130 Works

Macrophage coordination of the interferon lambda immune response

Scott Read
Lambda interferons (IFN-λs) are a major component of the innate immune defense to viruses, bacteria and fungi. In human liver, IFN-λ not only drives antiviral responses, but also promotes inflammation and fibrosis in viral and non-viral diseases. Here we demonstrate that macrophages are primary responders to IFN-λ, uniquely positioned to bridge the gap between IFN-λ producing cells and lymphocyte populations that are not intrinsically responsive to IFN-λ. While CD14+ monocytes do not express the IFN-λ...

Intralocus sexual conflict over optimal nutrient intake and the evolution of sex differences in lifespan and reproduction

John Hunt, Michael Hawkes, Sarah Lane, James Rapkin, Kim Jensen, Clarissa House & Scott Sakaluk
Despite widespread variation in lifespan across species, three clear patterns exist: sex differences in lifespan are ubiquitous, lifespan is commonly traded against reproduction, and nutrition has a major influence on these traits and how they trade-off. One process that potentially unites these patterns is Intralocus Sexual Conflict (IASC) over the optimal intake of nutrients for lifespan and reproduction. If nutrient intake has sex-specific effects on lifespan and reproduction and nutrient choice is genetically linked across...

Data from: Macronutrient intake and simulated infection threat independently affect life history traits of male decorated crickets

Kristin Duffield, Kylie Hampton, Thomas Houslay, James Rapkin, John Hunt, Ben Sadd & Scott Sakaluk
Nutritional geometry has advanced our understanding of how macronutrients (e.g., proteins and carbohydrates) influence the expression of life history traits and their corresponding trade-offs. For example, recent work has revealed that reproduction and immune function in male decorated crickets are optimized at very different protein:carbohydrate (P:C) dietary ratios. However, it is unclear how an individual’s macronutrient intake interacts with its perceived infection status to determine investment in reproduction or other key life history traits. Here,...

Male and female genotype and a genotype-by-genotype interaction mediate the effects of mating on cellular but not humoral immunity in female decorated crickets

Ben Sadd, Kylie Hampton, Kristin Duffield, Scott Sakaluk & John Hunt
Sexually antagonistic coevolution is predicted to lead to the divergence of male and female genotypes related to the effects of substances transferred by males at mating on female physiology. The outcome of mating should thus depend on the specific combination of mating genotypes. Although mating has been shown to influence female immunity in diverse insect taxa, a male-female genotype-by-genotype effect on female immunity post-mating remains largely unexplored. Here, we investigate the effects of mating on...

Siliceous and non-nutritious: nitrogen limitation increases anti-herbivore silicon defenses in a model grass

Scott Johnson
Silicon (Si) accumulation alleviates a diverse array of environmental stresses in many plants, including conferring physical resistance against insect herbivores. It has been hypothesised that grasses, in particular, utilise ‘low metabolic cost’ Si for structural and defensive roles under nutrient limitation. While carbon (C) concentrations often negatively correlate with Si concentrations, the relationship between nitrogen (N) status and Si is more variable. Moreover, the impacts of N limitation on constitutive physical Si defences (e.g. silica...

Whole genome resequencing reveals signatures of rapid selection in a virus affected commercial fishery

Owen Holland, Madeline Toomey, Collin Ahrens, Ary Hoffman, Larry Croft, Craig Sherman & Adam Miller
Infectious diseases are recognised as one of the greatest global threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Consequently, there is a growing urgency to understand the speed at which adaptive phenotypes can evolve and spread in natural populations to inform future management. Here we provide evidence of rapid genomic changes in wild Australian blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) following a major population crash associated with an infectious disease. Genome scans on H. rubra were performed using pooled...

Elevated atmospheric CO2 changes defence allocation in wheat but herbivore resistance persists

Scott Johnson, Ximena Cils-Stewart, Jamie Waterman, Fikadu Biru & Rhiannon Rowe
Predicting how plants allocate to different anti-herbivore defences in response to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations is important for understanding future patterns of crop susceptibility to herbivory. Theories of defence allocation, especially in the context of environmental change, largely overlook the role of silicon (Si), despite it being the major anti-herbivore defence in the Poaceae. We demonstrated that elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 (e[CO2]) promoted plant growth by 33% and caused wheat (Triticum aestivum) to...

Silicon enrichment alters functional traits in legumes depending on plant genotype and symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

Rocky Putra, Rebecca K. Vandegeer, Shawan Karan, Jeff R. Powell, Susan E. Hartley & Scott N. Johnson
1. Silicon (Si) uptake and deposition (silicification) in tissues is known to alleviate stresses and generally improve plant health. This is mostly studied in Si-high accumulators, such as grasses, with comparatively less known about its effects on other plant functional groups, such as legumes. There is speculation that Si may positively impact the symbiosis between legumes and the nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) they associate with, but this is poorly understood. This study examined the effects of...

