38 Works

Data from: Incomplete loss of a conserved trait: function, latitudinal cline, and genetic constraints

Anne M. Royer, Colin Kremer, Kola George, Samuel G. Pérez, Douglas W. Schemske & Jeffrey K. Conner
Retention of nonfunctional traits over evolutionary time is puzzling, because the cost of trait production should drive loss. Indeed, several studies have found nonfunctional traits are rapidly eliminated by selection. However, theory suggests that complex genetic interactions and a lack of genetic variance can constrain evolution, including trait loss. In the mustard family Brassicaceae the conserved floral condition includes four long and two short stamens, but we show that short stamens in the highly self-pollinating...

Data from: A hyperspectral image can predict tropical tree growth rates in single-species stands

T. Trevor Caughlin, Sarah J. Graves, Gregory P. Asner, Michiel Van Breugel, Jefferson S. Hall, Roberta E. Martin, Mark S. Ashton & Stephanie A. Bohlman
Remote sensing is increasingly needed to meet the critical demand for estimates of forest structure and composition at landscape to continental scales. Hyperspectral images can detect tree canopy properties, including species identity, leaf chemistry and disease. Tree growth rates are related to these measurable canopy properties but whether growth can be directly predicted from hyperspectral data remains unknown. We used a single hyperspectral image and LiDAR-derived elevation to predict growth rates for twenty tropical tree...

Data from: Effect of phytoplankton richness on phytoplankton biomass is weak where the distribution of herbivores is patchy

Jerome J. Weis
Positive effects of competitor species richness on competitor productivity can be more pronounced at a scale that includes heterogeneity in ‘bottom-up’ environmental factors, such as the supply of limiting nutrients. The effect of species richness is not well understood in landscapes where variation in ‘top-down’ factors, such as the abundance of predators or herbivores, has a strong influence competitor communities. I asked how phytoplankton species richness directly influenced standing phytoplankton biomass in replicate microcosm regions...

Data from: Membrane potential dynamics of spontaneous and visually evoked gamma activity in V1 of awake mice

Quentin Perrenoud, Cyriel M. A. Pennartz & Luc J. Gentet
Cortical gamma activity (30–80 Hz) is believed to play important functions in neural computation and arises from the interplay of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV) and pyramidal cells (PYRs). However, the subthreshold dynamics underlying its emergence in the cortex of awake animals remain unclear. Here, we characterized the intracellular dynamics of PVs and PYRs during spontaneous and visually evoked gamma activity in layers 2/3 of V1 of awake mice using targeted patch-clamp recordings and synchronous local field...

Data from: Mosaicism in a new Eocene pufferfish highlights rapid morphological innovation near the origin of crown tetraodontiforms

Roger A. Close, Zerina Johanson, James C. Tyler, Richard C. Harrington & Matt Friedman
Tetraodontiformes (pufferfishes and kin) is a taxonomically and structurally diverse, widely-distributed clade of acanthomorphs, whose members often serve as models for genomics and, increasingly, macroevolutionary studies. Morphologically disparate Palaeogene fossils suggest considerable early experimentation, but these flattened specimens often preserve limited information. We present a three-dimensionally preserved beaked tetraodontiform from the early Eocene (c. 53 Ma) London Clay Formation, UK. Approximately coeval with the oldest crown tetraodontiforms, †Ctenoplectus williamsi gen. et sp. nov. presents an...

Data from: Nutrient supply alters goldenrod’s induced response to herbivory

Karin T. Burghardt
Recent interest in using trait-based approaches to understand and predict ecosystem processes and evolutionary responses to environmental change (both biotic and abiotic), highlights the need to understand the relative importance of genetic and environmental sources of intraspecific trait variation within local populations of dominant species. Here, I combine plant defense theory with functional approaches to quantify genetic trait variation and phenotypic trait plasticity of nine goldenrod (Solidago altissima) genotypes derived from a local field population...

Ancient and modern colonization of North America by hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), an invasive insect from East Asia

Nathan P. Havill, Shigehiko Shiyake, Ashley Lamb Galloway, Robert G. Foottit, Guoyue Yu, Annnie Paradis, Joseph Elkinton, Michael E. Montgomery, Masakazu Sano, Adalgisa Caccone & Annie Paradis
Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, is an invasive pest of hemlock trees (Tsuga) in eastern North America. We used 14 microsatellites and mitochondrial COI sequences to assess its worldwide genetic structure and reconstruct its colonization history. The resulting information about its life cycle, biogeography and host specialization could help predict invasion by insect herbivores. We identified eight endemic lineages of hemlock adelgids in central China, western China, Ulleung Island (South Korea), western North America, and...

