54 Works

Aedes aegypti in North America (Microsatellite and SNP array)

Evlyn Pless, Andrea Gloria-Soria & Jeffrey Powell
The Aedes aegypti mosquito first invaded the Americas about 500 years ago and today is a widely distributed invasive species and the primary vector for viruses causing dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever. Here we test the hypothesis that the North American colonization by Ae. aegypti occurred via a series of founder events. We present findings on genetic diversity, structure, and demographic history using data from 70 Ae. aegypti populations in North America genotyped at...

Macaques preferentially attend to intermediately surprising information

Shengyi Wu, Tommy Blanchard, Emily Meschke, Richard Aslin, Ben Hayden & Celeste Kidd
Normative learning theories dictate that we should preferentially attend to informative sources, but only up to the point that our limited learning systems can process their content. Humans, including infants, show this predicted strategic deployment of attention. Here we demonstrate that rhesus monkeys, much like humans, attend to events of moderate surprisingness over both more and less surprising events. They do this in the absence of any specific goal or contingent reward, indicating that the...

Human land-use effects on mammalian mesopredator occupancy of a northeastern Connecticut landscape

Kimberly Zamuda, Marlyse C. Duguid & Oswald Schmitz
Mammalian mesopredators—mid-sized carnivores—are ecologically, economically and socially important. With their adaptability to a variety of habitats and diets, loss of apex predators and forest regrowth, many of these species are increasing in number throughout the northeastern USA. However, currently the region is seeing extensive landscape alterations, with an increase in residential and industrial development especially at the expense of existing forest and small-scale farmland. We sought to understand how important an existing mosaic of working...

Rapid parallel morphological and mechanical diversification of South American Pike Cichlids (Crenicichla)

Edward Burress
Explosive bouts of diversification are one of the most conspicuous features of the tree of life. When such bursts are repeated in similar environments it suggests some degree of predictability in the evolutionary process. We assess parallel adaptive radiation of South American pike cichlids (Crenicichla) using phylogenomics and phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that species flocks in the Uruguay and Iguazú River basins rapidly diversified into the same set of ecomorphs that reflect feeding ecology....

Tropical montane forest in South Asia: Composition, structure and dieback in relation to soils and topography

Tithira Lakkana, Mark Ashton & Sisira Ediriweera
We evaluated the composition, structure and dieback of a montane forest in relation to soils and physiography of an important biogeographic region that has been sparsely studied. Our objectives were to: 1. Describe the forest composition and structure; 2. Assess the current extent of dieback; and 3. Relate tree composition, structure, and dieback proneness to edaphic and physiographic measures. We enumerated all live and dead standing plants ≥ 3 cm diameter at breast height (DBH),...

Experimental realization of the 1D random field Ising model

Nicholas Bingham, Spencer Rooke, Jungsik Park, Alejandro Simon, William Zhu, Xiaoyu Zhang, Joseph Batley, Justin Watts, Chris Leighton, Karin Dahmen & Peter Schiffer
We have measured magnetic-field-induced avalanches in a square artificial spin ice array of interacting nanomagnets. Starting from the ground state ordered configuration, we imaged the individual nanomagnet moments after each successive application of an incrementally increasing field. The statistics of the evolution of the moment configuration show good agreement with the canonical one-dimensional random field Ising model. We extract information about the microscopic structure of the arrays from our macroscopic measurements of their collective behavior,...

Data from: A new lineage of Galapagos giant tortoises identified from museum samples

Evelyn L. Jensen, Maud C. Quinzin, Joshua M. Miller, Michael A. Russello, Ryan Garrick, Danielle L. Edwards, Scott Glaberman, Ylenia Chiari, Nikos Poulakakis, Washington Tapia, James P. Gibbs & Adalgisa Caccone
The Galapagos Archipelago is recognized as a natural laboratory for studying evolutionary processes. San Cristóbal was one of the first islands colonized by tortoises, which radiated from there across the archipelago to inhabit 10 islands. Here, we sequenced the mitochondrial control region from six historical giant tortoises from San Cristóbal (five long deceased individuals found in a cave and one found alive during an expedition in 1906) and discovered that the five from the cave...

Precipitation Efficiency Constraint on Climate Change

Ryan Li
Precipitation efficiency (PE) relates cloud condensation to precipitation and intrinsically binds atmospheric circulation to the hydrological cycle. Due to PE’s inherent microphysical dependencies, definitions and estimates vary immensely. Consequently, PE’s sensitivity to greenhouse warming and implications for climate change are poorly understood. Here, we quantify PE’s role in climate change by defining a simple index as the ratio of surface precipitation to condensed water path. This macroscopic metric is reconcilable with microphysical PE measures and...

Collective ferromagnetism of artificial square spin ice

Nicholas Bingham, Xiaoyu Zhang, Justin Ramberger, Olle Heinonen, Chris Leighton & Peter Schiffer
We have studied the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the total magnetic moment of large-area permalloy artificial square spin ice arrays. The temperature dependence and hysteresis behavior are consistent with the coherent magnetization reversal expected in the Stoner-Wohlfarth model, with clear deviations due to inter-island interactions at small lattice spacing. Through micromagnetic simulations, we explore this behavior and demonstrate that the deviations result from increasingly complex magnetization reversal at small lattice spacing, induced by...