Leaf silicification provides herbivore defence regardless of the extensive impacts of water stress

Rebecca Vandegeer, Ximena Cibils-Stewart, Richard Wuhrer, Susan Hartley, David Tissue & Scott Johnson
Altered precipitation patterns due to climate change are likely to impose water-deficit stress in plants resulting in changes to specific leaf mass, leaf water content and chemical defences that may impact herbivorous arthropods. Grasses, in particular, accumulate large concentrations of silicon (Si) which provides physical defence against herbivores. Although Si uptake by plants may be affected by water availability, very few studies have investigated the combined effect of water-deficit stress and Si on insect herbivore...

Data from: Two sources of bias explain errors in facial age estimation

Colin W.G. Clifford, Tamara Watson, David White & Tamara L. Watson
Accurate age estimates underpin our everyday social interactions, the provision of age-restricted services and police investigations. Previous work suggests that these judgments are error-prone, but the processes giving rise to these errors are not understood. Here we present the first systematic test of bias in age estimation using a large database of standardized passport images of heterogeneous ages (n = 3948). In three experiments we tested a range of perceiver age groups (n = 84),...

Data from: Do grazing intensity and herbivore type affect soil health? Insights from a semi-arid productivity gradient

David J. Eldridge, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Samantha K. Travers, James Val, Ian Oliver & David Eldridge
Grazing is one of the most widespread forms of intensive management on Earth and is linked to reductions in soil health. However, little is known about the relative influence of herbivore type, herbivore intensity and site productivity on soil health. This lack of knowledge reduces our capacity to manage landscapes where grazing is a major land use. We used structural equation modelling to assess the effects of recent (cattle, sheep, goats, kangaroos and rabbit dung)...

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: The search for loci under selection: trends, biases and progress

Collin W. Ahrens, Paul D. Rymer, Adam Stow, Jason Bragg, Shannon Dillon, Kate D. L. Umbers & Rachael Y. Dudaniec
Detecting genetic variants under selection using FST outlier analysis (OA) and environmental association analyses (EAA) are popular approaches that provide insight into the genetic basis of local adaptation. Despite the frequent use of OA and EAA approaches and their increasing attractiveness for detecting signatures of selection, their application to field-based empirical data have not been synthesized. Here, we review 66 empirical studies that use Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in OA and EAA. We report trends...

Data from: Leaf photosynthetic, economics and hydraulic traits are decoupled among genotypes of a widespread species of eucalypt grown under ambient and elevated CO2

Chris J. Blackman, Michael J. Aspinwall, Victor Resco De Dios, Renee Smith, David T. Tissue & Renee A. Smith
Leaf economics and hydraulic traits strongly influence photosynthesis. While the level of coordination among these traits can differ between sets of species, leaf functional trait coordination within species remains poorly understood. Furthermore, elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 commonly influence the expression of leaf photosynthetic, economics and hydraulic traits in contrasting ways, yet the effect of variable concentrations of atmospheric CO2 on patterns of trait coordination within species remains largely untested. We examined the relationships among...

Data from: Global effects of soil and climate on leaf photosynthetic traits and rates

Vincent Maire, Ian J. Wright, I. Colin Prentice, Niels H. Batjes, Radika Bhaskar, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Will K. Cornwell, David Ellsworth, Ülo Niinemets, Alejandro Ordoñez, Peter B. Reich & Louis S. Santiago
Aim: The influence of soil properties on photosynthetic traits in higher plants is poorly quantified in comparison with that of climate. We address this situation by quantifying the unique and joint contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Location: Terrestrial ecosystems world-wide. Methods: Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of 20 soil and 26 climate variables...

Data from: Cross-biome metagenomic analyses of soil microbial communities and their functional attributes

Noah Fierer, Jonathan W. Leff, Byron J. Adams, Uffe N. Nielsen, Scott Thomas Bates, Christian L. Lauber, Sarah Owens, Jack A. Gilbert, Diana H. Wall & J. Gregory Caporaso
For centuries ecologists have studied how the diversity and functional traits of plant and animal communities vary across biomes. In contrast, we have only just begun exploring similar questions for soil microbial communities despite soil microbes being the dominant engines of biogeochemical cycles and a major pool of living biomass in terrestrial ecosystems. We used metagenomic sequencing to compare the composition and functional attributes of 16 soil microbial communities collected from cold deserts, hot deserts,...

Data from: Evaluating multilocus Bayesian species delimitation for discovery of cryptic mycorrhizal diversity

Michael R. Whitehead, Renee A. Catullo, Monica Ruibal, Kingsley W. Dixon, Rod Peakall & Celeste C. Linde
The increasing availability of DNA sequence data enables exciting new opportunities for fungal ecology. However, it amplifies the challenge of how to objectively classify the diversity of fungal sequences into meaningful units, often in the absence of morphological characters. Here, we test the utility of modern multilocus Bayesian coalescent-based methods for delimiting cryptic fungal diversity in the orchid mycorrhiza morphospecies Serendipita vermifera. We obtained 147 fungal isolates from Caladenia, a speciose clade of Australian orchids...

