42 Works

Data from: DNA extraction method affects the detection of a fungal pathogen in formalin-fixed specimens using qPCR

Andrea J. Adams, John P. LaBonte, Morgan L. Ball, Kathryn L. Richards-Hrdlicka, Mary H. Toothman & Cheryl J. Briggs
Museum collections provide indispensable repositories for obtaining information about the historical presence of disease in wildlife populations. The pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has played a significant role in global amphibian declines, and examining preserved specimens for Bd can improve our understanding of its emergence and spread. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) enables Bd detection with minimal disturbance to amphibian skin and is significantly more sensitive to detecting Bd than histology; therefore, developing effective qPCR...

Data from: Functional traits as predictors of vital rates across the life cycle of tropical trees

Marco D. Visser, Marjolein Bruijning, Stuart Joseph Wright, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Eelke Jongejans, Liza S. Comita & Hans De Kroon
The ‘functional traits’ of species have been heralded as promising predictors for species’ demographic rates and life history. Multiple studies have linked plant species’ demographic rates to commonly measured traits. However, predictive power is usually low – raising questions about the practical usefulness of traits – and analyses have been limited to size-independent univariate approaches restricted to a particular life stage. Here we directly evaluated the predictive power of multiple traits simultaneously across the entire...

Data from: The concerted impact of domestication and transposon insertions on methylation patterns between dogs and grey wolves

Ilana Janowitz Koch, Michelle M. Creek, Michael J. Thompson, Kerry A. Deere-Machemer, Jun Wang, Lionel Duarte, Gitanjali E. Gnanadesikan, Eskender L. McCoy, Liudmilla Rubbi, Daniel R. Stahler, Matteo Pellegrini, Elaine A. Ostrander, Robert K. Wayne, Janet S. Sinsheimer, Bridgett M. VonHoldt & Michelle M. Clark
The process of domestication can exert intense trait-targeted selection on genes and regulatory regions. Specifically, rapid shifts in the structure and sequence of genomic regulatory elements could provide an explanation for the extensive, and sometimes extreme, variation in phenotypic traits observed in domesticated species. Here, we explored methylation differences from >24 000 cytosines distributed across the genomes of the domesticated dog (Canis familiaris) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus). PCA and model-based cluster analyses identified...

Data from: Agricultural intensification and the functional capacity of soil microbes on smallholder African farms

Stephen A. Wood, Mark A. Bradford, Jack A. Gilbert, Krista L. McGuire, Cheryl A. Palm, Katherine L. Tully, Jizhong Zhou & Shahid Naeem
1. Fertilization may impact ecosystem processes that sustain agriculture, such as nutrient cycling, by altering the composition of soil microbial communities that regulate such processes. These processes are crucial to low-input, smallholder tropical agriculture, which supports 900 million of the world's poorest people. Yet little is known about how efforts to increase crop yield on such farms will affect the capacity of soil microbial communities to carry out ecosystem processes. 2. We studied the diversity...

Data from: Malat1 as an evolutionarily conserved lncRNA, plays a positive role in regulating proliferation and maintaining undifferentiated status of early-stage hematopoietic cells

Xian-Yong Ma, Jian-Hui Wang, Jing-Lan Wang, Charles X. Ma, Xiao-Chun Wang & Feng-Song Liu
Background: The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcription 1 (Malat1) is a highly conserved long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) gene. Previous studies showed that Malat1 is abundantly expressed in many tissues and involves in promoting tumor growth and metastasis by modulating gene expression and target protein activities. However, little is known about the biological function and regulation mechanism of Malat1 in normal cell proliferation. Results: In this study we conformed that Malat1 is highly conserved across vast evolutionary...

Data from: Introgression between invasive and native blue mussels (genus Mytilus) in the central California hybrid zone.

Norah P. Saarman & Grant H. Pogson
The ecological and genetic factors determining the extent of introgression between species in secondary contact zones remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the relative importance of isolating barriers and the demographic expansion of invasive Mytilus galloprovincialis on the magnitude and the direction of introgression with the native Mytilus trossulus in a hybrid zone in central California. We use double-digest restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) to genotype 1337 randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms and accurately distinguish early...

Data from: A spatial theory for characterizing predator–multiprey interactions in heterogeneous landscapes

Daniel Fortin, Pietro-Luciano Buono, Oswald J. Schmitz, Nicolas Courbin, Chrystel Losier, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent, Pierre Drapeau, Sandra Heppell, Claude Dussault, Vincent Brodeur & Julien Mainguy
Trophic interactions in multiprey systems can be largely determined by prey distributions. Yet, classic predator–prey models assume spatially homogeneous interactions between predators and prey. We developed a spatially informed theory that predicts how habitat heterogeneity alters the landscape-scale distribution of mortality risk of prey from predation, and hence the nature of predator interactions in multiprey systems. The theoretical model is a spatially explicit, multiprey functional response in which species-specific advection–diffusion models account for the response...

Data from: The evolution of fecundity is associated with female body size but not female-biased sexual size dimorphism among frogs

Melanie J. Monroe, Samuel H. South & Suzanne H. Alonzo
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is one of the most common ways in which males and females differ. Male-biased SSD (when males are larger) is often attributed to sexual selection favouring large males. When females are larger (female-biased SSD), it is often argued that natural selection favouring increased fecundity (i.e. larger clutches or eggs) has co-evolved with larger female body size. Using comparative phylogenetic and multi-species regression model selection approaches, we test the hypothesis that among-species...

