103 Works

Data from: Mid-Cretaceous amber inclusions reveal morphogenesis of extinct rachis-dominated feathers

Nathan Carroll, Luis M. Chiappe & David J. Bottjer
We describe three-dimensionally preserved feathers in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber that share macro-morphological similarities (e.g., proportionally wide rachis with a “medial stripe”) with lithic, two-dimensionally preserved rachis-dominated feathers. These feathers in amber reveal a unique ventrally concave and dorsoventrally thin rachis, and a dorsal groove (sometimes pigmented) that we identify as the “medial stripe” visible in many rachis-dominated rectrices of Mesozoic birds. The distally pennaceous portion of these feathers shows differentiated proximal and distal barbules, the...

Sex differences in moral judgements across 67 countries

Morteza Dehghani, Mohammad Atari, Mark Lai & Morteza Dehghani
Most of the empirical research on sex differences and cultural variations in morality has relied on within-culture analyses or small-scale cross-cultural data. To further broaden the scientific understanding of sex differences in morality, the current research relies on two international samples to provide the first large-scale examination of sex differences in moral judgements nested within cultures. Using a sample from 67 countries (Study 1; n = 336,691), we found culturally-variable sex differences in moral judgements,...

Data from: Computed tomography shows high fracture prevalence among physically active forager-horticulturalists with high fertility

Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin C. Trumble, Study Team HORUS, Caleb Finch, Dong Li, Matthew J. Budoff, Hillard Kaplan & Michael Gurven
Modern humans have more fragile skeletons than other hominins, which may result from physical inactivity. Here we test whether reproductive effort also compromises bone strength, by measuring using computed tomography thoracic vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence among physically active Tsimane forager-horticulturalists. Earlier onset of reproduction and shorter interbirth intervals are associated with reduced BMD for women. Tsimane BMD is lower versus Americans, but only for women, contrary to simple predictions relying on...

Data from: Molecular underpinnings and biogeochemical consequences of enhanced diatom growth in a warming Southern Ocean

Loay Jabre, Andrew E. Allen, J. Scott P. McCain, John P. McCrow, Nancy Tenenbaum, Jenna L. Spackeen, Rachel E. Sipler, Beverley R. Green, Deborah A. Bronk, David A. Hutchins & Erin M. Bertrand
The Southern Ocean (SO) harbours some of the most intense phytoplankton blooms on Earth. Changes in temperature and iron availability are expected to alter the intensity of SO phytoplankton blooms, but little is known about how environmental change will influence community composition and downstream biogeochemical processes. We performed experimental manipulations on surface ocean microbial communities from McMurdo Sound in the Ross Sea, with and without iron addition, at -0.5 °C, 3 °C, and 6 °C....

Data from: Variations of mesozoic feathers: insights from the morphogenesis of extant feather rachises

Shuo Wang, Wei-Ling Chang, Qiyue Zhang, Menglu Ma, Feng Yang, De Zhuo, Harn I-Chen Hans, Rui Yang, Ping Wu, Michael Bruce Habib, Wen-Tau Juan & Cheng-Ming Chuong
The rachises of extant feathers, composed of dense cortex and spongy internal medulla, are flexible and light, yet stiff enough to withstand the load required for flight, among other functions. Incomplete knowledge of early feathers prevents a full understanding of how cylindrical rachises have evolved. Bizarre feathers with unusually wide and flattened rachises, known as “rachis-dominated feathers” (RDFs) have been observed in fossil non-avian and avian theropods. Newly discovered RDFs embedded in early Late Cretaceous...

Osteology of the late Triassic bipedal archosaur Poposaurus gracilis (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia) from Western North America

Emma R. Schachner, Randall B. Irmis, Adam K. Huttenlocker, Kent Sanders, Robert L. Cieri & Sterling J. Nesbitt
Poposaurus gracilis is a bipedal pseudosuchian archosaur that has been poorly understood since the discovery of the holotype fragmentary partial postcranial skeleton in 1915. Poposaurus. gracilis is a member of Poposauroidea, an unusually morphologically divergent clade of pseudosuchians containing taxa that are bipedal, quadrupedal, toothed, edentulous, and some individuals with elongated thoracic neural spines (i.e., sails). In 2003, a well preserved, fully articulated, and nearly complete postcranial skeleton of P. gracilis was discovered with some...

