuous reproductive displays known in the animal kingdom to convey their individual fitness to potential rivals, and possibly to potential mates. Here we document the ability of a captive walrus to produce intense, rhythmic sounds through a non-vocal pathway involving deliberate, regular collision of the fore flippers. High-speed videography linked to an acoustic onset marker revealed sound production through cavitation, with the acoustic impulse generated by each forceful clap exceeding...

Plasticity and evolution shape the scaling of metabolism and excretion along a geothermal temperature gradient

Javiera Benavente, David Fryxell, Michael Kinnison, Eric Palkovacs & Kevin Simon
Physiological rates are heavily dependent on temperature and body size. Most current predictions of organisms’ response to environmental warming are based on the assumption that key physiological rates like metabolism and excretion scale independently with body size and temperature and will not evolve. However, temperature is a significant driver for phenotypic variability in the allometric scaling and thermal sensitivity of physiological rates within ectotherm species, suggesting that evolution may play a role in shaping these...

Breeding site fidelity is lower in polygamous shorebirds and male-biased in monogamous species

Eunbi Kwon, Mihai Valcu, Margherita Cragnolini, Martin Bulla, Bruce Lyon & Bart Kempenaers
Sex-bias in breeding dispersal is considered the norm in many taxa, and the magnitude and direction of such sex-bias is expected to correlate with the social mating system. We used local return rates in shorebirds as an index of breeding site fidelity, and hence as an estimate of the propensity for breeding dispersal, and tested whether variation in site fidelity and in sex-bias in site fidelity relates to the mating system. Among 111 populations of...

Darwin’s vexing contrivance: A new hypothesis for why some flowers have two kinds of anther

Kathleen Kay, Tania Jogesh, Diana Tataru & Sami Akiba
Heteranthery, the presence of two or more anther types in the same flower, is taxonomically widespread among bee-pollinated angiosperms, yet has puzzled botanists since Darwin. We test two competing hypotheses for its evolution: the longstanding “division of labour” hypothesis, which posits that some anthers are specialized as food rewards for bees whereas other are specialized for surreptitious pollination, and our new hypothesis that heteranthery is a way to gradually release pollen that maximizes pollen delivery....

Exploring the effects of invasion on plant morphology of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)

Alexander Krohn, Caroline DeVan, Lizz Waring & Liz Shea
This dataset is for use in the Couse-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) titled Effects of Invasion on Plant Morphology of Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). The dataset is meant to be used as a practice, or ready-to-use dataset for instructors so that all instructors can start from the same point with the same data. If you would like to download additional data, or use a species other than L. salicaria, please visit the CUREnet website and...

Hunters versus Hunted: New perspectives on the physiological costs of survival at the top of the food chain

Terrie Williams, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen, Anthony Pagano & Caleb Bryce
Global biotic and abiotic threats,particularly from pervasive human activities, are progressively pushing large, apex carnivorous mammals into the functional role of mesopredator. Hunters are now becoming the hunted. Despite marked impacts on these animals and the ecosystems in which they live, little is known about the physiological repercussions of this role downgrading from ultimate to penultimate predator. Here we examine how such ecological role reversals alter the physiological processes associated with energy expenditure, and ultimately...

Resilient consumers accelerate the plant decomposition in a naturally acidified seagrass ecosystem

Juhyung Lee, Maria Cristina Gambi, Kristy Kroeker, Marco Munari, Kabir Peay & Fiorenza Micheli
Anthropogenic stressors are predicted to alter biodiversity and ecosystem functioning worldwide. However, scaling up from species to ecosystem responses poses a challenge, as species and functional groups can exhibit different capacities to adapt, acclimate, and compensate under changing environments. We used a naturally acidified seagrass ecosystem (the endemic Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica) as a model system to examine how ocean acidification (OA) modifies the community structure and functioning of plant detritivores, which play vital roles in...

COVID-19 contact rates between mobile devices in Connecticut

Forrest Crawford, Sydney Jones, Matthew Cartter, Samantha Dean, Joshua Warren, Zehang Li, Jacqueline Barbieri, Jared Campbell, Patrick Kenney, Thomas Valleau & Olga Morozova
Close contact between people is the primary route for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to quantify interpersonal contact at the population-level by using mobile device geolocation data. We computed the frequency of contact (within six feet) between people in Connecticut during February 2020 - January 2021 and aggregated counts of contact events by area of residence. When incorporated into a SEIR-type model of COVID-19 transmission, the contact...

Herbivory mediates direct and indirect interactions in long-unburned chaparral

Laurel Fox & Stephen Potts
Community interaction webs describe both direct and indirect interactions among species. Changes in direct interactions often become noticeable soon after a perturbation, but time lags in responses of many species may delay the appearance of indirect effects and lead to temporal and/or spatial variation in interaction webs. Accurately identifying these shifts in the field requires time-specific, spatially-differentiated interaction webs. We explore how variation in browsing affects interaction webs in a long-unburned chaparral shrubland near the...

Data from: Evolved differences in thermal plasticity of mosquitofish mating behavior are unrelated to source temperature

Doriane Weiler
Phenotypic plasticity in response to temperature is expected to play a key role in how organisms cope with climate change. Evolved differences in plastic responses are often linked to historical differences in average temperatures, yet we know little about how behavioral plasticity is affected by prevailing thermal environments. In this study, we used a common-garden design to test whether historical differences in average temperatures caused evolutionary divergence in the plasticity of mating behavior of Western...

Data from: Geographic structure in a widespread plant–mycorrhizal interaction: pines and false truffles

Jason D. Hoeksema & J. N. Thompson
Mutualistic interactions are likely to exhibit a strong geographic mosaic in their coevolutionary dynamics, but the structure of geographic variation in these interactions is much more poorly characterized than in host–parasite interactions. We used a cross-inoculation experiment to characterize the scales and patterns at which geographic structure has evolved in an interaction between three pine species and one ectomycorrhizal fungus species along the west coast of North America. We found substantial and contrasting patterns of...

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  • University of California, Santa Cruz
  • Stanford University
  • University of California, Davis
  • Southwest Fisheries Science Center
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
  • University of California Los Angeles
  • Organization For Tropical Studies
  • Yale University
  • University of California System