458 Works

Supplementary results for: Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability, neuropathology and cognitive function

Yuan Ma
Objective Large systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability has been proposed as a novel risk factor for dementia above and beyond SBP levels, but the underlying neuropathology is largely unknown. We investigated the relationship among visit-to-visit SBP variability, cognitive deterioration and underlying neuropathological changes. Methods We used longitudinal data (between 2005 and 2019) from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center. 13,284 dementia-free participants aged≥50 years were followed over a median of 5.0 (interquartile range: 3.1-7.6) years. Neuropathology...

Data from: Taxonomic scale and community organization impact observed latitudinal gradients of parasite diversity

Whitney Preisser
Aim: While most free-living taxa follow the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), or the trend of higher diversity at lower latitudes, we know little about how the diversity of parasitic taxa is distributed across latitudes. To better understand the macroecological patterns of parasite diversity, we sought to determine if: 1) helminths follow the traditional LDG; 2) taxonomic resolution impacts observed patterns; 3) latitudinal patterns are consistent across levels of community organization; and 4) helminth diversity is...

Data from: Associations between changes in city and address specific temperature and QT interval - the VA Normative Aging Study

Amar J. Mehta, Itai Kloog, Antonella Zanobetti, Brent A. Coull, David Sparrow, Pantel Vokonas & Joel Schwartz
Background: The underlying mechanisms of the association between ambient temperature and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not well understood, particularly for daily temperature variability. We evaluated if daily mean temperature and standard deviation of temperature was associated with heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) duration, a marker of ventricular repolarization in a prospective cohort of older men. Methods: This longitudinal analysis included 487 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with up to three...

Data from: High diversity and widespread occurrence of mitotic spore mats in ectomycorrhizal Pezizales

Rosanne A. Healy, Matthew E. Smith, Gregory M. Bonito, Donald H. Pfister, Gonzalo G. Guevara, Caroline Hobart, Leticia Kumar, Thai Lee, Katherine Stafford, Zai-Wei Ge, Rytas Vilgalys, Gwendolyn Williams, James Trappe, David J. McLaughlin &
Fungal mitospores may function as dispersal units and/ or spermatia and thus play a role in distribution and/or mating of species that produce them. Mitospore production in ectomycorrhizal (EcM) Pezizales is rarely reported, but here we document mitospore production by a high diversity of EcM Pezizales on three continents, in both hemispheres. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU) nuclear rDNA from 292 spore mats (visible mitospore clumps) collected in...

Data from: Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan

Alexandra G. Rosati, Alyssa M. Arre, Michael L. Platt & Laurie R. Santos
Gaze following, or co-orienting with others, is a foundational skill for human social behavior. The emergence of this capacity scaffolds critical human-specific abilities such as theory of mind and language. Nonhuman primates also follow others’ gaze, but less is known about how the cognitive mechanisms supporting this behavior develop over the lifespan. Here we experimentally tested gaze following in 481 semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) ranging from infancy to old age. We found that monkeys...

Data from: X-ray microtomography for ant taxonomy: an exploration and case study with two new Terataner (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) species from Madagascar

Francisco Hita Garcia, Georg Fischer, Cong Liu, Tracy L. Audisio, Gary D. Alpert, Brian L. Fisher & Evan P. Economo
We explore the potential of x-ray micro computed tomography (μCT) for the field of ant taxonomy by using it to enhance the descriptions of two remarkable new species of the ant genus Terataner: T. balrog sp. n. and T. nymeria sp. n.. We provide an illustrated worker-based species identification key for all species found on Madagascar, as well as detailed taxonomic descriptions, which include diagnoses, discussions, measurements, natural history data, high-quality montage images and distribution...

Data from: Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures

Andrew H. Beck, Nicholas W. Knoblauch, Marco M. Hefti, Jennifer Kaplan, Stuart J. Schnitt, Aedin C. Culhane, Markus S. Schroeder, John Quackenbush, Benjamin Haibe-Kains & Thomas Risch
A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast...

Data from: Multilocus tests of Pleistocene refugia and ancient divergence in a pair of Atlantic Forest antbirds (Myrmeciza)

Fábio Raposo Do Amaral, Patrick K. Albers, Scott V. Edwards & Cristina Y. Miyaki
The Atlantic Forest (AF) harbors one of the most diverse vertebrate faunas of the world, including 199 endemic species of birds. Understanding the evolutionary processes behind such diversity has become the focus of many recent, primarily single locus, phylogeographic studies. These studies suggest that isolation in forest refugia may have been a major mechanism promoting diversification, although there is also support for a role of riverine and geotectonic barriers, two sets of hypotheses that can...

Data from: Support for a clade of Placozoa and Cnidaria in genes with minimal compositional bias

Christopher E. Laumer, Harald Gruber-Vodicka, Michael G. Hadfield, Vicki B. Pearse, Ana Riesgo, John C. Marioni & Gonzalo Giribet
The phylogenetic placement of the morphologically simple placozoans is crucial to understanding the evolution of complex animal traits. Here, we examine the influence of adding new genomes from placozoans to a large dataset designed to study the deepest splits in the animal phylogeny. Using site-heterogeneous substitution models, we show that it is possible to obtain strong support, in both amino acid and reduced-alphabet matrices, for either a sister-group relationship between Cnidaria and Placozoa, or for...

