51 Works

Data from: A three-dimensionally preserved lobopodian from the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte, UK

Derek J. Siveter, Derek E.G. Briggs, David J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton, David Legg & Derek E. G. Briggs
The Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte (c. 430 MYr BP) has yielded, amongst many exceptionally preserved invertebrates, a wide range of new genera belonging to crown-group Panarthropoda. Here we increase this panarthropod diversity with the lobopodian Thanahita distos, a new total-group panarthropod genus and species. This new lobopodian preserves at least nine paired, long, slender appendages, the anterior two in the head region and the posterior seven representing trunk lobopods. The body ends in a short post-appendicular...

Data from: Functional group, biomass, and climate change effects on ecological drought in semiarid grasslands

Scott D. Wilson, Daniel R. Schlaepfer, John B. Bradford, William K. Lauenroth, Michael C. Duniway, Sonia A. Hall, Khishigbayar Jamiyansharav, G. Jia, Ariuntsetseg Lkhagva, Seth M. Munson, David A. Pyke & Britta Tietjen
Water relations in plant communities are influenced both by contrasting functional groups (grasses, shrubs) and by climate change via complex effects on interception, uptake and transpiration. We modelled the effects of functional group replacement and biomass increase, both of which can be outcomes of invasion and vegetation management, and climate change on ecological drought (soil water potential below which photosynthesis stops) in 340 semiarid grassland sites over 30-year periods. Relative to control vegetation (climate and...

Data from: Evaluating the potential for pre-zygotic isolation and hybridization between landlocked and anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) following secondary contact

Katherine A. Littrell, David Ellis, Stephen R. Gephard, Andrew D. MacDonald, Eric P. Palkovacs, Katherine Scranton & David M. Post
The recent increase of river restoration projects is altering habitat connectivity for many aquatic species, increasing the chance that previously isolated populations will come into secondary contact. Anadromous and landlocked alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) are currently undergoing secondary contact as a result of a fishway installation at Rogers Lake in Old Lyme, Connecticut. To determine the degree of pre-zygotic isolation and potential for hybridization between alewife life history forms, we constructed spawning time distributions for two...

Data from: Uncertainty in geographic estimates of performance and fitness

H. Arthur Woods, Joel G. Kingsolver, Samuel B. Fey & David A. Vasseur
1. Thermal performance curves (TPCs) have become key tools for predicting geographic distributions of performance by ectotherms. Such TPC-based predictions, however, may be sensitive to errors arising from diverse sources. 2. We analyzed potential errors that arise from common choices faced by biologists integrating TPCs with climate data by constructing case studies focusing on experimental sets of TPCs and simulating geographic patterns of mean performance. We first analyzed differences in geographic patterns of performance derived...

Data from: The global geography of human subsistence

Michael C. Gavin, Patrick H. Kavanagh, Hannah J. Haynie, Claire Bowern, Carol R. Ember, Russell D. Gray, Fiona M. Jordan, Kathryn R. Kirby, Geoff Kushnick, Bobbi S. Low, Bruno Vilela & Carlos A. Botero
How humans obtain food has dramatically reshaped ecosystems and altered both the trajectory of human history and the characteristics of human societies. Our species’ subsistence varies widely, from predominantly foraging strategies, to plant-based agriculture and animal husbandry. The extent to which environmental, social, and historical factors have driven such variation is currently unclear. Prior attempts to resolve long-standing debates on this topic have been hampered by an over-reliance on narrative arguments, small and geographically-narrow samples,...

Data from: Organic matter loading by hippopotami causes subsidy overload resulting in downstream hypoxia and fish kills

Christopher L. Dutton, Amanda L. Subalusky, Stephen K. Hamilton, Emma J. Rosi & David M. Post
Organic matter and nutrient loading into aquatic ecosystems affects ecosystem structure and function and can result in eutrophication and hypoxia. Hypoxia is usually attributed to anthropogenic pollution and is rarely documented in unpolluted systems, particularly in rivers. Here we show that organic matter loading from hippopotami causes the repeated occurrence of hypoxia in the Mara River, East Africa. We documented 49 high flow events over three years that caused dissolved oxygen decreases, including 13 events...

