20 Works

Intralocus sexual conflict over optimal nutrient intake and the evolution of sex differences in lifespan and reproduction

John Hunt, Michael Hawkes, Sarah Lane, James Rapkin, Kim Jensen, Clarissa House & Scott Sakaluk
Despite widespread variation in lifespan across species, three clear patterns exist: sex differences in lifespan are ubiquitous, lifespan is commonly traded against reproduction, and nutrition has a major influence on these traits and how they trade-off. One process that potentially unites these patterns is Intralocus Sexual Conflict (IASC) over the optimal intake of nutrients for lifespan and reproduction. If nutrient intake has sex-specific effects on lifespan and reproduction and nutrient choice is genetically linked across...

Siliceous and non-nutritious: nitrogen limitation increases anti-herbivore silicon defenses in a model grass

Scott Johnson
Silicon (Si) accumulation alleviates a diverse array of environmental stresses in many plants, including conferring physical resistance against insect herbivores. It has been hypothesised that grasses, in particular, utilise ‘low metabolic cost’ Si for structural and defensive roles under nutrient limitation. While carbon (C) concentrations often negatively correlate with Si concentrations, the relationship between nitrogen (N) status and Si is more variable. Moreover, the impacts of N limitation on constitutive physical Si defences (e.g. silica...

Elevated atmospheric CO2 changes defence allocation in wheat but herbivore resistance persists

Scott Johnson, Ximena Cils-Stewart, Jamie Waterman, Fikadu Biru & Rhiannon Rowe
Predicting how plants allocate to different anti-herbivore defences in response to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations is important for understanding future patterns of crop susceptibility to herbivory. Theories of defence allocation, especially in the context of environmental change, largely overlook the role of silicon (Si), despite it being the major anti-herbivore defence in the Poaceae. We demonstrated that elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 (e[CO2]) promoted plant growth by 33% and caused wheat (Triticum aestivum) to...

Silicon enrichment alters functional traits in legumes depending on plant genotype and symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

Rocky Putra, Rebecca K. Vandegeer, Shawan Karan, Jeff R. Powell, Susan E. Hartley & Scott N. Johnson
1. Silicon (Si) uptake and deposition (silicification) in tissues is known to alleviate stresses and generally improve plant health. This is mostly studied in Si-high accumulators, such as grasses, with comparatively less known about its effects on other plant functional groups, such as legumes. There is speculation that Si may positively impact the symbiosis between legumes and the nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) they associate with, but this is poorly understood. This study examined the effects of...

Leaf silicification provides herbivore defence regardless of the extensive impacts of water stress

Rebecca Vandegeer, Ximena Cibils-Stewart, Richard Wuhrer, Susan Hartley, David Tissue & Scott Johnson
Altered precipitation patterns due to climate change are likely to impose water-deficit stress in plants resulting in changes to specific leaf mass, leaf water content and chemical defences that may impact herbivorous arthropods. Grasses, in particular, accumulate large concentrations of silicon (Si) which provides physical defence against herbivores. Although Si uptake by plants may be affected by water availability, very few studies have investigated the combined effect of water-deficit stress and Si on insect herbivore...

Data from Time Travelling with Technology: a technology-based program for promoting relationships and engagement in aged care

Madeleine Radnan, Caroline Jones, Andrew Leahy & Weicong Li
This dataset contains transcripts of conversations between elderly people and a facilitator during group reminiscence therapy sessions in a day-respite aged care facility in Sydney Australia. Each session consisted of 2-4 older adults, sometimes including family and carers, and ran for approximately 30 minutes. Each session displayed locations of significance to the clients on a television using Google Maps and Google Street View in a program called Time Travelling with Technology (TTT). Half the sessions...

Changes in participant behaviour and attitudes are associated with knowledge and skills gained by using a turtle conservation citizen science app

Claudia Santori, Ryan J. Keith, Camilla M. Whittington, Mike B. Thompson, James U. Van Dyke & Ricky-John Spencer
Citizen science has become a popular way to collect biodiversity data and engage the wider public in scientific research. It has the potential to improve the knowledge and skills of participants, and positively change their behaviour and attitude towards the environment. Citizen science outcomes are particularly valuable for wildlife conservation, as they could help alleviate human impacts on the environment. We used an online questionnaire to investigate the consequences of participating in an Australian turtle...