Data from: Model sensitivity and use of the comparative finite element method in mammalian jaw mechanics: mandible performance in the Gray Wolf

Zhijie Jack Tseng, Jill L. McNitt-Gray, Henryk Flashner, Xiaoming Wang & Reyes Enciso
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a powerful tool gaining use in studies of biological form and function. This method is particularly conducive to studies of extinct and fossilized organisms, as models can be assigned properties that approximate living tissues. In disciplines where model validation is difficult or impossible, the choice of model parameters and their effects on the results become increasingly important, especially in comparing outputs to infer function. To evaluate the extent to which...

Data from: Fitness and morphological outcomes of many generations of hybridization in the copepod Tigriopus californicus

Victoria L. Pritchard, Suzanne Edmands, Jennifer Zieba, Vanessa L. Knutson & Melisa Lee
Hybridization between genetically divergent populations is an important evolutionary process, with an outcome that is difficult to predict. We used controlled crosses and freely mating hybrid swarms, followed for up to 30 generations, to examine the morphological and fitness consequences of interpopulation hybridization in the copepod Tigriopus californicus. Patterns of fitness in two generations of controlled crosses were partly predictive of long-term trajectories in hybrid swarms. For one pair of populations, controlled crosses revealed neutral...

Data from: A transgenic quail model that enables dynamic imaging of amniote embryogenesis

David Huss, Bertrand Benazeraf, Allison Wallingford, Michael Filla, Jennifer Yang, Scott E. Fraser & Rusty Lansford
Embryogenesis is the coordinated assembly of tissues during morphogenesis through changes in individual cell behaviors and collective cell movements. Dynamic imaging, combined with quantitative analysis, is ideal for investigating fundamental questions in developmental biology involving cellular differentiation, growth control and morphogenesis. However, a reliable amniote model system that is amenable to the rigors of extended, high-resolution imaging and cell tracking has been lacking. To address this shortcoming, we produced a novel transgenic quail that ubiquitously...

Data from: A new ophiocistioid with soft-tissue preservation from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte, and the evolution of the holothurian body plan

Imran Rahman, Jeffrey Thompson, Derek Briggs, David Siveter, Derek Siveter & Mark Sutton
Reconstructing the evolutionary assembly of animal body plans is challenging when there are large morphological gaps between extant sister taxa, as in the case of echinozoans (echinoids and holothurians). However, the inclusion of extinct taxa can help bridge these gaps. Here we describe a new species of echinozoan, Sollasina cthulhu, from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte, UK. S. cthulhu belongs to the ophiocistioids, an extinct group that shares characters with both echinoids and holothurians. Using physical-optical...

Data from: Genetic inviability is a major driver of type-III survivorship in experimental families of a highly fecund marine bivalve

Louis V. Plough, Grace Shin & Dennis Hedgecock
The offspring of most highly fecund marine fish and shellfish suffer substantial mortality early in the life cycle, complicating prediction of recruitment and fisheries management. Early mortality has long been attributed to environmental factors and almost never to genetic sources. Previous work on a variety of marine bivalve species uncovered substantial genetic inviability among the offspring of inbred crosses, suggesting a large load of early-acting deleterious recessive mutations. However, genetic inviability of randomly bred offspring...

Data from: FOXP2 exhibits neuron class specific expression, but is not required for multiple aspects of cortical histogenesis

Ryan J. Kast, Alexandra L. Lanjewar, Colton D. Smith & Pat Levitt
The expression patterns of the transcription factor FOXP2 in the developing mammalian forebrain have been described, and some studies have tested the role of this protein in the development and function of specific forebrain circuits by diverse methods and in multiple species. Clinically, mutations in FOXP2 are associated with severe developmental speech disturbances, and molecular studies indicate that impairment of Foxp2 may lead to dysregulation of genes involved in forebrain histogenesis. Here, anatomical and molecular...

Recommended fossil calibrators for time-scaled molecular phylogenies of Afrotheria

Steven Heritage, Erik Seiffert & Matthew Borths
A phylogenetic framework provides the necessary evolutionary context for studies of comparative anatomy, life history, behavior, biogeography, systematics, and conservation. Time-scaled phylogenetic analyses require researchers to include calibration ages which are used to fit a model that transforms tree branch lengths into units of time. The inclusion of multiple calibration ages (if they are available) is a best practice that brings all the available evidence to bear on the temporal model. While selecting the appropriate...

