78 Works

Data from: Functional basis of the sexual dimorphism in the auditory fovea of the duetting bushcricket Ancylecha fenestrata

Jan Scherberich, Jennifer Hummel, Stefan Schöneich & Manuela Nowotny
From mammals to insects, acoustic communication is in many species crucial for successful reproduction. In the duetting bushcricket Ancylecha fenestrata, the mutual acoustic communication between males and females is asymmetrical. We investigated how those signalling disparities are reflected by sexual dimorphism of their ears. Both sexes have tympanic ears in their forelegs, but male ears possess a significantly longer crista acustica containing 35% more scolopidia. With more sensory cells to cover a similar hearing range,...

Data from: Trophic and non-trophic interactions influence the mechanisms underlying biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships under different abiotic conditions

Nathaly R. Guerrero-Ramírez & Nico Eisenhauer
Plant diversity effects on ecosystem functioning usually have been studied from a plant perspective. However, the mechanisms underlying biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships may also depend on positive or negative interactions between plants and other biotic and abiotic factors, which remain poorly understood. Here we assessed whether plant–herbivore and/or plant–detritivore interactions modify the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationship and the mechanisms underlying biodiversity effects, including complementarity and selection effects, biomass allocation, vertical distribution of roots, and plant survival using...

Data from: Temperature effects on prey and basal resources exceed that of predators in an experimental community

Madhav P. Thakur, John N. Griffin, Tom Künne, Susanne Dunker, Andrea Fanesi & Nico Eisenhauer
Climate warming alters the structure of ecological communities by modifying species interactions at different trophic levels. Yet, the consequences of warming-led modifications in biotic interactions at higher trophic levels on lower trophic groups are lesser known. Here, we test the effects of multiple predator species on prey population size and traits, and subsequent effects on basal resources along an experimental temperature gradient (12-15C, 17-20C, and 22-25C). We experimentally assembled food web modules with two congeneric...

Data from: Characterization of unexplored deadwood mycobiome in highly diverse subtropical forests using culture-independent molecular technique

Witoon Purahong, Katherina A. Pietsch, Guillaume Lentendu, Ricardo Schöps, Helge Bruelheide, Christian Wirth, François Buscot & Tesfaye Wubet
The deadwood mycobiome, also known as wood-inhabiting fungi (WIF), are among the key players in wood decomposition, having a large impact on nutrient cycling in forest soils. However, our knowledge of WIF richness and distribution patterns in different forest biomes is limited. Here, we used pyrotag sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region to characterize the deadwood mycobiome of two tree species with greatly different wood characteristics (Schima superba and Pinus massoniana) in...

Data from: Genomic and morphological evidence converge to resolve the enigma of Strepsiptera

Oliver Niehuis, Gerrit Hartig, Sonja Grath, Hans Pohl, Jörg Lehmann, Hakim Tafer, Alexander Donath, Veiko Krauss, Carina Eisenhardt, Jana Hertel, Malte Petersen, Christoph Mayer, Karen Meusemann, Ralph S. Peters, Peter F. Stadler, Rolf G. Beutel, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Duane D. McKenna & Bernhard Misof
The phylogeny of insects, one of the most spectacular radiations of life on earth, has received considerable attention. However, the evolutionary roots of one intriguing group of insects, the twisted-wing parasites (Strepsiptera), remain unclear despite centuries of study and debate. Strepsiptera exhibit exceptional larval developmental features, consistent with a predicted step from direct (hemimetabolous) larval development to complete metamorphosis that could have set the stage for the spectacular radiation of metamorphic (holometabolous) insects. Here we...

Data from: Visual phenotype matching: cues to paternity are present in rhesus macaque faces

Anahita J. N. Kazem & Anja Widdig
The ability to recognize kin and thus behaviourally discriminate between conspecifics based on genetic relatedness is of importance both in acquiring inclusive fitness benefits and to enable optimal inbreeding. In primates, mechanisms allowing recognition of paternal relatives are of particular interest, given that in these mating systems patrilineal information is unlikely to be available via social familiarity. Humans use visual phenotype matching based on facial features to identify their own and other's close relatives, and...