Opposing community assembly patterns for dominant and non-dominant plant species in herbaceous ecosystems globally

Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Elizabeth Borer, Eric Seabloom, Juan Alberti, Selene Baez, Jonathon Bakker, Elizabeth Boughton, Yvonne Buckley, Miguel Bugalho, Ian Donohue, John Dwyer, Jennifer Firn, Riley Gridzak, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Aveliina Helm, Anke Jentsch, , Kimberly Komatsu, Lauri Laanisto, Ramesh Laungani, Rebecca McCulley, Joslin Moore, John Morgan, Pablo Peri … & Marc Cadotte
Biotic and abiotic factors interact with dominant plants —the locally most frequent or with the largest coverage— and non-dominant plants differently, partially because dominant plants modify the environment where non-dominant plants grow. For instance, if dominant plants compete strongly, they will deplete most resources, forcing non-dominant plants into a narrower niche space. Conversely, if dominant plants are constrained by the environment, they might not exhaust available resources but instead may ameliorate environmental stressors that usually...

Differential geographic patterns in song components of male Albert’s lyrebirds

Fiona Backhouse, Anastasia Dalziell, Robert Magrath, Aaron Rice, Taylor Crisologo & Justin Welbergen
Geographic variation in bird song has received much attention in evolutionary studies, yet few consider components within songs that may be subject to different constraints and follow different evolutionary trajectories. Here we quantify patterns of geographic variation in the socially-transmitted ‘whistle’ song of Albert’s lyrebirds (Menura alberti), an oscine passerine renowned for its remarkable vocal abilities. Albert’s lyrebirds are confined to narrow stretches of suitable habitat, allowing us to map likely paths of cultural transmission...

Phylogenetic diversity rankings in the face of extinctions: The robustness of the fair proportion index

Mareike Fischer, Andrew Francis & Kristina Wicke
Planning for the protection of species often involves difficult choices about which species to prioritize, given constrained resources. One way of prioritizing species is to consider their "evolutionary distinctiveness'', i.e. their relative evolutionary isolation on a phylogenetic tree. Several evolutionary isolation metrics or phylogenetic diversity indices have been introduced in the literature, among them the so-called Fair Proportion index (also known as the "evolutionary distinctiveness" score). This index apportions the total diversity of a tree...

Fire, drought and flooding rains: the effect of climatic extremes on bird species’ responses to time since fire

Jemima Connell, Mark Hall, Dale Nimmo, Simon Watson & Michael Clarke
Aim: Climatic extremes and fire affect ecosystems across the globe, yet our understanding of how species are influenced by the interaction of these broad-scale ecological drivers is poorly understood. Using a ten-year dataset, we tested how extreme drought and rainfall interacted with time since fire (TSF) to shape bird species’ distributions. Location: Semi-arid mallee woodlands of south-eastern Australia. Methods: We quantified the effects of climatic extremes on bird species’ occurrence, species richness and incidence at...

Regarding the F-word: the effects of data Filtering on inferred genotype-environment associations

Collin Ahrens, Rebecca Jordan, Jason Bragg, Peter Harrison, Tara Hopley, Helen Bothwell, Kevin Murray, Dorothy Steane, John Whale, Margaret Byrne, Rose Andrew & Paul Rymer
Genotype-environment association (GEA) methods have become part of the standard landscape genomics toolkit, yet, we know little about how to best filter genotype-by-sequencing data to provide robust inferences for environmental adaptation. In many cases, default filtering thresholds for minor allele frequency and missing data are applied regardless of sample size, having unknown impacts on the results. These effects could be amplified in downstream predictions, including management strategies. Here, we investigate the effects of filtering on...

Data from: National assessments of species vulnerability to climate change strongly depend on selected data sources

Daniel Scherrer, Manuel Esperon-Rodriguez, Linda J. Beaumont, Victor L. Barradas & Antoine Guisan
Aim: Correlative species distribution models (SDMs) are among the most frequently used tools for conservation planning under climate and land-use changes. Conservation-focused climate change studies are often conducted on a national or local level and can use different sources of occurrence records (e.g., local databases, national biodiversity monitoring) collated at different geographic extents. However, little is known about how these restrictions in geographic space (i.e., Wallacean shortfall) can lead to restrictions in environmental space (i.e....

