302 Works

Data from: Effects of macrophytes on lake‐water quality across latitudes: a meta‐analysis

Yiluan Song, Jia Huan Liew, Darren Zong Han Sim, Maxine Allayne Darlene Mowe, Simon Mark Mitrovic, Hugh Tiang Wah Tan & Darren Chong Jinn Yeo
Macrophytes are widely recognized for improving water quality and stabilizing the desirable clear‐water state in lakes. The positive effects of macrophytes on water quality have been noted to be weaker in the (sub)tropics compared to those of temperate regions. We conducted a global meta‐analysis using 47 studies that met our set criteria to assess the overall effects of macrophytes on water quality (measured by phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentration, total nitrogen concentration, total phosphorus concentration, Secchi...

Data from: Vegetation connectivity increases ant activity and potential for ant-provided biocontrol services in a tropical agroforest

Estelí Jimenez-Soto, Jonathan R. Morris, Deborah K. Letourneau, Stacy M. Philpott. & Stacy M. Philpott
In natural and managed systems, connections between trees are important structural resources for arboreal ant communities with ecosystem-level effects. However, ongoing agricultural intensification in agroforestry systems, which reduces shade trees and connectivity between trees and crop plants, may hinder ant recruitment rates to resources and pest control services provided by ants. We examined whether increasing connectivity between coffee plants and shade trees in coffee plantations increases ant activity and enhances biological control of the coffee...

Data from: Genetic structure of the Painted Bunting and its implications for conservation of migratory populations

Andrea Contina, Jose L. Alcantara, Eli S. Bridge, Jeremy D. Ross, Oakley F. William, Jeffrey F. Kelly, Kristen C. Ruegg & William F. Oakley
The Painted Bunting Passerina ciris is a Neotropical songbird which breeds primarily in the United States during the summer and migrates to Mexico, Central America, southern Florida, and the Caribbean over the winter. Male Painted Buntings are brightly coloured, which makes them highly sought after as pets, particularly in Mexico, Central America and Europe. We used short sequence repeats (microsatellite DNA) to investigate the population genetic structure of the Painted Bunting and its implications in...

Data from: Drought and immunity determine the intensity of West Nile virus epidemics and climate change impacts

Sara H. Paull, Daniel E. Horton, Moetasim Ashfaq, Deeksha Rastogi, Laura D. Kramer, Noah S. Diffenbaugh & A. Marm Kilpatrick
The effect of global climate change on infectious disease remains hotly debated because multiple extrinsic and intrinsic drivers interact to influence transmission dynamics in nonlinear ways. The dominant drivers of widespread pathogens, like West Nile virus, can be challenging to identify due to regional variability in vector and host ecology, with past studies producing disparate findings. Here, we used analyses at national and state scales to examine a suite of climatic and intrinsic drivers of...

Data from: Higher fat stores contribute to persistence of little brown bat populations with white-nose syndrome

Tina L. Cheng, Alexander Gerson, Marianne S. Moore, Jonathon D. Reichard, Joely DeSimone, Craig K.R. Willis, Winifred F. Frick & A. Marm Kilpatrick
1. The persistence of populations declining from novel stressors depends, in part, on their ability to respond by trait change via evolution or plasticity. White-nose syndrome (WNS) has caused rapid declines in several North America bat species by disrupting hibernation behavior, leading to body fat depletion and starvation. However, some populations of Myotis lucifugus now persist with WNS by unknown mechanisms. 2. We examined whether persistence of M. lucifigus with WNS could be explained by...

Data from: Conservation implications of ameliorating survival of little brown bats with White-Nose Syndrome

Brooke Maslo, Mick Valent, John F. Gumbs & Winifred F. Frick
Management of wildlife populations impacted by novel threats is often challenged by a lack of data on temporal changes in demographic response. Populations may suffer rapid declines from the introduction of new stressors, but how demography changes over time is critical to determining long-term outcomes for populations. White-nose syndrome (WNS), an infectious disease of hibernating bats, has caused massive and rapid population declines in several hibernating species of bats in North America since the disease...