Data from: Ultrafast evolution and loss of CRISPRs following a host shift in a novel wildlife pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Nigel F. Delaney, Susan Balenger, Camille Bonneaud, Christopher J. Marx, Geoffrey E. Hill, Naola Ferguson-Noel, Peter Tsai, Allen Rodrigo & Scott V. Edwards
Measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), a common North American songbird. For the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in House Finch isolates of MG,...

Data from: Positive selection drives faster-Z evolution in silkmoths

Timothy B. Sackton, Russell B. Corbett-Detig, Javaregowda Nagaraju, R. Lakshmi Vaishna, Kallare P. Arunkumar & Daniel L. Hartl
Genes linked to X or Z chromosomes, which are hemizygous in the heterogametic sex, are predicted to evolve at different rates than those on autosomes. This “faster-X effect” can arise either as a consequence of hemizygosity, which leads to more efficient selection for recessive beneficial mutations in the heterogametic sex, or as a consequence of reduced effective population size of the hemizygous chromosome, which leads to increased fixation of weakly deleterious mutations due to genetic...

Data from: Conserved non-exonic elements: a novel class of marker for phylogenomics

Scott V. Edwards, Alison Cloutier & Allan J. Baker
Noncoding markers have a particular appeal as tools for phylogenomic analysis because, at least in vertebrates, they appear less subject to strong variation in GC content among lineages. Thus far, ultraconserved elements (UCEs) and introns have been the most widely used noncoding markers. Here we analyze and study the evolutionary properties of a new type of noncoding marker, conserved non-exonic elements (CNEEs), which consists of noncoding elements that are estimated to evolve slower than the...

Data from: Gut microbiota of dung beetles correspond to dietary specializations of adults and larvae

Shantanu P. Shukla, Jon G. Sanders, Marcus J. Byrne & Naomi E. Pierce
Vertebrate dung is central to the dung beetle life cycle, constituting food for adults and a protective and nutritive refuge for their offspring. Adult dung beetles have soft mandibles and feed primarily on nutritionally rich dung particles, while larvae have sclerotized mandibles and consume coarser dung particles with a higher C/N ratio. Here, using the dung beetles Euoniticellus intermedius and E. triangulatus, we show that these morphological adaptations in mandibular structure are also correlated with...

Data from: Chimpanzee cooperation is fast, and independent from self-control

Alexandra G. Rosati, Lauren M. DiNicola & Joshua W. Buckholtz
Large-scale cooperation is a hallmark of our species and appears to be unique among primates. Yet the evolutionary mechanisms that drove the emergence of humanlike patterns of cooperation remain unclear. Studying the cognitive processes underlying cooperative behavior in apes, our closest living relatives, can help identify these mechanisms. Accordingly, we employed a novel test battery to assess the willingness of 40 chimpanzees to donate resources, instrumentally help others, and punish a culpable thief. We found...

Data from: Basal metabolism in tropical birds: latitude, altitude, and the “pace of life”

Gustavo A. Londoño, Mark A. Chappell, María Del Rosario Castañeda, Jill E. Jankowski & Scott K. Robinson
1. Life history varies across latitudes, with the ‘pace of life’ being ‘slower’ in tropical regions. Because life history is coupled to energy metabolism via allocation tradeoffs and links between performance capacity and energy use, low metabolic intensity is expected in tropical animals. Low metabolism has been reported for lowland tropical birds, but it is unclear if this is due to ‘slow’ life history or to a warm, stable environment. 2. We measured Basal Metabolic...

Data from: Migration in geographic and ecological space by a large herbivore

Wibke Peters, Mark Hebblewhite, Atle Mysterud, Derek Spitz, Stefano Focardi, Ferdinando Urbano, Nicolas Morellet, Marco Heurich, Petter Kjellander, John D.C. Linnell, Francesca Cagnacci & John D. C. Linnell
Partial migration, when only part of the population migrates seasonally while the other part remains resident on the shared range, is the most common form of migration in ungulates. Migration is often defined by spatial separation of seasonal ranges and consequently, classification of individuals as migrants or residents is usually only based on geographic criteria. However, the underlying mechanism for migration is hypothesized to be movement in response to spatiotemporal resource variability and thus, migrants...

Data from: Multifactorial processes underlie parallel opsin loss in neotropical bats

Alexa Sadier, Kalina T. J. Davies, Laurel R. Yohe, Kun Yun, Paul Donat, Brandon P. Hedrick, Elizabeth R. Dumont, Liliana M. Davalos, Stephen J. Rossiter & Karen E. Sears
The loss of previously adaptive traits is typically linked to relaxation in selection, yet the molecular steps leading to such repeated losses are rarely known. Molecular studies of loss have tended to focus on gene sequences alone, but overlooking other aspects of protein expression might underestimate phenotypic diversity. Insights based almost solely on opsin gene evolution, for instance, have made mammalian color vision a textbook example of phenotypic loss. We address this gap by investigating...

