66 Works

Energy drinks consumption and perceptions among university students in Beirut, Lebanon: a mixed methods approach

Malake Ghozayel, Ali Ghaddar, Ghada Farhat, Lara Nasreddine, Janine Kara & Lamis Jomaa
Background: Energy drinks (ED) are caffeine and sugar-rich beverages with other ingredients that are marketed for their energy boosting and performance-enhancing effects. The consumption of these drinks, with and without alcohol, is dramatically increasing worldwide, despite the reported side effects and potential harms to consumers. Few studies, to date, have explored the perceptions and experiences of young adults towards these beverages. Objective: The present study aimed to explore the consumption patterns and correlates of ED...

Data from: Prior evolution in stochastic versus constant temperatures affects RNA virus evolvability at a thermal extreme

Andrea Gloria-Soria, Sandra Y. Mendiola, Valerie J. Morley, Barry W. Alto & Paul E. Turner
It is unclear how historical adaptation versus maladaptation in a prior environment affects population evolvability in a novel habitat. Prior work showed that vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) populations evolved at Constant 37oC improved in cellular infection at both 29oC and 37oC; in contrast, those evolved under Random changing temperatures between 29oC and 37oC failed to improve. Here we tested whether prior evolution affected the rate of adaptation at the thermal-niche edge: 40oC. After 40 virus...

Thinner bark increases sensitivity of wetter Amazonian tropical forests to fire

Ann Carla Staver, Paulo M. Brando, Jos Barlow, Douglas C. Morton, C.E. Timothy Paine, Yadvinder Malhi, Alejandro Araujo Murakami & Jhon Pasquel
Understory fires represent an accelerating threat to Amazonian tropical forests and can, during drought, affect larger areas than deforestation itself. These fires kill trees at rates varying from < 10 to c. 90% depending on fire intensity, forest disturbance history and tree functional traits. Here, we examine variation in bark thickness across the Amazon. Bark can protect trees from fires, but it is often assumed to be consistently thin across tropical forests. Here, we show...

Diversification in evolutionary arenas – assessment and synthesis

Nicolai M. Nürk, H. Peter Linder, Renske E. Onstein, Matthew J. Larcombe, Colin E. Hughes, Laura Piñeiro Fernández, Philipp M. Schlüter, Luis Valente, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Vanessa Cutts, Michael J. Donoghue, Erika J. Edwards, Richard Field, Suzette G.A. Flantua, Steven I. Higgins, Anke Jentsch, Sigrid Liede-Schumann & Michael D. Pirie
Understanding how and why rates of evolutionary diversification vary is a central issue in evolutionary biology, ecology and biogeography. The concept of adaptive radiation has attracted much interest, but is metaphorical and verbal in nature, making it difficult to quantitatively compare different evolutionary lineages or geographic regions. In addition, the causes of evolutionary stasis are relatively neglected. Here we review the central concepts in the evolutionary diversification literature and bring these together by proposing a...

Assessing the effects of elephant foraging on the structure and diversity of an Afrotropical forest

Cooper Rosin, Kendall Beals, Michael Belovitch, Ruby Harrison, Megan Pendred, Megan Sullivan, Nicolas Yao & John Poulsen
African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) are ecosystem engineers that browse and damage large quantities of vegetation during their foraging and movement. Though elephant trail networks and clearings are conspicuous features of many African forests, the consequences of elephant foraging for forest structure and diversity are poorly documented. In this study in northeastern Gabon, we compare stem size, stem density, proportional damage, species diversity, and species relative abundance of seedlings and saplings in the vicinity of...

Fragmentation reduces community-wide taxonomic and functional diversity of dispersed tree seeds in the Central Amazon

Elaine Hooper & Mark Ashton
The Amazon harbors one of the most diverse tree floras on earth, and most species depend on mutualists for pollination and seed dispersal. This makes them susceptible to reproductive decline in fragmented forest because many of these mutualists suffer area-related extinction in fragments. It remains unknown, however, whether this highly biodiverse tree flora will reproduce and ultimately persist in fragmented forest. We conducted a two-year study of seed-fall in an experimentallyfragmented, highly-diverse Central Amazonian forest....