Data from: The grass was greener: repeated evolution of specialized morphologies and habitat shifts in ghost spiders following grassland expansion in South America

Fadia Sara Ceccarelli, Nicolas Mongiardino Koch, Eduardo M. Soto, Mariana L. Barone, Miquel A. Arnedo & Martin J. Ramirez
While grasslands, one of Earth’s major biomes, are known for their close evolutionary ties with ungulate grazers, these habitats are also paramount to the origins and diversification of other animals. Within the primarily South American spider subfamily Amaurobioidinae (Anyphaenidae), several species are found living in the continent’s grasslands, with some displaying putative morphological adaptations to dwelling unnoticed in the grass blades. Here, a dated molecular phylogeny provides the backbone for analyses revealing the ecological and...

Data from: The Palaeozoic colonization of the water column and the rise of global nekton

Christopher D. Whalen, Derek E.G. Briggs & Derek E. G. Briggs
The colonization of the water column is among the most important transformations in the evolution of animal life and global ecosystems. The Devonian Nekton Revolution (DNR) has been identified as a major macroevolutionary event signifying the sudden occupation of the water column by independent radiations of swimming animals. Using new data, an expanded taxonomic coverage, sample standardization, and increased ecological resolution, we reanalysed the timing, duration, and magnitude of this event. We find that nekton...

Data from: The interplay of past diversification and evolutionary isolation with present imperilment across the amphibian tree of life

Walter Jetz & R. Alexander Pyron
Human activities continue to erode the tree of life, requiring us to prioritize research and conservation. Amphibians represent key victims and bellwethers of global change, and the need for action to conserve them is drastically outpacing knowledge. We provide a phylogeny incorporating nearly all extant amphibians (7,238 species). Current amphibian diversity is composed of both older, depauperate lineages and extensive, more recent tropical radiations found in select clades. Frog and salamander diversification increased strongly after...

Data from: Organic matter and nutrient inputs from large wildlife influence ecosystem function in the Mara River, Africa

Amanda L. Subalusky, Christopher L. Dutton, Laban Njoroge, Emma J. Rosi & David M. Post
Animals can be important vectors for the movement of resources across ecosystem boundaries. Animals add resources to ecosystems primarily through egestion, excretion and carcasses, and the stoichiometry and bioavailability of these inputs likely interacts with characteristics of the recipient ecosystem to determine their effects on ecosystem function. We studied the influence of hippopotamus excretion/egestion and wildebeest carcasses, and their interactions with discharge, in the Mara River, Kenya. We measured nutrient dissolution and decomposition rates of...

Data from: Phylogeography of a widespread eastern North American shrub, Viburnum lantanoides

Brian Park & Michael J. Donoghue
Premise of the Study: There have been relatively few phylogeographic studies of eastern North American plants, especially of animal‐dispersed shrubby species, and this leaves a significant gap in our understanding of how such species were affected by glacial events. Here, we analyzed the phylogeography of the widespread understory shrub Viburnum lantanoides. Methods: We generated RADseq data and paleoclimatic species distribution models (SDMs) to identify the locations of refugia where V. lantanoides may have survived the...

Data from: Genetic diversity and population structure of the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Northern Uganda: implications for vector control

Robert Opiro, Norah P. Saarman, Richard Echodu, Elizabeth A. Opiyo, Kirstin Dion, Alexis Halyard, Augustine W. Dunn, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone & Philippe Solano
Uganda is the only country where the chronic and acute forms of human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness both occur and are separated by < 100 km in areas north of Lake Kyoga. In Uganda, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the main vector of the Trypanosoma parasites responsible for these diseases as well for the animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT), or Nagana. We used highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker to provide...

Data from: Multifactorial processes underlie parallel opsin loss in neotropical bats

Alexa Sadier, Kalina T. J. Davies, Laurel R. Yohe, Kun Yun, Paul Donat, Brandon P. Hedrick, Elizabeth R. Dumont, Liliana M. Davalos, Stephen J. Rossiter & Karen E. Sears
The loss of previously adaptive traits is typically linked to relaxation in selection, yet the molecular steps leading to such repeated losses are rarely known. Molecular studies of loss have tended to focus on gene sequences alone, but overlooking other aspects of protein expression might underestimate phenotypic diversity. Insights based almost solely on opsin gene evolution, for instance, have made mammalian color vision a textbook example of phenotypic loss. We address this gap by investigating...

