311 Works

Data from: Modelling the functional link between movement, feeding activity and condition in a marine predator

Enrico Pirotta, Lisa K. Schwarz, Daniel P. Costa, Patrick W. Robinson & Leslie New
The ability to quantify animals’ feeding activity and the resulting changes in their body condition as they move in the environment is fundamental to our understanding of a population’s ecology. We use satellite tracking data from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), paired with simultaneous diving information, to develop a Bayesian state-space model that concurrently estimates an individual’s location, feeding activity, and changes in condition. The model identifies important foraging areas and times, the relative amount...

Data from: Measures of effective population size in sea otters reveal special considerations for wide-ranging species

Roderick B. Gagne, M. Timothy Tinker, Kyle D. Gustafson, Katherine Ralls, Larson Shawn, L. Max Tarjan, Melissa A. Miller & Holly B. Ernest
Conservation genetic techniques and considerations of the evolutionary potential of a species are increasingly being applied to species conservation. For example, effective population size (Ne) estimates are useful for determining the conservation status of species, yet accurate estimates of current Ne remain difficult to obtain. The effective population size can contribute to setting federal delisting criteria, as was done for the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). After being hunted to near extinction during the...

Data from: A new genus of horse from Pleistocene North America

Peter D. Heintzman, Grant D. Zazula, Ross D.E. MacPhee, Eric Scott, James A. Cahill, Brianna K. McHorse, Joshua D. Kapp, Mathias Stiller, Matthew J. Wooller, Ludovic Orlando, John R. Southon, Duane G. Froese, Beth Shapiro & John Southon
The extinct “New World stilt-legged”, or NWSL, equids constitute a perplexing group of Pleistocene horses endemic to North America. Their slender distal limb bones resemble those of Asiatic asses, such as the Persian onager. Previous palaeogenetic studies, however, have suggested a closer relationship to caballine horses than to Asiatic asses. Here, we report complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes from NWSL equids from across their geographic range. Although multiple NWSL equid species have been named,...

Data from: Avoiding tipping points in fisheries management through Gaussian process dynamic programming

Carl Boettiger, Marc Mangel & Stephan Munch
Model uncertainty and limited data are fundamental challenges to robust management of human intervention in a natural system. These challenges are acutely highlighted by concerns that many ecological systems may contain tipping points, such as Allee population sizes. Before a collapse, we do not know where the tipping points lie, if they exist at all. Hence, we know neither a complete model of the system dynamics nor do we have access to data in some...

Data from: An ultraviolet floral polymorphism associated with life history drives pollinator discrimination in Mimulus guttatus (Phrymaceae)

Megan L. Peterson, Timothy J. Miller & Kathleen M. Kay
Premise of the study: Ultraviolet (UV) floral patterns are common in angiosperms and mediate pollinator attraction, efficiency, and constancy. UV patterns may vary within species, yet are cryptic to human observers. Thus, few studies have explicitly described the distribution or ecological significance of intraspecific variation in UV floral patterning. Here, we describe the geographic distribution and pattern of inheritance of a UV polymorphism in the model plant species Mimulus guttatus (Phrymaceae). We then test whether...

Data from: Evolved differences in thermal plasticity of mosquitofish mating behavior are unrelated to source temperature

Doriane Weiler
Phenotypic plasticity in response to temperature is expected to play a key role in how organisms cope with climate change. Evolved differences in plastic responses are often linked to historical differences in average temperatures, yet we know little about how behavioral plasticity is affected by prevailing thermal environments. In this study, we used a common-garden design to test whether historical differences in average temperatures caused evolutionary divergence in the plasticity of mating behavior of Western...

Herbivory mediates direct and indirect interactions in long-unburned chaparral

Laurel Fox & Stephen Potts
Community interaction webs describe both direct and indirect interactions among species. Changes in direct interactions often become noticeable soon after a perturbation, but time lags in responses of many species may delay the appearance of indirect effects and lead to temporal and/or spatial variation in interaction webs. Accurately identifying these shifts in the field requires time-specific, spatially-differentiated interaction webs. We explore how variation in browsing affects interaction webs in a long-unburned chaparral shrubland near the...

Frankenia salina and Jaumea carnosa performance in a restored salt marsh

Karen Tanner, Kerstin Wasson & Ingrid Parker
The Stress Gradient Hypothesis (SGH) predicts facilitation will become more important than competition where abiotic stress is high, and the framework successfully predicts positive interactions between species in many systems. Fewer studies have focused on intraspecific facilitation, and to our knowledge none examine intraspecific interactions in Pacific Coast salt marshes of North America. We used two species that tend to occur in large, monospecific patches to test for intraspecific facilitation in a restored California marsh,...

Data from: Geographic structure in a widespread plant–mycorrhizal interaction: pines and false truffles

Jason D. Hoeksema & J. N. Thompson
Mutualistic interactions are likely to exhibit a strong geographic mosaic in their coevolutionary dynamics, but the structure of geographic variation in these interactions is much more poorly characterized than in host–parasite interactions. We used a cross-inoculation experiment to characterize the scales and patterns at which geographic structure has evolved in an interaction between three pine species and one ectomycorrhizal fungus species along the west coast of North America. We found substantial and contrasting patterns of...

Data from: Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health

Lizabeth Bowen, A. Keith Miles, Michael Murray, Martin Haulena, Judy Tuttle, William Van Bonn, Lance Adams, James L Bodkin, Brenda Ballachey, James Estes, M Tim Tinker, Robin Keister & Jeffery L Stott
Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune-function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter specific, qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a “reference” range of transcripts for each gene in a...

Data from: The geographic structure of selection on a coevolving interaction between social parasitic wasps and their hosts hampers social evolution

Maria Cristina Lorenzi & John N Thompson
Social parasites exploit societies, rather than organisms, and rear their brood in social insect colonies at the expense of their hosts, triggering a coevolutionary process that may affect host social structure. The resulting coevolutionary trajectories may be further altered by selection imposed by predators, which exploit the abundant resources concentrated in these nests. Here, we show that geographic differences in selection imposed by predators affects the structure of selection on coevolving hosts and their social...

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