Pairwise FST values for Aedes aegypti populations in Florida and southern California

Evlyn Pless & Jeffrey Powell
In the affiliated paper we compare likely the oldest populations of Aedes aegypti in continental North America with some of the newest to illuminate the range of genetic diversity and structure that can be found within the invasive range of this important disease vector. Aedes aegypti populations in Florida have likely persisted since the 1600-1700s, while populations in southern California derive from new invasions that occurred in the last ten years. For this comparison, we...

Data from: Mechanism for analogous illusory motion perception in flies and humans.

Margarida Agrochao, Ryosuke Tanaka, Emilio Salazar-Gatzimas & Damon Clark
Visual motion detection is one of the most important computations performed by visual circuits. Yet, we perceive vivid illusory motion in stationary, periodic luminance gradients that contain no true motion. This illusion is shared by diverse vertebrate species, but theories proposed to explain this illusion have remained difficult to test. Here, we demonstrate that in the fruit fly Drosophila, the illusory motion percept is generated by unbalanced contributions of direction-selective neurons’ responses to stationary edges....

The future urban forest: a survey of tree planting programs in the Northeastern United States

Danica Doroski
Cities around the world are pursuing tree planting as a way to increase tree cover. Despite the growing interest in planting trees as a way to offset climate change, counter the negative impacts of urbanization, and provide benefits to city dwellers, there has not been a recent effort to quantify the number of trees being planted nor the species composition of these plantings. Because ecosystem services and ecosystem threats can transcend municipal boundaries, understanding trends...

Microsatellite data for Aedes aegypti populations in Florida and southern California

Evlyn Pless & Jeffrey Powell
In the affiliated paper we compare likely the oldest populations of Aedes aegypti in continental North America with some of the newest to illuminate the range of genetic diversity and structure that can be found within the invasive range of this important disease vector. Aedes aegypti populations in Florida have likely persisted since the 1600-1700s, while populations in southern California derive from new invasions that occurred in the last ten years. For this comparison, we...

Locomotion and paleoclimate explain the re-evolution of quadrupedal body form in Brachymeles lizards

Philip Bergmann, , Elyse Freitas, Duncan Irschick, Gunter Wagner & Cameron Siler
Evolutionary reversals, including re-evolution of lost structures, are commonly found in phylogenetic studies. However, we lack an understanding of how these reversals happen mechanistically. A snake-like body form has evolved many times in vertebrates, and occasionally, a quadrupedal form has re-evolved, including in Brachymeles lizards. We use body form and locomotion data for species ranging from snake-like to quadrupedal to address how a quadrupedal form could re-evolve. We show that large, quadrupedal species are faster...

A new species of bridled darter endemic to the Etowah River system in Georgia (Percidae: Etheostomatinae: Percina)

Thomas Near, Daniel MacGuigan, Emily Boring, Jeffrey Simmons, Brett Albanese, Benjamin Keck, Richard Harrington & Gerald Dinkins
Percina freemanorum, the Etowah Bridled Darter, is described as a new species endemic to the Etowah River system in Georgia, specifically in Long Swamp Creek, Amicalola Creek, and the upper portion of the Etowah River. The earliest collection records for Percina freemanorum date to 1948 and in 2007 the species was delimited as populations of Percina kusha. Our investigation into the systematics of Percina kusha is motivated by the uncertain status of populations in the...

Central processing of leg proprioception in Drosophila: Physiology and behavior data

Sweta Agrawal, John Tuthill, Evyn Dickinson, Anne Sustar, Pralaksha Gurung, David Shepherd & James Truman
Proprioception, the sense of self-movement and position, is mediated by mechanosensory neurons that detect diverse features of body kinematics. Although proprioceptive feedback is crucial for accurate motor control, little is known about how downstream circuits transform limb sensory information to guide motor output. Here, we investigate neural circuits in Drosophila that process proprioceptive information from the fly leg. We identify three cell-types from distinct developmental lineages that are positioned to receive input from proprioceptor subtypes...