Data from: Two pulses of morphological diversification in Pacific pelagic fishes following the Cretaceous–Palaeogene mass extinction

Elizabeth Sibert, Matthew Friedman, Pincelli Hull, Gene Hunt, Richard Norris & Matt Friedman
Molecular phylogenies suggest some major radiations of open-ocean fish clades occurred roughly coincident with the K/Pg boundary, however the timing and nature of this diversification is poorly constrained. Here we investigate evolutionary patterns in ray-finned fishes across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K/Pg) Mass Extinction 66 million years ago (Ma), using microfossils (isolated teeth) preserved in a South Pacific sediment core spanning 72-43 Ma. Our record does not show significant turnover of fish tooth morphotypes at the K/Pg...

Data from: Interspecific variation in conspecific negative density dependence can make species less likely to coexist

Simon Maccracken Stump & Liza S. Comita
Conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD) is thought to promote plant species diversity. Theoretical studies showing the importance of CNDD often assumed that all species are equally susceptible to CNDD; however, recent empirical studies have shown species can differ greatly in their susceptibility to CNDD. Using a theoretical model, we show that interspecific variation in CNDD can dramatically alter its impact on diversity. First, if the most common species are the least regulated by CNDD, then...

Data from: A well-preserved respiratory system in a Silurian ostracod

David J. Siveter, Derek E.G. Briggs, Derek J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton & Derek E. G. Briggs
Ostracod crustaceans are diverse and ubiquitous in aqueous environments today but relatively few known species have gills. Ostracods are the most abundant fossil arthropods but examples of soft-part preservation, especially of gills, are exceptionally rare. A new ostracod, Spiricopia aurita (Myodocopa), from the marine Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte (430 Mya), UK, preserves appendages, lateral eyes and gills. The respiratory system includes five pairs of gill lamellae with hypobranchial and epibranchial canals that conveyed hemolymph. A heart...

Data from: Trophic ecology of large herbivores in a reassembling African ecosystem

Johan Pansu, Jennifer A. Guyton, Arjun B. Potter, Justine L. Atkins, Joshua H. Daskin, Bart Wursten, Tyler R. Kartzinel & Robert M. Pringle
1. Diverse megafauna assemblages have declined or disappeared throughout much of the world, and many efforts are underway to restore them. Understanding the trophic ecology of such reassembling systems is necessary for predicting recovery dynamics, guiding management, and testing general theory. Yet there are few studies of recovering large-mammal communities, and fewer still that have characterized food-web structure with high taxonomic resolution. 2. In Gorongosa National Park, large herbivores have rebounded from near-extirpation following the...

Data from: The population genomics of multiple tsetse fly (Glossina fuscipes fuscipes) admixture zones in Uganda

Norah P. Saarman, Robert Opiro, Chaz Hyseni, Richard Echodu, Elizabeth A. Opiyo, Kirstin Dion, Thomas Johnson, Serap Aksoy & Adalgisa Caccone
Understanding the mechanisms that enforce, maintain, or reverse the process of speciation is an important challenge in evolutionary biology. This study investigates the patterns of divergence and discusses the processes that form and maintain divergent lineages of the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in Uganda. We sampled 251 flies from 18 sites spanning known genetic lineages and the four admixture zones between them. We apply population genomics, hybrid zone, and approximate Bayesian computation to the...

Data from: Oxygen, temperature and the deep-marine stenothermal cradle of Ediacaran evolution

Thomas H. Boag, Richard G. Stockey, Leanne E. Elder, Pincelli M. Hull & Erik A. Sperling
Ediacaran fossils document the early evolution of complex megascopic life, contemporaneous with geochemical evidence for widespread marine anoxia. These data suggest early animals experienced frequent hypoxia. Research has thus focused on the concentration of molecular oxygen (O2) required by early animals, while also considering the impacts of climate. One model, the Cold Cradle hypothesis, proposed the Ediacaran biota originated in cold, shallow-water environments due to increased O2 solubility. First, we demonstrate using principles of gas...

