13 Works

Data from: Fear of predation slows plant-litter decomposition

Dror Hawlena, Michael S. Stickland, Mark A. Bradford & Oswald J. Schmitz
Aboveground consumers are believed to affect ecosystem functioning by regulating the quantity and quality of plant-litter entering the soil. We uncover a novel pathway whereby terrestrial predators regulate ecosystem processes via indirect control over soil community function. Grasshopper herbivores stressed by spider predators have a higher body carbon-to-nitrogen ratio than grasshoppers raised without spiders. This change in elemental content does not slow grasshopper decomposition but perturbs belowground community function, decelerating subsequent decomposition of plant-litter. This...

Data from: Sharing and re-use of phylogenetic trees (and associated data) to facilitate synthesis

Arlin Stoltzfus, Brian O'Meara, Jamie Whitacre, Ross Mounce, Emily L. Gillespie, Sudhir Kumar, Dan F. Rosauer & Rutger A. Vos
BACKGROUND: Recently, various evolution-related journals adopted policies to encourage or require archiving of phylogenetic trees and associated data. Such attention to practices that promote data sharing reflects rapidly improving information technology, and rapidly expanding potential to use this technology to aggregate and link data from previously published research. Nevertheless, little is known about current practices, or best practices, for publishing phylogenetic trees and associated data in a way that promotes re-use. RESULTS: Here we summarize...

Data from: Phylogenetic signal and noise: predicting the power of a data set to resolve phylogeny

Jeffrey P. Townsend, Zhuo Su & Yonas I. Tekle
A principal objective for phylogenetic experimental design is to predict the power of a dataset to resolve nodes in a phylogenetic tree. However, proactively assessing the potential for phylogenetic noise compared to signal in a candidate dataset has been a formidable challenge. Understanding the impact of collection of additional sequence data to resolve recalcitrant internodes at diverse historical times will facilitate increasingly accurate and cost-effective phylogenetic research. Here, we derive theory based on the fundamental...

Data from: Genetic isolation within the malaria mosquito Anopheles melas

Kevin C. Deitz, Giridhar Athrey, Michael R. Reddy, Hans J. Overgaard, Abrahan Matias, Jawara Musa, Alessandra Della Torre, Vincenzo Petrarca, Joao Pinto, Anthony E. Kiszewski, Pierre Kengne, Carlo Costantini, Adalgisa Caccone, Michel A. Slotman, Musa Jawara & Giri Athrey
Anopheles melas is a brackish water-breeding member of the An. gambiae complex that is distributed along the coast of West Africa and is a major malaria vector within its range. Because little is known about the population structure of this species, we analyzed 15 microsatellite markers and 1,161 bp of mtDNA in 11 An. melas populations collected throughout its range. Compared to its sibling species An. gambiae, An. melas populations have a high level of...

Data from: The influence of geographic heterogeneity in predation pressure on mating signal divergence in an Amazonian frog species complex

Paula A. Trillo, Keri A. Athanas, Daniel H. Goldhill, Kim L. Hoke & W. Chris. Funk
Sexual section plays an important role in mating signal divergence, but geographic variation in ecological factors can also contribute to divergent signal evolution. We tested the hypothesis that geographic heterogeneity in predation causes divergent selection on advertisement call complexity within the Engystomops petersi frog species complex. We conducted predator phonotaxis experiments at two sites where female choice is consistent with call trait divergence. Engystomops at one site produces complex calls, while the closely related species...

Data from: Elevated rates of morphological and functional diversification in reef-dwelling haemulid fishes.

Samantha Ann Price, Jose J. Tavera, Thomas J. Near & Peter C. Wainwright
The relationship between habitat complexity and species richness is well established but comparatively little is known about the evolution of morphological diversity in complex habitats. Reefs are structurally complex, highly productive shallow-water marine ecosystems found in tropical (coral reefs) and temperate zones (rocky reefs) which harbor exceptional levels of biodiversity. We investigated whether reef habitats promote the evolution of morphological diversity in the feeding and locomotion systems of grunts (Haemulidae), a group of predominantly nocturnal...