Functional consequences of phenotypic variation between locally adapted populations: swimming performance and ventilation in extremophile fish

Michael Tobler, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez & Henry Camarillo
Natural selection drives the evolution of traits to optimize organismal performance, but optimization of one aspect of performance can often influence other aspects of performance. Here, we asked how phenotypic variation between locally adapted fish populations affects locomotion and ventilation, testing for functional trade-offs and trait-performance correlations. Specifically, we investigated two populations of livebearing fish (Poecilia mexicana) that inhabit distinct habitat types (hydrogen-sulfide-rich springs and adjacent nonsulfidic streams). For each individual, we quantified different metrics...

Data from: Arm waving in stylophoran echinoderms: three-dimensional mobility analysis illuminates cornute locomotion

Elizabeth Clark, John Hutchinson, Peter Bishop & Derek Briggs
The locomotion strategies of fossil invertebrates are typically interpreted on the basis of morphological descriptions. However, it has been shown that homologous structures with disparate morphologies in extant invertebrates do not necessarily correlate with differences in their locomotory capability. Here, we present a new methodology for analysing locomotion in fossil invertebrates with a rigid skeleton through an investigation of a cornute stylophoran, an extinct fossil echinoderm with enigmatic morphology that has made its mode of...

Data from: Ovarian BDNF promotes survival, migration, and attachment of tumor precursors originated from p53 mutant fallopian tube epithelial cells

Yang Yang-Hartwich, Min Kang, Kay Yi Chong, Tobias M. P. Hartwich, Fangfang Bi, Allyson K. Witham, David Patrick, Madeline J. Morrisson, Sarah L. Cady, Alexandra P. Cerchia, Dawn Kelk, Yifei Liu, Jonah Nucci, Oluwagbemisola Madarikan, Daiki Ueno & Brian M. Shuch
High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. New evidence supports a hypothesis that HGSOC can originate from fallopian tube epithelium (FTE). It is unclear how genetic alterations and pathophysiological processes drive the progression of FTE tumor precursors into widespread HGSOCs. In this study, we uncovered that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the follicular fluid stimulates the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-expressing FTE cells to promote their survival, migration, and attachment. Using...

Data from: The role of browsers in maintaining the openness of savanna grazing lawns

Michael Voysey, Michelle Greve, Sally Archibald, William Bond, Carla Staver & Jason Donaldson
1. In savannas, ruminant herbivores can have divergent impacts on tree recruitment and resulting woody cover. Heavy grazing by cattle results in woody thickening, whereas intensive grazing by wildlife instead tends to be associated with lower woody cover. 2. To disentangle why woody cover is low in areas heavily grazed by wildlife, we tested (I) whether short-grass environments attract indigenous mammalian browsers; (II) whether preference for short grass decreases with browser body mass because of...

SNP Data for Aedes aegypti populations in Florida and southern California

Evlyn Pless & Jeffrey Powell
In the affiliated paper we compare likely the oldest populations of Aedes aegypti in continental North America with some of the newest to illuminate the range of genetic diversity and structure that can be found within the invasive range of this important disease vector. Aedes aegypti populations in Florida have likely persisted since the 1600-1700s, while populations in southern California derive from new invasions that occurred in the last ten years. For this comparison, we...

Larval site characteristics of mosquito Aedes aegypti in La Lope, Gabon

Siyang Xia, Hany K. M. Dweck, Joel Lutomiah, Rosemary Sang, Carolyn S. McBride, Noah H. Rose, Diego Ayala & Jeffrey R. Powell
This dataset is described and analyzed in the paper: "Xia, S., Dweck, H. K. M., Lutomiah, J., Sang, R., McBride, C. S., Rose, N. H., Ayala, D., & Powell, J. R. (2021). Larval sites of the mosquito Aedes aegypti formosus in forest and domestic habitats in Africa and the potential association with oviposition evolution. Ecology and Evolution, 00, 1– 17. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8332" The mosquito Ae. aegypti is a major vector of several arboviral diseases. In Africa,...

CESM1.2 simulation output for: The role of westerly wind bursts during different seasons versus ocean heat recharge in the development of extreme El Niño in a climate model

Sungduk Yu
This is the subset of CESM1.2 model simulation output that was used for analysis and visualization of Yu and Fedorov [2020] (DOI:10.1029/2020GL088381). Please refer to README for details.