Data from: Sympatric serpentine endemic Monardella (Lamiaceae) species maintain habitat differences despite hybridization

Kathleen M. Kay, Suzie Woolhouse, Brett A. Smith, Nathaniel S. Pope & Nishanta Rajakaruna
Ecological differentiation and genetic isolation are thought to be critical in facilitating coexistence between related species, but the relative importance of these phenomena, and the interactions between them, are not well understood. Here we examine divergence in abiotic habitat affinity and the extent of hybridization and introgression between two rare species of Monardella (Lamiaceae) that are both restricted to the same serpentine soil exposure in California. Although broadly sympatric, they are found in microhabitats that...

Data from: Carnivory maintains cranial dimorphism between males and females: evidence for niche divergence in extant Musteloidea

Chris Law, Rita S. Mehta & Chris J. Law
The evolution and maintenance of sexual dimorphism has long been attributed to sexual selection. Niche divergence, however, serves as an alternative but rarely tested selective pressure also hypothesized to drive phenotypic disparity between males and females. We reconstructed ancestral social systems and diet and used Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) modeling approaches to test whether niche divergence is stronger than sexual selection in driving the evolution of sexual dimorphism in cranial size and bite force across extant Musteloidea....

Data from: Sex and occupation time influence niche space of a recovering keystone predator

Erin U. Rechsteiner, Jane C. Watson, M. Tim Tinker, Linda M. Nichol, Matthew J. Morgan Henderson, Christie J. McMIllan, Mike DeRoos, Marie C. Fournier, Anne K. Salomon, Leah D. Honka & Chris T. Darimont
Predators exert strong effects on ecological communities, particularly when they re-occupy areas after decades of extirpation. Within species, such effects can vary over time and by sex, and cascade across trophic levels. We used a space-for-time substitution to make foraging observations of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) across a gradient of re-occupation (1–30 yrs), and nMDS analysis to ask if 1) sea otter niche space varies as a function of occupation time, and 2) if niche...

Microaggressions Self-Defense: A Workshop for Responding to Microaggressions (Handout)

Christy Byrd
Microaggressions are subtle verbal and non-verbal slights based on group membership, and they are ubiquitous in the lives of racial minorities, women, and LGBTQ individuals (Sue 2010). This is a handout accompanying a paper introducing a role-playing based exercise on effective responses to microaggressions. The workshop draws on the two previous prejudice responding workshops of Plous (2000) and Lawson et al. (2010) but integrates research-based strategies.

Data from: Convergent evolution of vascular optimization in kelp (Laminariales)

Sarah Tepler Drobnitch, Kaare H. Jensen, Paige Prentice & Jarmila Pittermann
Terrestrial plants and mammals, although separated by a great evolutionary distance, have each arrived at a highly conserved body plan in which universal allometric scaling relationships govern the anatomy of vascular networks and key functional metabolic traits. The universality of allometric scaling suggests that these phyla have each evolved an ‘optimal’ transport strategy that has been overwhelmingly adopted by extant species. To truly evaluate the dominance and universality of vascular optimization, however, it is critical...

Data from: Fire history and plant community composition outweigh decadal multi‐factor global change as drivers of microbial composition in an annual grassland

Clara Qin, Kai Zhu, Nona Chiariello, Christopher Field & Kabir Peay
Soil microbial communities regulate and respond to key biogeochemical cycles and influence plant community patterns. However, microbial communities also respond to disturbance events, motivating an assessment of the relative roles of decadal multi-factor global change, disturbance, and plant community structure on microbial community responses. We used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to characterize the diversity and composition of bacterial and fungal communities in bulk soil (0–7 cm) collected in 2014 from the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment,...