Replication data for “Can you take the heat?\" Heat-health symptoms are associated with protective behaviors

Emily D. Esplin, Jennifer R. Marlon, Anthony Leiserowitz & Peter Howe
This dataset contains survey data of the U.S. adult population that includes self-reported heat-health symptoms, protective behaviors implemented during heat waves, and perceptions of how a heat wave would affect personal health and the health of others. Temperature estimates of what participants may have experienced the summer prior to the survey are included at the county level. Demographic variables and spatial scales by region, state, and county are also included.

Data from: Experimentally-induced variation in neuroendocrine processes affects male reproductive behavior, sperm characteristics, and social interactions

Bridget M. Nugent, Kelly A. Stiver, Hans A. Hofmann & Suzanne H. Alonzo
While extensive research has focused on how social interactions evolve, the fitness consequences of the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying these interactions have rarely been documented, especially in the wild. Here, we measure how the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying male behavior affecting mating success and sperm competition in the ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus). In this species, males exhibit three alternative reproductive types. ‘Nesting males’ provide parental care, defend territories, and form cooperative associations with unrelated ‘satellites’, who cheat...

Data from: Genetic pedigree analysis of the pilot breeding program for the rediscovered Galapagos giant tortoise from Floreana island

Joshua M. Miller, Maud C. Quinzin, Elizabeth H. Scheibe, Claudio Ciofi, Fredy Villalva, Washington Tapia & Adalgisa Caccone
An aim of many captive breeding programs is to increase population sizes for reintroduction and establishment of self-sustaining wild populations. Genetic analyses play a critical role in these programs: monitoring genetic variation, identifying the origin of individuals, and assigning parentage to track family sizes. Here we use genetic pedigree analyses to examine three seasons of a pilot breeding program for the Floreana island Galapagos giant tortoise, C. niger, that had been declared extinct for ~150...

Data from: Are there general laws for digit evolution in squamates? The loss and re-evolution of digits in a clade of fossorial lizards (Brachymeles, Scincinae)

Günter P. Wagner, Oliver W. Griffith, Philip J. Bergmann, Gaelle Bello-Hellegouarch, Tiana Kohlsdorf, Anjan Bhullar & Cameron D. Siler
Evolutionary simplification of autopodial structures is a major theme in studies of body‐form evolution. Previous studies on amniotes have supported Morse's law, that is, that the first digit reduced is Digit I, followed by Digit V. Furthermore, the question of reversibility for evolutionary digit loss and its implications for “Dollo's law” remains controversial. Here, we provide an analysis of limb and digit evolution for the skink genus Brachymeles. Employing phylogenetic, morphological, osteological, and myological data,...

Data from: A spatial genetics approach to inform vector control of tsetse flies (Glossina fuscipes fuscipes) in Northern Uganda

Norah Saarman, Mary Burak, Robert Opiro, Chaz Hyseni, Richard Echodu, Kirstin Dion, Elizabeth A. Opiyo, Augustine W. Dunn, Giuseppe Amatulli, Serap Aksoy & Adalgisa Caccone
Tsetse flies (genus Glossina) are the only vector for the parasitic trypanosomes responsible for sleeping sickness and nagana across sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is responsible for transmission of the parasite in 90% of sleeping sickness cases, and co-occurrence of both forms of human-infective trypanosomes makes vector control a priority. We use population genetic data from 38 samples from northern Uganda in a novel methodological pipeline that integrates genetic data,...

Data from: Acceleration or deceleration of litter decomposition by herbivory depends on nutrient availability through intraspecific differences in induced plant resistance traits

Karin T. Burghardt, Mark A. Bradford & Oswald J. Schmitz
1. Herbivores often induce changes in plant defensive chemistry or nutrient content that may respectively inhibit or promote microbial decomposition of senesced litter. Often the directional impact of herbivores on decomposition is considered to be a property of a species or ecosystem. While rarely explored, intraspecific plasticity in the induction of defensive strategies across environmental gradients may also result in divergent impacts of herbivores on decomposition (deceleration vs. acceleration). 2. Here, we examined how soil...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Yale University
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • University of California, San Diego
  • University of Minnesota
  • Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
  • University of Basel
  • Gulu University
  • University of California Los Angeles
  • National Museums of Kenya