Large mammalian herbivores contribute to conspecific negative density dependence in a temperate forest

Stephen Murphy & Liza Comita
1. The Janzen-Connell Hypothesis (JCH) predicts that density-responsive and host-specific natural enemies limit the population sizes of abundant species. Importantly, these interactions help to maintain local community diversity through time. While ample evidence exists for the demographic predictions of the JCH, it remains unclear which natural enemies drive these dynamics across different plant communities. 2. While large mammalian herbivores are often assumed to lack the specialized diet needed to drive Janzen-Connell effects, they do show...

Plasmodium falciparum genomic surveillance reveals spatial and temporal trends, association of genetic and physical distance, and household clustering

Mouhamad Sy, Awa Deme, Joshua Warren, Rachel Daniels, Baba Dieye, Pape Ibrahima Ndiaye, Younous Diedhiou, Amadou Moctar Mbaye, Sarah Volkman, Daniel Hartl, Dyann Wirth, Daouda Ndiaye & Amy Bei
Molecular epidemiology using genomic data can help identify relationships between malaria parasite population structure, malaria transmission intensity, and ultimately help generate actionable data to assess the effectiveness of malaria control strategies. Genomic data, coupled with geographic information systems data, can further identify clusters or hotspots of malaria transmission, parasite genetic and spatial connectivity, and parasite movement by human or mosquito mobility over time and space. In this study, we performed longitudinal genomic surveillance in a...

Data from: Spatiotemporally precise optogenetic activation of sensory neurons in freely walking Drosophila

Jacob Zavatone-Veth, Brian DeAngelis, Aneysis Gonzalez-Suarez & Damon Clark
Previous work has characterized how walking Drosophila coordinate the movements of individual limbs (DeAngelis, Zavatone-Veth, and Clark, 2019). To understand the circuit basis of this coordination, one must characterize how sensory feedback from each limb affects walking behavior. However, it has remained difficult to manipulate neural activity in individual limbs of freely moving animals. Here, we demonstrate a simple method for optogenetic stimulation with body side-, body segment-, and limb-specificity that does not require real-time...

Data from: Hurricane effects on Neotropical lizards span geographic and phylogenetic scales

Colin Donihue, Alex Kowaleski, Jonathan Losos, Adam Algar, Simon Baeckens, Robert Buchkowski, Anne-Claire Fabre, Hannah Frank, Anthony Geneva, Graham Reynolds, James Stroud, Julián Velasco, Jason Kolbe, Luke Mahler & Anthony Herrel
Extreme climate events such as droughts, cold snaps, and hurricanes can be powerful agents of natural selection, producing acute selective pressures very different from the everyday pressures acting on organisms. However, it remains unknown whether these infrequent but severe disruptions are quickly erased by quotidian selective forces, or whether they have the potential to durably shape biodiversity patterns across regions and clades. Here, we show that hurricanes have enduring evolutionary impacts on the morphology of...

Acetylcholine is released in the basolateral amygdala in response to predictors of reward and enhances learning of cue-reward contingency

Richard Crouse, Kristen Kim, Hannah Batchelor, Eric Girardi, Rufina Kamaletdinova, Justin Chan, Prithviraj Rajebhosale, Steven Pittenger, Lorna Role, David Talmage, Miao Jing, Yulong Li, Xiao-Bing Gao, Yann Mineur & Marina Picciotto
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical for associating initially neutral cues with appetitive and aversive stimuli and receives dense neuromodulatory acetylcholine (ACh) projections. We measured BLA ACh signaling and activity of neurons expressing CaMKIIα (a marker for glutamatergic principal cells) in mice during cue-reward learning using a fluorescent ACh sensor and calcium indicators. We found that ACh levels and nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) cholinergic terminal activity in the BLA (NBM-BLA) increased sharply in response...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Yale University
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • University of Washington
  • Princeton University
  • The Ohio State University
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Nottingham
  • Smithsonian Institution
  • Tennessee Valley Authority
  • Washington University in St. Louis