Data from: The ontogeny of fairness in seven societies

Peter R. Blake, Katherine McAuliffe, John Corbit, Tara C. Callaghan, Oumar Barry, Aleah Bowie, Lauren Kleutsch, Karen L. Kramer, Elizabeth Ross, Hurnan Vongsachang, Richard Wrangham & Felix Warneken
A sense of fairness plays a critical role in supporting human cooperation. Adult norms of fair resource sharing vary widely across societies, suggesting that culture shapes the acquisition of fairness behaviour during childhood. Here we examine how fairness behaviour develops in children from seven diverse societies, testing children from 4 to 15 years of age (n = 866 pairs) in a standardized resource decision task. We measured two key aspects of fairness decisions: disadvantageous inequity...

Data from: Demographic stochasticity and resource autocorrelation control biological invasions in heterogeneous landscapes

Andrea Giometto, Florian Altermatt & Andrea Rinaldo
Mounting theoretical evidence suggests that demographic stochasticity, environmental heterogeneity and biased movement of organisms individually affect the dynamics of biological invasions and range expansions. Studies of species spread in heterogeneous landscapes have traditionally characterized invasion velocities as functions of the mean resource density throughout the landscape, thus neglecting higher-order moments of the spatial resource distribution. Here, we show theoretically that different spatial arrangements of resources lead to different spread velocities even if the mean resource...

Data from: Delayed transmission selects for increased survival of vesicular stomatitis virus

Brian R. Wasik, Ambika Bhushan, C. Brandon Ogbunugafor & Paul E. Turner
Life-history theory predicts that traits for survival and reproduction cannot be simultaneous maximized in evolving populations. For this reason, in obligate parasites such as infectious viruses, selection for improved between-host survival during transmission may lead to evolution of decreased within-host reproduction. We tested this idea using experimental evolution of RNA virus populations, passaged under differing transmission times in the laboratory. A single ancestral genotype of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a negative-sense RNA Rhabdovirus, was used...

Data from: Estimating encounter rates as the first step of sexual selection in the lizard Anolis sagrei

Ambika Kamath & Jonathan B. Losos
How individuals move through their environment dictates which other individuals they encounter, determining their social and reproductive interactions and the extent to which they experience sexual selection. Specifically, females rarely have the option of mating with all males in a population—they can only choose among the males they encounter. Further, quantifying phenotypic differences between the males that females encounter and those that sire females’ offspring lends insight into how social and reproductive interactions shape male...

Data from: Two pulses of morphological diversification in Pacific pelagic fishes following the Cretaceous–Palaeogene mass extinction

Elizabeth Sibert, Matthew Friedman, Pincelli Hull, Gene Hunt, Richard Norris & Matt Friedman
Molecular phylogenies suggest some major radiations of open-ocean fish clades occurred roughly coincident with the K/Pg boundary, however the timing and nature of this diversification is poorly constrained. Here we investigate evolutionary patterns in ray-finned fishes across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K/Pg) Mass Extinction 66 million years ago (Ma), using microfossils (isolated teeth) preserved in a South Pacific sediment core spanning 72-43 Ma. Our record does not show significant turnover of fish tooth morphotypes at the K/Pg...

Data from: Characterizing the plasticity of nitrogen metabolism by the host and symbionts of the hydrothermal vent chemoautotrophic symbioses Ridgeia piscesae

Liao Li, Scott D. Wankel, Wu Min, Colleen M. Cavanaugh, Peter R. Girguis & Min Wu
Chemoautotrophic symbionts of deep sea hydrothermal vent tubeworms are known to provide their hosts with all their primary nutrition. While studies have examined how chemoautotrophic symbionts provide the association with nitrogen, fewer have examined if symbiont nitrogen metabolism varies as a function of environmental conditions. Ridgeia piscesae tubeworms flourish at Northeastern Pacific vents, occupy a range of microhabitats, and exhibit a high degree of morphological plasticity [e.g. long-skinny (LS) and short-fat (SF) phenotypes] that may...

Data from: Apolipoprotein (ApoE) polymorphism is related to differences in potential fertility in women: a case of antagonistic pleiotropy?

Grazyna Jasienska, Peter T. Ellison, Andrzej Galbarczyk, Michal Jasienski, Malgorzata Kalemba-Drozdz, Maria Kapiszewska, Ilona Nenko, Inger Thune & Anna Ziomkiewicz
The alleles that are detrimental to health, especially in older age, are thought to persist in populations because they also confer some benefits for individuals (through antagonistic pleiotropy). The ApoE4 allele at the ApoE locus, encoding apolipoprotein E (ApoE), significantly increases risk of poor health, and yet it is present in many populations at relatively high frequencies. Why has it not been replaced by natural selection with the health-beneficial ApoE3 allele? ApoE is a major...

Data from: MHC class II assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles)

Yung Wa Sin, Geetha Annavi, Chris Newman, Christina Buesching, Terry Burke, David W. Macdonald & Hannah L. Dugdale
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more...

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