Data from: Feminizing Wolbachia endosymbiont disrupts maternal sex chromosome inheritance in a butterfly species

Daisuke Kageyama, Mizuki Ohno, Tatsushi Sasaki, Atsuo Yoshido, Tatsuro Konagaya, Akiya Jouraku, Seigo Kuwazaki, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Yuichi Katayose, Satoko Narita, Mai Miyata, Markus Riegler & Ken Sahara
Wolbachia is a maternally inherited ubiquitous endosymbiotic bacterium of arthropods that displays a diverse repertoire of host reproductive manipulations. For the first time, we demonstrate that Wolbachia manipulates sex chromosome inheritance in a sexually reproducing insect. Eurema mandarina butterfly females on Tanegashima Island, Japan, are infected with the wFem Wolbachia strain and produce all-female offspring, while antibiotic treatment results in male offspring. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that wFem-positive and wFem-negative females have Z0...

Data from: Cryptic diversity in a fig wasp community – morphologically differentiated species are sympatric but cryptic species are allopatric

Clive T. Darwell & James M. Cook
A key debate in ecology centres on the relative importance of niche and neutral processes in determining patterns of community assembly with particular focus on whether ecologically similar species with similar functional traits are able to coexist. Meanwhile, molecular studies are increasingly revealing morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species with presumably similar ecological roles. Determining the geographic distribution of such cryptic species provides opportunities to contrast predictions of niche versus neutral models. Discovery of sympatric cryptic species...

Data from: Species richness, but not phylogenetic diversity, influences community biomass production and temporal stability in a re-examination of 16 grassland biodiversity studies

Patrick Venail, Kevin Gross, Todd H. Oakley, Anita Narwani, Eric Allan, Pedro Flombaum, Forest Isbell, Jasmin Joshi, Peter B. Reich, David Tilman, Jasper Van Ruijven & Bradley J. Cardinale
1.Hundreds of experiments have now manipulated species richness of various groups of organisms and examined how this aspect of biological diversity influences ecosystem functioning. Ecologists have recently expanded this field to look at whether phylogenetic diversity among species, often quantified as the sum of branch lengths on a molecular phylogeny leading to all species in a community, also predicts ecological function. Some have hypothesized that phylogenetic divergence should be a superior predictor of ecological function...

Data from Time Travelling with Technology: a technology-based program for promoting relationships and engagement in aged care

Madeleine Radnan, Caroline Jones, Andrew Leahy & Weicong Li
This dataset contains transcripts of conversations between elderly people and a facilitator during group reminiscence therapy sessions in a day-respite aged care facility in Sydney Australia. Each session consisted of 2-4 older adults, sometimes including family and carers, and ran for approximately 30 minutes. Each session displayed locations of significance to the clients on a television using Google Maps and Google Street View in a program called Time Travelling with Technology (TTT). Half the sessions...

Data from: Trade-offs in juvenile growth potential vs. shade tolerance among subtropical rainforest trees on soils of contrasting fertility

Kerrie M. Sendall, Christopher H. Lusk & Peter B. Reich
Plant adaptation to gradients of light availability involves a well-studied functional trade-off, as does adaptation to gradients of nutrient availability. However, little is known about how these two major trade-offs interact, and thus, it remains unclear whether and how the nature of the growth–shade tolerance trade-off differs on soils of contrasting fertility. We asked whether juvenile growth–shade tolerance trade-offs differed in slope and elevation between tree assemblages on nutrient-rich basalt and nutrient-poor rhyolite soils in...

Data from: Impacts of silicon-based grass defences across trophic levels under both current and future atmospheric CO2 scenarios

James M.W. Ryalls, Sue E. Hartley, Scott N. Johnson, James M. W. Ryalls & Susan E. Hartley
Silicon (Si) has important functional roles in plants, including resistance against herbivores. Environmental change, such as increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2, may alter allocation to Si defences in grasses, potentially changing the feeding behaviour and performance of herbivores, which may in turn impact on higher trophic groups. Using Si-treated and untreated grasses (Phalaris aquatica) maintained under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (640 and 800 ppm) CO2 concentrations, we show that Si reduced feeding by crickets...

Data from: Sexual selection and population divergence II. divergence in different sexual traits and signal modalities in field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus)

Sonia Pascoal, Magdalena Mendrok, Alastair J. Wilson, John Hunt & Nathan W. Bailey
Sexual selection can target many different types of traits. However, the relative influence of different sexually-selected traits during evolutionary divergence is poorly understood. We used the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus to quantify and compare how five traits from each of three sexual signal modalities and components diverge among allopatric populations: male advertisement song, cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles and forewing morphology. Population divergence was unexpectedly consistent: we estimated the among-population (genetic) variance-covariance matrix, D, for all...

Data from: Root responses to elevated CO2, warming, and irrigation in a semi-arid grassland: integrating biomass, length, and life span in a 5‐year field experiment

Kevin E. Mueller, Daniel R. LeCain, M. Luke McCormack, Elise Pendall, Mary Carlson & Dana M. Blumenthal
1.Plant roots mediate the impacts of environmental change on ecosystems, yet knowledge of root responses to environmental change is limited because few experiments evaluate multiple environmental factors and their interactions. Inferences about root functions are also limited because root length dynamics are rarely measured. 2.Using a five‐year experiment in a mixed‐grass prairie, we report the responses of root biomass, length, and lifespan to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), warming, elevated CO2 and warming combined, and irrigation....

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