Data from: Re-assessing the diversity of negative strand RNA viruses in insects

Simon Käfer, Sofia Paraskevopoulou, Florian Zirkel, Nicolas Wieseke, Alexander Donath, Malte Petersen, Terry C. Jones, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Martin Middendorf, Sandra Junglen, Bernhard Misof & Christian Drosten
The spectrum of viruses in insects is important for subjects as diverse as public health, veterinary medicine, food production, and biodiversity conservation. The traditional interest in vector-borne diseases of humans and livestock has drawn the attention of virus studies to hematophagous insect species. However, these represent only a tiny fraction of the broad diversity of Hexapoda, the most speciose group of animals. Here, we systematically probed the diversity of negative strand RNA viruses in the...

Data from: Early Miocene marine ostracods from southwestern India: implications for their biogeography and the closure of the Tethyan Seaway

Moriaki Yasuhara, Yuanyuan Hong, Skye Yunshu Tian, Wing Ki Chong, Rachel Wai Ching Chu, Hisayo Okahashi, Markus Reuter, Werner E. Piller & Mathias Harzhauser
Twenty-six genera and 34 species of early Miocene Indian shallow-marine ostracods were examined for taxonomy and paleobiogeography. A new genus Paractinocythereis and new species Costa ponticulocarinata were described. Early Miocene Indian ostracod fauna shows strong affinity to Eocene–Miocene Eastern and Western Tethyan ostracod faunas and Miocene–Recent Indo-Pacific ostracod fauna, supporting the Hopping Hotspot Hypothesis that Tethyan biodiversity hotspot have shifted eastward through Arabia to Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) together with concomitant biogeographic shifts of the Tethyan...

Plant history and soil history jointly influence the selection environment for plant species in a long-term grassland biodiversity experiment

Peter Dietrich, Nico Eisenhauer, Peter Otto & Christiane Roscher
Long-term biodiversity experiments have shown increasing strengths of biodiversity effects on plant productivity over time. However, little is known about rapid evolutionary processes in response to plant community diversity, which could contribute to explaining the strengthening positive relationship. To address this issue, we performed a transplant experiment with offspring of seeds collected from four grass species in a 14-year old biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). We used two- and six-species communities and removed the vegetation of...

Genomic basis for skin phenotype and cold adaptation in the extinct Steller's sea cow

Diana Le Duc, Akhil Velluva, Molly Cassatt-Johnstone, Remi-Andre Olsen, Sina Baleka, Chen-Ching Lin, Johannes R. Lemke, John R. Southon, Alexander Burdin, Ming-Shan Wang, Sonja Grunewald, Wilfried Rosendahl, Ulrich Joger, Sereina Rutschmann, Thomas B. Hildebrandt, Guido Fritsch, James A. Estes, Janet Kelso, Love Dalén, Michael Hofreiter, Beth Shapiro & Torsten Schöneberg
Steller’s sea cow, an extinct sirenian and one of the largest Quaternary mammals, was described by Georg Steller in 1741 and eradicated by humans within 27 years. Here, we complement Steller’s descriptions with paleogenomic data from 12 individuals. We identified convergent evolution between Steller’s sea cow and cetaceans but not extant sirenians, suggesting a role of several genes in adaptation to cold environments. Among these are inactivations of lipoxygenase genes, which in humans and mouse...

Data from: Incomplete datasets obscure associations between traits affecting dispersal ability and geographic range size of reef fishes in the Tropical Eastern Pacific

Adriana Alzate, Fons Van Der Plas, Fernando A. Zapata, Dries Bonte & Rampal S. Etienne
Dispersal is thought to be an important process determining range size, especially for species in highly spatially structured habitats, such as tropical reef fishes. Despite intensive research efforts, there is conflicting evidence about the role of dispersal on determining range size. We hypothesize that traits related to dispersal drive range sizes, but that complete and comprehensive datasets are essential for detecting relationships between species’ dispersal ability and range size. We investigate the roles of six...

Data from: Invasive earthworms erode soil biodiversity: a meta-analysis

Olga Ferlian, Nico Eisenhauer, Martin Aguirrebengoa, Mariama Camara, Irene Ramirez-Rojas, Fabio Santos, Krizler Tanalgo & Madhav P. Thakur
1. Biological invasions pose a serious threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning across ecosystems. Invasions by ecosystem engineers, in particular, have been shown to have dramatic effects in recipient ecosystems. For instance, invasion by earthworms, a belowground invertebrate ecosystem engineer, in previously earthworm-free ecosystems dramatically alters the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil. Studies have shown that such alterations in the soil can have far-reaching impacts on soil organisms, which form a major portion of terrestrial...