Fire decreases soil enzyme activities and reorganizes microbially-mediated nutrient cycles: a meta-analysis

Yong Zhou, Arielle Biro, Michelle Wong, Sarah Batterman & Carla Staver
The biogeochemical signature of fire shapes the functioning of many ecosystems. Fire changes nutrient cycles not only by volatilizing plant material, but also by altering organic matter decomposition—a process regulated by soil extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs). However, our understanding of fire effects on EEAs and their feedbacks to nutrient cycles is incomplete. We conducted a meta-analysis with 301 field studies and found that fire significantly decreased EEAs by ~20-40%. Fire decreased EEAs by decreasing soil...

Dataset and software to analyze and simulate neuronal morphogenesis in Drosophila class IV da neurons

Sabyasachi Sutradhar, Sonal Shree & Jonathon Howard
The highly ramified arbors of neuronal dendrites provide the substrate for the high connectivity and computational power of the brain. Altered dendritic morphology is associated with neuronal diseases. Many molecules have been shown to play crucial roles in shaping and maintaining dendrite morphology. Yet, the underlying principles by which molecular interactions generate branched morphologies are not understood. To elucidate these principles, we visualized the growth of dendrites throughout larval development of Drosophila sensory neurons and...

Online electronic material for: Macroevolutionary dynamics of climatic niche space

Ignacio Quintero, Marc Suchard & Walter Jetz
How and why lineages evolve along niche space as they diversify and adapt to different environments is fundamental to evolution. Progress has been hampered by the difficulties of linking a robust empirical characterization of species niches with flexible evolutionary models that describe their evolution. Consequently, the relative influence of abiotic and biotic factors remains poorly understood. Here we characterize species’ two-dimensional temperature and precipitation niche space occupied (i.e., species niche envelope) as complex geometries and...

Costing data for implementing mHealth facilitated tuberculosis contact tracing in Uganda

Amanda J Gupta, Patricia Turimumahoro, J. Lucian Davis, David Dowdy, Austin Tucker, Radhika Tampi, Diana Babirye, Emmanuel Ochom, Joseph Ggita, Irene Ayakaka, Hojoon Sohn & Achilles Katamba
Introduction Mobile health (mHealth) applications may improve timely access to health services and improve patient-provider communication, but the upfront costs of implementation may be prohibitive, especially in resource-limited settings. Methods We measured the costs of developing and implementing an mHealth-facilitated, home-based strategy for tuberculosis (TB) contact investigation (CI) in Kampala, Uganda, between February 2014 and July 2017. We compared routine implementation involving community health workers (CHWs) screening and referring household contacts to clinics for TB...

Ciliary beating patterns map onto a low-dimensional behavioural space

Jonathon Howard, Veikko Geyer & Pablo Sartori
Biological systems are robust to perturbations at both the genetic and environmental levels, although these same perturbations can elicit variation in behaviour. The interplay between functional robustness and behavioural variability is exemplified at the organellar level by the beating of cilia and flagella. Cilia are motile despite wide genetic diversity between and within species, differences in intracellular concentrations of ATP and calcium, and considerable environment fluctuations in temperature and viscosity. At the same time, these...

Scale dependence in functional equivalence and difference in the soil microbiome

Alexander Polussa
Climatic history can shape the functioning of soil microbial communities and thus rates of ecosystem processes such as organic matter decomposition. For example, broad spatial scale differences in climatic history, such as contrasting precipitation regimes, have been shown to generate unique microbial functional responses to contemporary moisture conditions. Yet it is an open question as to whether local differences in soil microclimate similarly influence the functional potential of decomposer communities. Here, we use a multi-scale...

Positional errors in species distribution modelling are not overcome by the coarser grains of analysis

Lukáš Gábor, Walter Jetz, Muyang Lu, Duccio Rocchini, Anna Cord, Marco Malavasi, Alejandra Zarzo-Arias, Vojtěch Barták & Vítězslav Moudrý
The performance of species distribution models is known to be affected by the analysis grain and the positional error of species occurrences. Coarsening of the spatial analysis grain has been suggested to compensate for positional errors. Nevertheless, this way of dealing with positional errors has never been thoroughly tested. With increasing use of fine-scale environmental data in predictive models developed for conservation and climate change studies it is increasingly important to test this assumption. Species...

Auditory brainstem development of Naked Mole-Rats (Heterocephalus glaber)

Elizabeth McCullagh, John Peacock, Alexandra Lucas, Shani Poleg, Nathaniel Greene, Addison Gaut, Samantha Lagestee, Yalan Zhang, Leonard Kaczmarek, Thomas Park, Daniel Tollin & Achim Klug
Life underground often leads to animals having specialized auditory systems to accommodate the constraints of acoustic transmission in tunnels. Despite living underground, naked mole-rats use a highly vocal communication system, implying that they rely on central auditory processing. However, little is known about these animals’ central auditory system, and whether it follows a similar developmental time course as other rodents. Naked mole-rats show slowed development in the hippocampus suggesting they have altered brain development compared...