Utilizing field collected insects for next generation sequencing: effects of sampling, storage, and DNA extraction methods

Kimberly Ballare, Nathaniel Pope, Antonio Castilla, Sarah Cusser, Richard Metz & Shalene Jha
DNA sequencing technologies continue to advance the biological sciences, expanding opportunities for genomic studies of non-model organisms for basic and applied questions. Despite these opportunities, many next-generation sequencing protocols have been developed assuming a substantial quantity of high molecular weight DNA (>100 ng), which can be difficult to obtain for many study systems. In particular, the ability to sequence field-collected specimens that exhibit varying levels of DNA degradation remains largely unexplored. In this study we...

Eco-evolutionary feedbacks link prey adaptation to predator performance

David Fryxell, David C. Fryxell, Zachary T. Wood, Rebecca Robinson, Michael T. Kinnison & Eric P. Palkovacs
Eco-evolutionary feedbacks may determine the outcome of predator-prey interactions in nature, but little work has been done to quantify the feedback effect of short-term prey adaptation on predator performance. We tested the effects of prey availability and recent (< 100 years) prey adaptation on the feeding and growth rate of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), foraging on western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). Field surveys showed higher densities and larger average body sizes of mosquitofish in recently introduced...

Complete data from the Barro Colorado 50-ha plot: 423617 trees, 35 years

Richard Condit, Rolando Pérez, Salomón Aguilar, Suzanne Lao, Robin Foster & Stephen Hubbell
The 50-ha plot at Barro Colorado Island was initially demarcated and fully censused in 1982, and has been fully censused 7 times since, every 5 years from 1985 through 2015 (Hubbell and Foster 1983, Hubbell et al. 1990, Condit et al. 2012, Condit et al. 2017). Every measurement of every stem over 8 censuses is included in this archive. Most users will need only the 8 R Analytical Tables in the format tree, which come...

Data for Drought-Net rainfall shelters did not cause non-drought effects on photosynthesis for California central coast plants.

Michael Loik
Rainfall interception shelters are frequently used to study the ecological consequences of drought. One common shelter design employs V-shaped plastic troughs spaced on a supporting frame to intercept rainfall. Shading, reflection, and infrared radiation may alter the radiative environment under shelters in ways independent of their intended effect on soil moisture. We measured microclimate and several photosynthetic variables for watered potted plants under rain-out shelters and in open-air, unsheltered plots. We tested whether the shelter...

CT DICOM studies from: In vivo measurements of lung volumes in ringed seals: insights from biomedical imaging

Holly Hermann-Sorensen, Nicole Thometz, Kathleen Woodie, Sophie Dennison-Gibby & Colleen Reichmuth
This dataset supports: Hermann-Sorensen, H., Thometz, N.M., Woodie, K., Dennison-Gibby, S., and Reichmuth, C. In vivo measurements of lung volumes in ringed seals: insights from biomedical imaging. Journal of Experimental Biology. Marine mammals rely on oxygen stored in blood, muscle, and lungs to support breath-hold diving and foraging at sea. Here, we used biomedical imaging to examine lung oxygen stores and other key respiratory parameters in living ringed seals (Pusa hispida). Three-dimensional models created from...

Data from: Rethinking sustainability in seafood: synergies and trade-offs between fisheries and climate change

Brandi McKuin, Jordan Watson, Stephen Stohs & J. Elliott Campbell
In the manuscript entitled, "Rethinking sustainability in seafood: synergies and trade-offs between fisheries and climate change", we quantified the climate forcing per unit fish protein associated with several different U.S. tuna fishing fleets, among the most important capture fisheries by both volume and value. The fishing fleets include the U.S. purse seine that operates in the Western Central Pacific Fisheries Commission convention area, the U.S. North Pacific albacore surface gear (which includes both troll and...

Numerical simulation of cool hydrothermal processes in the upper volcanic crust beneath a marine sediment pond: North Pond, North Atlantic Ocean

Adam N. Price, Andrew T. Fisher, Philip H. Stauffer & Carl W. Gable
Low temperature hydrothermal systems hosted in the volcanic oceanic crust are responsible for ~20% of Earth's global heat loss. Marine sediment ponds comprise an important type-setting on young ridge flanks where hydrothermal circulation advectively extracts lithospheric heat, but the nature of coupled fluid-heat transport in these settings remains poorly understood. Here we present coupled (fluid-heat) numerical simulations of ocean crustal hydrogeology in and below North Pond, a sediment pond on ~8 Ma seafloor of the...