Evaluating the educational effectiveness of a structured, simulator-assisted, peer-led training on cardiovascular physical examination in third-year medical students: A randomized, controlled trial

David Kronschnabl, Christoph Baerwald & Daisy Rotzoll
Background: Previous research suggests that cardiac examination skills in undergraduate medical students frequently need improvement. There are different ways to enhance physical examination (PE) skills such as simulator-based training or peer-assisted learning (PAL). Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured, simulator-assisted, peer-led training on cardiovascular PE. Methods: Participants were third-year medical students at Leipzig University Faculty of Medicine. Students were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG) and...

Forest inventory data from Finland and Sweden for: Demographic performance of European tree species at their hot and cold climatic edges, plus ancillary climate data

Sophia Ratcliffe, Jonas Dahlgren, Aleksi Lehtonen, Christian Wirth, Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Miguel A. Zavala, Gerald Kaendler, Raisa Mäkipää & Georges Kunstler
1. Species range limits are thought to result from a decline in demographic performance at range edges. However, recent studies reporting contradictory patterns in species demographic performance at their edges cast doubt on our ability to predict climate change demographic impacts. To understand these inconsistent demographic responses at the edges, we need to shift the focus from geographic to climatic edges and analyse how species responses vary with climatic constraints at the edge and species’...

Abundances of xylobiont beetles in the Leipzig floodplain forest 2016

Nora Haack, Ingo Brunk, Martin Schlegel, Detlef Bernhard, Klaus Henle, Annegret Grimm-Seyfarth & Christian Wirth
The dataset includes abundance data from xylobiont beetles, captured in the Leipzig floodplain forest between March and October 2016. We sampled three strata and three tree species. The strata were the understory with 2 traps, the lower canopy with 12 traps and the upper canopy with 12 traps. The 24 traps in the lower and upper canopy can further be assigned to the tree species Quercus robur, Tilia cordata and Fraxinus excelsior. Each tree was...

Data from: Applying generalised allometric regressions to predict live body mass of tropical and temperate arthropods

Esra H. Sohlström, Lucas Marian, Andrew D. Barnes, Noor F. Haneda, Stefan Scheu, Björn C. Rall, Ulrich Brose & Malte Jochum
1. The ecological implications of body size extend from the biology of individual organisms to ecosystem–level processes. Measuring body mass for high numbers of invertebrates can be logistically challenging, making length-mass regressions useful for predicting body mass with minimal effort. However, standardised sets of scaling relationships covering a large range in body length, taxonomic groups, and multiple geographical regions are scarce. 2. We collected 6212 arthropods from 19 higher-level taxa in both temperate and tropical...

Data from: An eco-epidemiological study of Morbilli-related paramyxovirus infection in Madagascar bats reveals host-switching as the dominant macro-evolutionary mechanism

Julien Mélade, Nicolas Wieseke, Beza Ramasindrazana, Olivier Flores, Erwan Lagadec, Yann Gomard, Steven M. Goodman, Koussay Dellagi & Hervé Pascalis
An eco-epidemiological investigation was carried out on Madagascar bat communities to better understand the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental factors that affect virus transmission among bat species in closely related members of the genus Morbillivirus, currently referred to as Unclassified Morbilli-related paramyxoviruses (UMRVs). A total of 947 bats were investigated originating from 52 capture sites (22 caves, 18 buildings, and 12 outdoor sites) distributed over different bioclimatic zones of the island. Using RT-PCR targeting the L-polymerase...

Data from: Convergent evolution of the ladder-like ventral nerve cord in Annelida

Conrad Helm, Patrick Beckers, Thomas Bartolomaeus, Stephan H. Drukewitz, Ioannis Kourtesis, Anne Weigert, Günter Purschke, Katrine Worsaae, Torsten H. Struck & Christoph Bleidorn
Background: A median, segmented, annelid nerve cord has repeatedly been compared to the arthropod and vertebrate nerve cords and became the most used textbook representation of the annelid nervous system. Recent phylogenomic analyses, however, challenge the hypothesis that a subepidermal rope-ladder-like ventral nerve cord (VNC) composed of a paired serial chain of ganglia and somata-free connectives represents either a plesiomorphic or a typical condition in annelids. Results: Using a comparative approach by combining phylogenomic analyses...