Embryonic muscle splitting patterns reveal homologies of amniote forelimb muscles

Daniel Smith Paredes
Limb muscles are remarkably complex and evolutionarily labile; although their anatomy is of great interest for studies of the evolution of form and function, their homologies among major amniote clades have remained obscure. Studies of adult musculature are inconclusive owing to the highly derived morphology of modern amniote limbs, but correspondences become increasingly evident earlier in ontogeny. Amniote forelimb muscles derive from early embryonic muscle masses of somitic origin, which grow and cleave into recognizable...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses of echinoid diversification prompt a re-evaluation of their fossil record

Nicolás Mongiardino Koch, Jeffrey R Thompson, Avery S Hatch, Marina F McCowin, A Frances Armstrong, Simon E Coppard, Felipe Aguilera, Omri Bronstein, Andreas Kroh, Rich Mooi & Greg W Rouse
Echinoids are key components of modern marine ecosystems. Despite a remarkable fossil record, the emergence of their crown group is documented by few specimens of unclear affinities, rendering their early history uncertain. The origin of sand dollars, one of its most distinctive clades, is also unclear due to an unstable phylogenetic context. We employ eighteen novel genomes and transcriptomes to build a phylogenomic dataset with a near-complete sampling of major lineages. With it, we revise...

Limited increases in savanna carbon stocks over decades of fire suppression

Yong Zhou, Jenia Singh, John Butnor, Corli Coetsee, Peter Boucher, Madelon Case, Evan Hockridge, Andrew Davies & Carla Staver
Savannas cover a fifth of the land surface and contribute a third of terrestrial net primary production, accounting for three quarters of global area burned and over half of global fire-driven carbon emissions. Fire suppression and afforestation have been proposed as tools to increase carbon sequestration in these ecosystems. A robust quantification of whole-ecosystem carbon storage in savannas is lacking, however, especially under altered fire regimes. Here, we provide the first direct estimates of whole-ecosystem...

Trophoblast inclusions and pregnancy characteristics

Harvey Kliman, Morgan Firestein & Hein Odendaal
Objective Trophoblast inclusions—cross sections of abnormal trophoblast bilayer infoldings— have previously been associated with aneuploidy, placenta accreta, and prematurity. This study was conducted to establish the relationship between trophoblast inclusions and a range of placental, pregnancy, and birth outcomes in a patient population with high smoking and alcohol exposure. Specifically, we sought to evaluate the association between the presence of trophoblast inclusions and 1) three primary birth outcomes: full-term birth, preterm birth, and stillbirth; 2)...

The environmental drivers of tree cover and forest-savanna mosaics in Southeast Asia

Elise Pletcher, Carla Staver & Naomi Schwartz
Forest-savanna mosaics exist across all major tropical regions. Yet, the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of these mosaics is not well explored, limiting our understanding of the environmental constraints on savannas especially in Southeast Asia, where most savannas exist in mosaics. Despite clear structural and functional characteristics indicative of savannas, most SE Asian savannas continue to be classified as forest. This designation is problematic because SE Asian savannas are threatened by both fragmentation...

Data from: Asynchrony, density dependence, and persistence in an amphibian

Freya Rowland, Elizabeth Schyling, L. Kealoha Freidenburg, Mark Urban, Jonathan Richardson, A.Z. Andis Arietta, Susan Rodrigues, Adriana Rubinstein, Michael Benard & David Skelly
The wood frog (Rana sylvatica = Lithobates sylvaticus) is a common, early-spring breeding anuran species in the United States and Canada. Females typically lay their egg masses in concentrated areas of a few meters over several days. Most female wood frogs mature after two years. Each female lays one egg mass in a given year, and most show high (~100%) site fidelity after first breeding, although a small portion of juveniles disperse up to 2000...

ddRAD data for: Multiple introductions and overwintering shape the progressive invasion of Aedes albopictus beyond the Alps

Laura Vavassori, Ann-Christin Honnen, Norah Saarman, Adalgisa Caccone & Pie Müller
Aedes albopictus originates from Southeast Asia and is considered one of the most invasive species globally. This mosquito is a nuisance and a disease vector of significant public health relevance. In Europe, Ae. albopictus is firmly established and widespread south of the Alps, a mountain range that forms a formidable biogeographic barrier to many organisms. Recent reports of Ae. albopictus north of the Alps raise questions of 1) the origins of its recent invasion, and...

Data from: Mosaic adaptive peak shifts underlie body shape diversification in Pelagiaria fishes (Acanthomorpha: Percomorpha)

David Collar, Samantha Tremaine, Richard Harrington, Hermione Beckett & Matt Friedman
Extreme body elongation in fishes is a major evolutionary transformation that extends the boundaries of morphological diversity and alters aspects of function, behavior, and ecology. Prior studies have identified features of the cranial and axial skeleton that characterize elongate fishes, but a lack of detailed reconstructions of anatomical evolution has limited inferences about factors that underlie major shifts in body shape. In this study, we fit multi-peak adaptive (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck) evolutionary models to species body shape...

Registration Year

  • 2022
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Affiliations

  • Yale University
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    2