Data from: Trait integration and macroevolutionary patterns in the pollination biology of conifers

Andrew B. Leslie, Jeremy Michael Beaulieu, Peter R. Crane, Patrick Knopf & Michael J. Donoghue
Integration influences patterns of trait evolution, but the relationship between these patterns and the degree of trait integration is not well understood. In order to explore this further, we study a specialized pollination mechanism in conifers whose traits are linked through function but not development. This mechanism depends on interactions among three characters: pollen that is buoyant, ovules that face downward at pollination, and the production of a liquid droplet that buoyant grains float through...

Data from: A landscape triage approach: combining spatial and temporal dynamics to prioritize restoration and conservation

Danielle I. Rappaport, Leandro R. Tambosi & Jean Paul Metzger
1. The spatial and temporal dynamics of landscape structure yield ecological constraints that may limit or promote the recovery of functioning habitat within human-modified ecosystems. In planning restoration and conservation measures to optimize outcomes for biodiversity, such constraints should be evaluated at multiple scales. 2. This paper presents a multi-scale methodology based on the concept of triage that incorporates landscape and regional spatial context and temporal dynamics to prioritize restoration and conservation. 3. In applying...

Data from: Urban living alters moult dynamics in a passerine

Sydney F. Hope, Frank A. Stabile & Luke K. Butler
Urbanization and habitat fragmentation can alter the timing of life history events, potentially leading to phenological mismatches, carryover effects, and fitness costs. Whereas urbanization and fragmentation are known to alter important aspects of breeding in many bird species, little is known about the effects of urbanization and habitat fragmentation on moult. To investigate the effects of urbanization and fragmentation on the annual moult, we compared the moult dynamics (onset, duration, and intensity) of urban, fragmented...

Data from: Heterogeneous rates of molecular evolution and diversification could explain the Triassic age estimate for angiosperms

Jeremy M. Beaulieu, Brian O'Meara, Peter Crane & Michael J. Donoghue
Dating analyses based on molecular data imply that crown angiosperms existed in the Triassic, long before their undisputed appearance in the fossil record in the Early Cretaceous. Following a re-analysis of the age of angiosperms using updated sequences and fossil calibrations, we use a series of simulations to explore the possibility that the older age estimates are a consequence of (i) major shifts in the rate of sequence evolution near the base of the angiosperms...

Data from: Hybridization masks speciation in the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana

Amy MacLeod, Ariel Rodríguez, Miguel Vences, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Carolina García, Fritz Trillmich, Gabriele Gentile, Adalgisa Caccone, Galo Quezada & Sebastian Steinfartz
The effects of the direct interaction between hybridization and speciation—two major contrasting evolutionary processes—are poorly understood. We present here the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and reveal a case of incipient within-island speciation, which is paralleled by between-island hybridization. In-depth genome-wide analyses suggest that Amblyrhynchus diverged from its sister group, the Galápagos land iguanas, around 4.5 million years ago (Ma), but divergence among extant populations is exceedingly young (less than 50...

Data from: The ontogeny of fairness in seven societies

Peter R. Blake, Katherine McAuliffe, John Corbit, Tara C. Callaghan, Oumar Barry, Aleah Bowie, Lauren Kleutsch, Karen L. Kramer, Elizabeth Ross, Hurnan Vongsachang, Richard Wrangham & Felix Warneken
A sense of fairness plays a critical role in supporting human cooperation. Adult norms of fair resource sharing vary widely across societies, suggesting that culture shapes the acquisition of fairness behaviour during childhood. Here we examine how fairness behaviour develops in children from seven diverse societies, testing children from 4 to 15 years of age (n = 866 pairs) in a standardized resource decision task. We measured two key aspects of fairness decisions: disadvantageous inequity...

Data from: Impacts of warming revealed by linking resource growth rates with consumer functional responses

Derek C. West & David M. Post
Warming global temperatures are driving changes in species distributions, growth and timing, but much uncertainty remains regarding how climate change will alter species interactions. Consumer-Resource interactions in particular can be strongly impacted by changes to the relative performance of interacting species. While consumers generally gain an advantage over their resources with increasing temperatures, nonlinearities can change this relation near temperature extremes. We use an experimental approach to determine how temperature changes between 5 and 30...

Data from: Feed or fight: testing the impact of food availability and intraspecific aggression on the functional ecology of an island lizard

Colin M. Donihue, Kinsey M. Brock, Johannes Foufopoulos & Anthony Herrel
Body size often varies among insular populations relative to continental conspecifics – the ‘island rule’ – and functional, context-dependent morphological differences tend to track this body size variation on islands. Two hypotheses are often proposed as potential drivers of insular population differences in morphology: one relating to diet and the other involving intraspecific competition and aggression. We directly tested whether differences in morphology and maximum bite capacity were explained by interisland changes in hardness of...

Data from: Barb geometry of asymmetrical feathers reveals a transitional morphology in the evolution of avian flight

Teresa J. Feo, Daniel J. Field & Richard O. Prum
The geometry of feather barbs (barb length and barb angle) determines feather vane asymmetry and vane rigidity, which are both critical to a feather's aerodynamic performance. Here, we describe the relationship between barb geometry and aerodynamic function across the evolutionary history of asymmetrical flight feathers, from Mesozoic taxa outside of modern avian diversity (Microraptor, Archaeopteryx, Sapeornis, Confuciusornis and the enantiornithine Eopengornis) to an extensive sample of modern birds. Contrary to previous assumptions, we find that...

Registration Year

  • 2015
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • Yale University
    42
  • Duke University
    3
  • Columbia University
    2
  • National Autonomous University of Mexico
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  • University of Tennessee at Knoxville
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  • University of Connecticut
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  • University of Sao Paulo
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  • University of California, Santa Cruz
    2
  • Harvard University
    2
  • National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis
    2