Data from: Evidence for repeated loss of selective constraint in rhodopsin of amblyopsid cavefishes (Teleostei: Amblyopsidae)

Matthew Lance Niemiller, Benjamin Minault Fitzpatrick, Premal Shah, Lars Schmitz & Thomas J. Near
The genetic mechanisms underlying regressive evolution—the degeneration or loss of a derived trait—are largely unknown, particularly for complex structures such as eyes in cave organisms. In several eyeless animals, the visual photoreceptor rhodopsin appeared to retain functional amino-acid sequences. Hypotheses to explain apparent maintenance of function include weak selection for retention of light-sensing abilities and its pleiotropic roles in circadian rhythms and thermotaxis. In contrast, we show that there has been repeated loss of functional...

Data from: Effective population size of malaria mosquitoes: large impact of vector control

Giridhar Athrey, Theresa K. Hodges, Michael R. Reddy, Hans J. Overgaard, Abrahan Matias, Frances C. Ridl, Immo Kleinschmidt, Adalgisa Caccone & Michel A. Slotman
Malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa have proven themselves very difficult adversaries in the global struggle against malaria. Decades of anti-vector interventions have yielded mixed results – with successful reductions in transmission in some areas, and limited impacts in others. These varying successes can be ascribed to a lack of universally effective vector control tools, as well as the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. Understanding the impact of vector control on mosquito populations is...

Data from: Effects of climatic and geological processes during the Pleistocene on the evolutionary history of the northern cavefish, Amblyopsis spelaea (Teleostei: Amblyopsidae)

Matthew Lance Niemiller, James R. McCandless, Robert Graham Reynolds, James Caddle, Thomas J. Near, Christopher R. Tillquist, William D. Pearson & Benjamin Minault Fitzpatrick
Climatic and geological processes associated with glaciation cycles during the Pleistocene have been implicated in influencing patterns of genetic variation and promoting speciation of temperate flora and fauna. However, determining the factors promoting divergence and speciation is often difficult in many groups because of our limited understanding of potential vicariant barriers and connectivity between populations. Pleistocene glacial cycles are thought to have significantly influenced the distribution and diversity of subterranean invertebrates; however, impacts on subterranean...

Data from: Global gradients in vertebrate diversity predicted by historical area-productivity dynamics and contemporary environment

Walter Jetz & Paul V. A. Fine
Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale-dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we here argue that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudoreplication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates...

Data from: RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

Marie A. Pointer, Jason M. Kamilar, Vera Warmuth, Stephen G. B. Chester, Frédéric Delsuc, Nicholas I. Mundy, Robert J. Asher & Brenda B. Bradley
BACKGROUND: When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary 'tuning knobs', supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the...

Data from: Divergent landscape effects on population connectivity in two co-occurring amphibian species

Jonathan Richardson
The physical and environmental attributes of landscapes often shape patterns of population connectivity by influencing dispersal and gene flow. Landscape effects on movement are typically evaluated for single species. However, inferences from multiple species are required for multi-species management strategies increasingly being applied in conservation. In this study, I compared the spatial genetic patterns of two amphibian species across the northeastern U.S. and estimated the influence of specific landscape features on observed genetic patterns. The...

Data from: Predation drives stable coexistence ratios between red and green pea aphid morphs

Adalbert Balog & Oswald J. Schmitz
We conducted field surveys and experiments to evaluate the hypothesis that predation is an important driving factor determining the degree of coexistence between red and green morphs of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Theory suggests that the different colour morphs are differentially susceptible to natural enemies and selection by predation which in turn leads to variable relative abundances of red and green morphs among host plants across landscapes. Our field surveys on pea and alfalfa...

Registration Year

  • 2012
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Affiliations

  • Yale University
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  • University of Tennessee at Knoxville
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  • Texas A&M University
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  • Medical Research Council
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  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
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  • University of Bath
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  • London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
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  • National Museum of Natural History
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