Data from: Density-dependent effects on reproductive output in a capital breeding carnivore, the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris)

Daniel Costa, Rachel Holser, Daniel Crocker, Patrick Robinson, Gitte McDonald, Melinda Fowler, Jason Hassrick, Luis Hückstädt, Sarah Peterson, Samantha Simmons & Theresa Keates
All organisms face resource limitations that will ultimately restrict population growth, but the controlling mechanisms vary across ecosystems, taxa, and reproductive strategies. Using four decades of data, we examine how variation in the environment and population density affect reproductive outcomes in a capital-breeding carnivore, the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). This species provides a unique opportunity to examine the relative importance of resource acquisition and density-dependence on breeding success. Capital breeders accrue resources over large...

Effects of insect herbivory on seedling mortality in restored and remnant tropical forest

Andy J. Kulikowski, Rakan A. Zahawi & Karen D. Holl
Insect herbivory is one of the major drivers of seedling mortality in the tropics and influences plant abundances and community composition. Anthropogenic disturbance can alter patterns of insect herbivory with potential consequences on plant communities in restored forests. We planted seedlings of early- and later-stage successional tree species in 13–15-year-old restored and remnant tropical forests. We then either excluded insect herbivores or left seedlings exposed to examine how insect herbivory-affected seedling mortality. Early-successional seedlings experienced...

Morphological measurements of arm loss for eight octopus species

Kelley Voss
Sublethal predation is prevalent in multi-limbed marine invertebrates and holistically quantifying their injuries has potential to provide important ecological and physiological insights including the rate of trophic energy transfer. We demonstrate the utility of an Injury Severity Index (ISI) to holistically describe the magnitude of appendage injury in invertebrates, using data collected from octopuses in museums and the field. ISI, when applied to octopus, quantifies the numbers of arms lost and the proportion of tissue...

Quantification of thermal impacts across freshwater life stages to improve temperature management for anadromous salmonids

Alyssa FitzGerald & Benjamin Martin
Water temperature is the major controlling factor that shapes the physiology, behavior, and ultimately, survival of aquatic ectotherms. Here we examine temperature effects on the survival of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a species of high economic and conservation importance. We implement a framework to assess how incremental changes in temperature impact survival across populations that is based on thermal performance models for three freshwater life stages of Chinook salmon. These temperature-dependent models were combined with...

Photographs of 15-day wound closure progress in C57BL/6J mice

Hsin-Ya Yang, Michelle Bagood, Hector Carrion & Rivkah Isseroff
Evaluating and tracking wound size is a fundamental metric for the wound assessment process. Good location and size estimates can enable proper diagnosis and effective treatment. Traditionally, laboratory wound healing studies include a collection of images at uniform time intervals exhibiting the wounded area and the healing process in the test animal, often a mouse. These images are then manually observed to determine key metrics —such as wound size progress— relevant to the study. However,...

Community-level reorganizations following migratory pollinator dynamics along a latitudinal gradient

Ainhoa Magrach, Carlos Lara, Márquez-Luna Ubaldo, Sergio Díaz-Infante & Ingrid M. Parker
Predicting how communities re-arrange in response to changes in species composition remains a key challenge in ecology. Migratory species, which enter and leave communities across latitudinal gradients, offer us a unique opportunity to evaluate community and species-level responses to a shift in community composition. We focused on a migratory hummingbird and the communities that host it along a latitudinal and species diversity gradient. Our results show higher niche overlap in more diverse communities, allowing resident...

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  • University of California, Santa Cruz
  • Stanford University
  • University of California, Davis
  • Southwest Fisheries Science Center
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
  • University of California Los Angeles
  • Organization For Tropical Studies
  • Yale University
  • University of California System