Data from: Heritable variation and lack of tradeoffs suggest adaptive capacity in Acropora cervicornis despite negative synergism under climate change scenarios

Erinn Muller, Ashley Dungan, Wyatt Million, Katherine Eaton, Chelsea Petrik, Erich Bartels, Emily Hall & Carly Kenkel
Knowledge of multi-stressor interactions and the potential for trade-offs among tolerance traits is essential for developing intervention strategies for the conservation and restoration of reef ecosystems in a changing climate. Thermal extremes and acidification are two major co-occurring stresses predicted to limit the recovery of vital Caribbean reef-building corals. Here we conducted an aquaria-based experiment to quantify the effects of increased water temperatures and pCO2 individually and in concert on 12 genotypes of the endangered...

Food deprivation exposes sex-specific trade-offs between stress tolerance and lifespan in the copepod Tigriopus californicus

Ning Li, Ben A Flanagan & Suzanne Edmands
Long life is standardly assumed to be associated with high stress tolerance. Previous work shows that the copepod Tigriopus californicus breaks this rule, with longer lifespan under benign conditions found in males, the sex with lower stress tolerance. Here we extended this previous work, raising animals from the same families in food-replete conditions until adulthood and then transferring them to food-limited conditions until all animals perished. As in previous work, survivorship under food-replete conditions favored...

Data from: Landscape of tumor mutation load, mismatch repair deficiency, and PD-L1 expression in a large patient cohort of gastrointestinal cancers

Mohamed E. Salem, Alberto Puccini, Axel Grothey, Derek Raghavan, Richard M. Goldberg, Joanne Xiu, W. Michael Korn, Benjamin A. Weinberg, Jimmy J. Hwang, Anthony F. Shields, John L. Marshall, Philip A. Philip & Heinz-Josef Lenz
Purpose: The efficacy of immunotherapy varies widely among different gastrointestinal cancers. Response to immune checkpoint inhibitors is shown to correlate with tumor mutation load (TML), mismatch repair deficiency status (dMMR), and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. Herein, we attempt to quantify TML, dMMR, and PD-L1 expression and determine their interrelationship in gastrointestinal cancers. Experimental Design: A total of 4125 tumors from 14 different gastrointestinal cancer sites were studied. Next-generation sequencing was performed on genomic...

Data from: Extreme QTL mapping of germination speed in Arabidopsis thaliana

Wei Yuan, Jonathan M. Flowers, Dustin J. Sahraie, Ian M. Ehrenreich & Michael D. Purugganan
Seed germination is a key life history transition for annual plants and partly determines lifetime performance and fitness. Germination speed, the elapsed time for a nondormant seed to germinate, is a poorly understood trait important for plants’ competitiveness and fitness in fluctuating environments. Germination speed varied by 30% among 18 Arabidopsis thaliana populations measured, and exhibited weak negative correlation with flowering time and seed weight, with significant genotype effect (P < 0.005). To dissect the...

Data from: Polygenic adaptation on height is overestimated due to uncorrected stratification in genome-wide association studies

Mashaal Sohail, Robert M. Maier, Andrea Ganna, Alex Bloemendal, Alicia R. Martin, Michael C. Turchin, Charleston W. K. Chang, Joel Hirschhorn, Mark J. Daly, Nick Patterson, Benjamin Neale, Iain Mathieson, David Reich & Shamil R. Sunyaev
Genetic predictions of height differ among human populations and these differences have been interpreted as evidence of polygenic adaptation. These differences were first detected using SNPs genome-wide significantly associated with height, and shown to grow stronger when large numbers of sub-significant SNPs were included, leading to excitement about the prospect of analyzing large fractions of the genome to detect polygenic adaptation for multiple traits. Previous studies of height have been based on SNP effect size...

Data from: Too constrained to converse: the effect of financial constraints on word-of-mouth

Anna Paley, Stephanie M. Tully & Eesha Sharma
Existing research demonstrates that financial constraints are widespread and influence consumer attention, preference, choice, and consumption in a variety of ways. Despite the growing knowledge of how financial constraints affect the consumer decision making process, less is known about its impact on post-purchase behavior. This work examines whether financial constraints impact an important post-purchase behavior—word-of-mouth—and in what direction. Seven studies show that financial constraints reduce purchase-related word-of-mouth. This effect emerges across consumers’ reported frequencies of...

Data from: Testing adaptive hypotheses of convergence with functional landscapes: a case study of bone-cracking hypercarnivores

Zhijie Jack Tseng
Morphological convergence is a well documented phenomenon in mammals, and adaptive explanations are commonly employed to infer similar functions for convergent characteristics. I present a study that adopts aspects of theoretical morphology and engineering optimization to test hypotheses about adaptive convergent evolution. Bone-cracking ecomorphologies in Carnivora were used as a case study. Previous research has shown that skull deepening and widening are major evolutionary patterns in convergent bone-cracking canids and hyaenids. A simple two-dimensional design...