Data from: Systematics and taxonomy of the Snubnose Darter, Etheostoma simoterum (Cope)

Thomas J. Near, Ethan D. France, Benjamin P. Keck & Richard C. Harrington
A taxonomic revision of Etheostoma simoterum (Cope) published in 2007 resulted in the recognition of six species, with two species distributed in the Tennessee River system. A newly defined Etheostoma simoterum was restricted to populations in the Holston River above the confluence of the North and South Forks, and the Russell Fork system of the Ohio River drainage. A newly described species, Etheostoma tennesseense Powers & Mayden, included all other populations historically considered Etheostoma simoterum...

Data from: Puma predation subsidizes an obligate scavenger in the high Andes

Paula L. Perrig, Emiliano Donadio, Arthur D. Middleton & Jonathan N. Pauli
The ungulate–carnivore–vulture complex is a key trophic module of many terrestrial ecosystems, but one that is globally under threat. Few have explored cross-species dependencies in this module, and the degree to which vultures rely on trophic facilitation by apex carnivores is rarely known and almost never quantified. We investigated the importance of puma Puma concolor predation on its native camelid prey, vicuñas Vicugna vicugna and guanacos Lama guanicoe, in food provisioning for Andean condors Vultur...

Data from: A shift from exploitation to interference competition with increasing density affects population and community dynamics

Erica M. Holdridge, Catalina Cuellar-Gempeler & Casey P. TerHorst
Intraspecific competition influences population and community dynamics and occurs via two mechanisms. Exploitative competition is an indirect effect that occurs through use of a shared resource and depends on resource availability. Interference competition occurs by obstructing access to a resource and may not depend on resource availability. Our study tested whether the strength of interference competition changes with protozoa population density. We grew experimental microcosms of protozoa and bacteria under different combinations of protozoan density...

Data from: Long-term climate and competition explain forest mortality patterns under extreme drought

Derek J. N. Young, Jens T. Stevens, J. Mason Earles, Jeffrey Moore, Adam Ellis, Amy L. Jirka & Andrew M. Latimer
Rising temperatures are amplifying drought-induced stress and mortality in forests globally. It remains uncertain, however, whether tree mortality across drought-stricken landscapes will be concentrated in particular climatic and competitive environments. We investigated the effects of long-term average climate [i.e. 35-year mean annual climatic water deficit (CWD)] and competition (i.e. tree basal area) on tree mortality patterns, using extensive aerial mortality surveys conducted throughout the forests of California during a 4-year statewide extreme drought lasting from...

Data from: Assessing polar bear (Ursus maritimus) population structure in the Hudson Bay region using SNPs

Michelle Viengkone, Andrew Edward Derocher, Evan Shaun Richardson, René Michael Malenfant, Joshua Moses Miller, Martyn E. Obbard, Markus G. Dyck, Nick J. Lunn, Vicki Sahanatien & Corey S. Davis
Defining subpopulations using genetics has traditionally used data from microsatellite markers to investigate population structure; however, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have emerged as a tool for detection of fine-scale structure. In Hudson Bay, Canada, three polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations (Foxe Basin (FB), Southern Hudson Bay (SH), and Western Hudson Bay (WH)) have been delineated based on mark–recapture studies, radiotelemetry and satellite telemetry, return of marked animals in the subsistence harvest, and population genetics using microsatellites....

Data from: Energetic constraints on species coexistence in birds

Alexander L. Pigot, Joseph A. Tobias & Walter Jetz
The association between species richness and ecosystem energy availability is one of the major geographic trends in biodiversity. It is often explained in terms of energetic constraints, such that coexistence among competing species is limited in low productivity environments. However, it has proven challenging to reject alternative views, including the null hypothesis that species richness has simply had more time to accumulate in productive regions, and thus the role of energetic constraints in limiting coexistence...

Registration Year

  • 2016
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Affiliations

  • Yale University
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  • United States Department of Agriculture
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