Interactions between silicon and alkaloid defences in endophyte-infected grasses and the consequences for a folivore

Ximena Cibils-Stewart, Wade J. Mace, Alison J. Popay, Fernando A. Lattanzi, Susan E. Hartley, Casey R. Hall, Jeff R. Powell & Scott N. Johnson
1. Grasses have developed a wide range of morphological and physiological mechanisms to resist herbivory. For instance, they accumulate silicon (Si) in tissue, as physical defence, and associate symbiotically with foliar Epichloë-endophytes that provide chemical defence via antiherbivore alkaloids. Recent evidence showed that some Epichloë-endophytes increase foliar Si in forage grasses; however, it is unknown whether this impacts insect herbivores. Furthermore, while Si is primarily a physical defence, it also affects production of plant defensive...

Split sex ratio due to maternal condition

Alihan Katlav, Duong Nguyen, James Cook & Markus Riegler
In females of haplodiploid animals, female production requires fertilisation, whereas male production does not. Therefore, haplodiploid species can display extraordinary sex ratios. Constrained sex allocation occurs when a female cannot produce daughters. This can be due to virginity but may also occur after mating due to insemination failure, selfish genetic elements or physiological constraints. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying constrained sex allocation in Pezothrips kellyanus. In this species some mated females produce highly female-biased...

Fast food in the city? Nomadic flying-foxes commute less and hang around for longer in urban areas

Jessica Meade, John Martin & Justin Welbergen
Urbanization creates novel ecological spaces where some species thrive. Geographical urbanization promotes human-wildlife conflict; however, we know relatively little about the drivers of biological urbanization, which poses impediments for sound wildlife management and conservation action. Flying-foxes are extremely mobile and move nomadically in response to flowering resources, but are now increasingly found in urban areas, for reasons that are poorly understood. To investigate the mechanisms behind flying-fox urbanization, we examined the movement of 99 satellite...

Hydraulic prediction of drought-induced plant dieback and top-kill depends on leaf habit and growth form

Ya-Jun Chen, Brendan Choat, Frank Sterck, Phisamai Maenpuen, Masatoshi Katabuchi, Shu-Bin Zhang, Kyle Tomlinson, Rafael Oliveira, Yong-Jiang Zhang, Kun-Fang Cao & Steven Jansen
Hydraulic failure caused by severe drought contributes to aboveground dieback and whole-plant death. The extent to which dieback or whole-plant death can be predicted by plant hydraulic traits has rarely been tested among species with different leaf habits and/or growth forms. We investigated 19 hydraulic traits in 40 woody species in a tropical savanna and their potential correlations with drought response during an extreme drought event during the El Niño–Southern Oscillation in 2015. Plant hydraulic...

Short-term exposure to silicon rapidly enhances plant resistance to herbivory

Jamie Waterman, Ximena Cibils-Stewart, Christopher Cazzonelli, Susan Hartley & Scott Johnson
Silicon (Si) can adversely affect insect herbivores, particularly in plants that evolved the ability to accumulate large quantities of Si. Very rapid herbivore-induced accumulation of Si has recently been demonstrated, but the level of protection against herbivory this affords plants remains unknown. Brachypodium distachyon, a model Si hyperaccumulating grass, was exposed to the chewing herbivore, Helicoverpa armigera, and grown under three conditions: supplied Si over 34 days (+Si), not supplied Si (-Si), or supplied Si...

Exotics are more complementary over time in tree biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments

Michael Belluau, Alain Paquette, Dominique Gravel, Peter Reich, Artur Stefanski & Christian Messier
Background and aims The Biodiversity – Ecosystem Functioning (BEF) literature proposes that ecosystem functioning increases with biodiversity because of complementarity in resource use among species, associated with functional diversity. In this study, we challenge the trait-based ecology framework by comparing congeneric exotic (European) and native (North American) tree species showing similar resource-use functional trait values. The trait-based framework suggests that two functionally equivalent species should play similar roles in a community, resulting in similar interactions...

The Host-Guest Chemistry of Proflavine with Cucurbit[6,7,8]urils

Sharon Kemp, Nial J. Wheate, Frank H. Stootman & Janice R. Aldrich-Wright
(2007). The Host-Guest Chemistry of Proflavine with Cucurbit[6,7,8]urils. Supramolecular Chemistry: Vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 475-484.

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Western Sydney University
  • University of Sheffield
  • La Trobe University
  • Charles Sturt University
  • University of Minnesota
  • Australian National University
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
  • University of Quebec at Montreal
  • University of Washington
  • University of Pretoria