Data from: Ecology and genomics of an important crop wild relative as a prelude to agricultural innovation

Eric J. B. Von Wettberg, Peter L Chang, Fatma Başdemir, Noelia Carrasquila-Garcia, Lijalem Korbu, Susan M. Moenga, Gashaw Bedada, Alex Greenlon, Ken S. Moriuchi, Vasantika Suryawanshi, Matilde A Cordeiro, Nina V. Noujdina, Kassaye Negash Dinegde, Syed Gul Abbas Shah Sani, Tsegaye Getahun, Lisa Vance, Emily Bergmann, Donna Lindsay, Bullo Erena Mamo, Emily J. Warschefsky, Emmanuel Dacosta-Calheiros, Edward Marques, Mustafa Abdullah Yilmaz, Ahmet Murat Cakmak, Janna Rose … & Douglas R. Cook
Domesticated species are impacted in unintended ways during domestication and breeding. Changes in the nature and intensity of selection impart genetic drift, reduce diversity, and increase the frequency of deleterious alleles. Such outcomes constrain our ability to expand the cultivation of crops into environments that differ from those under which domestication occurred. We address this need in chickpea, an important pulse legume, by harnessing the diversity of wild crop relatives. We document an extreme domestication-related...

Data from: Assessment of plasma proteomics biomarker’s ability to distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules

Gerard A. Silvestri, Nichole T. Tanner, Paul Kearney, Anil Vachani, Pierre P. Massion, Alexander Porter, Steven C. Springmeyer, Kenneth C. Fang, David Midthun, Peter J. Mazzone, D. Madtes, J. Landis, A. Levesque, K. Rothe, M. Balaan, B. Dimitt, B. Fortin, N. Ettinger, A. Pierre, L. Yarmus, K. Oakjones-Burgess, N. Desai, Z. Hammoud, A. Sorenson, R. Murali … & F. Allison
Background: Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge, with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of cancer (pCA) ≤ 50%. Methods: A prospective, multicenter observational trial of 685 patients with 8- to 30-mm lung nodules was conducted. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative abundance of two...

Data from: GATA2 controls lymphatic endothelial cell junctional integrity and lymphovenous valve morphogenesis through miR-126

, Xin Geng, YenChun Ho, Boksik Cha, Yuenhee Kim, Jing Ma, Lijuan Chen, Greggory Myers, Sally Camper, Debbie Mustacich, Marlys Witte, Dongwon Choi, Young-Kwon Hong, Hong Chen, Gaurav Varshney, James D Engel, Shusheng Wang, Tae-Hoon Kim, Kim-Chew Lim & Sathish Srinivasan
Mutations in the transcription factor GATA2 cause lymphedema. GATA2 is necessary for the development of lymphatic valves (LVs) and lymphovenous valves (LVVs), and for the patterning of lymphatic vessels. Here, we report that GATA2 is not necessary for valvular endothelial cell (VEC) differentiation. Instead, GATA2 is required for VEC maintenance and morphogenesis. GATA2 is also necessary for the expression of cell junction molecules VE-Cadherin and Claudin5 in lymphatic vessels. We identified miR-126 as a target...

Data from: Environmental resource deficit may drive the evolution of intraspecific trait variation in invasive plant populations

Shuangshuang Liu, Jared Streich, Justin O. Borevitz, Kevin J. Rice, Tingting Li, Bo Li & Kent J. Bradford
Intraspecific trait variation within natural populations (i.e. intra‐population trait variation, IPTV) is the basic source for selection and can have significant ecological consequences. Higher IPTV may increase a population's niche breath and benefit interspecies competition under a resource‐limited environment, thus affecting the ability of a species to move into novel habitats. However, the reciprocal influences of variation in environmental conditions and phenotypic trait expression in spreading plant populations are not clearly defined. We propose that...

Data from: Fine-scale temporal analysis of genotype-dependent mortality at settlement in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

Louis V. Plough
Settlement and metamorphosis mark a critical transition in the life cycle of marine invertebrates, during which substantial mortality occurs in both field and laboratory settings. Previous pair-crossing experiments with the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas have revealed significant selective or genotype-dependent mortality around the metamorphic transition, but the fine-scale nature and timing of this mortality is not known, particularly whether it occurs before, during or after metamorphosis. In this laboratory study, microsatellite marker segregation ratios were...

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