Data from: Nitrogen deposition cancels out exotic earthworm effects on plant-feeding nematode communities

Yuanhu Shao, Weixin Zhang, Nico Eisenhauer, Tao Liu, Yanmei Xiong, Chenfei Liang & Shenglei Fu
The activity and spread of exotic earthworms often are spatially correlated with N deposition because both arise from human activities. Exotic earthworms, in turn, can also greatly affect soil abiotic and biotic properties, as well as related ecological processes. Previous studies showed, for example, that earthworms can counteract the detrimental effects of plant-feeding nematodes on plant growth. However, potential interactive effects of N deposition and exotic earthworms on ecosystems are poorly understood. We explored the...

Data from: Belowground complementarity effects in a grassland biodiversity experiment are related to deep-rooting species

Natalie J. Oram, Janneke M. Ravenek, Kathryn E. Barry, Alexandra Weigelt, Hongmei Chen, Arthur Gessler, Annette Gockele, Hans De Kroon, Jan Willem Van Der Paauw, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Annemiek Smit-Tiekstra, Jasper Van Ruijven & Liesje Mommer
1. Belowground resource partitioning is often proposed as the underlying mechanism for the positive relationship between plant species richness and productivity. For example, if species have different root distributions, a mixture of plant species may be able to use the available resources more completely than the individual species in a monoculture. However, there is little experimental evidence for differentiation in vertical root distributions among species and its contribution to biodiversity effects. 2. We determined species-specific...

Canopy volume throughout a growing season in Trait-Based Experiment in 2014

Claudia Guimarães-Steinicke & Christian Wirth

Data from: Origins of global mountain plant biodiversity: testing the “mountain-geobiodiversity hypothesis”

Alexandra Muellner-Riehl, Jan Schnitzler, W. Daniel Kissling, Volker Mosbrugger, Kenneth Rijsdijk, Arie Seijmonsbergen, Hannes Versteegh & Adrien Favre
Aim Our objective is to analyse global-scale patterns of mountain biodiversity (vascular plants) and the driving forces leading to the observed patterns. More specifically, we test the “mountain geobiodiversity hypothesis” (MGH) which is based on the assumption that it is not mountain-uplift alone which drives the evolution of mountain biodiversity, but rather the combination of geodiversity evolution and Neogene and Pleistocene climate changes. Hence, we address the following questions: 1) Do areas of high geodiversity...

Tree diversity effects on soil microbial biomass and respiration are context-dependent across forest diversity experiments

Simone Cesarz
Aim Soil microorganisms are essential for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Although soil microbial communities and functions may be linked to tree species composition and diversity, there has been no comprehensive study of how general these potential relationships are, or if they are context-dependent. Here, we examine tree diversity–soil microbial biomass and respiration relationships across environmental gradients using a global network of tree diversity experiments. Location Global Time Period 2013 Major Taxa Studied Soil microorganisms...

Exposure to 3, 3’, 4, 4’, 5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) causes widespread DNA hypomethylation in adult zebrafish testis

Neelakanteswar Aluru & Jan Engelhardt
Exposure to environmental toxicants during preconception have been shown to affect offspring health and epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are hypothesized to be involved in adverse outcomes. However, studies addressing the effects of exposure to environmental toxicants during preconception on epigenetic changes in gametes are limited. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of preconceptional exposure to a dioxin-like PCB (PCB126) on DNA methylation and gene expression in testis. Adult zebrafish...

Social norms and cultural diversity in the development of third-party punishment

Bailey House, Patricia Kanngiesser, H. Clark Barrett, Süheyla Yilmaz, Andrew Marcus Smith, Carla Sebastian-Enesco, Alejandro Erut & Joan Silk
Human cooperation is likely supported by our tendency to punish selfishness in others. Social norms play an important role in motivating third-party punishment, and also in explaining societal differences in prosocial behavior. However, there has been little work directly linking social norms to the development of third-party punishment across societies. In this study, we explored the impact of normative information on the development of third-party punishment in 603 children aged 4-14 years, across six diverse...

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