452 Works

Data from: Sign epistasis limits evolutionary trade-offs at the confluence of single- and multi-carbon metabolism in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1

Sean Michael Carroll, Ming-Chun Lee & Christopher James Marx
Adaptation of one set of traits is often accompanied by attenuation of traits important in other selective environments, leading to fitness trade-offs. The mechanisms that either promote or prevent the emergence of trade-offs remain largely unknown, and are difficult to discern in most systems. Here, we investigate the basis of trade-offs that emerged during experimental evolution of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 to distinct growth substrates. After 1500 generations of adaptation to a multi-carbon substrate, succinate (S),...

Data from: Controlled measurement and comparative analysis of cellular components in E. coli reveals broad regulatory changes in response to glucose starvation

John R. Houser, Craig Barnhart, Daniel R. Boutz, Sean M. Carrol, Aurko Dasgupta, Joshua K. Michener, Brittany D. Needham, Ophelia Papoulas, Viswanadham Sridhara, Dariya K. Sydykova, Christopher J. Marx, M. Stephen Trent, Jeffery E. Barrick, Edward M. Marcotte, Claus O. Wilke, Jeffrey E. Barrick & Sean M. Carroll
How do bacteria regulate their cellular physiology in response to starvation? Here, we present a detailed characterization of Escherichia coli growth and starvation over a time-course lasting two weeks. We have measured multiple cellular components, including RNA and proteins at deep genomic coverage, as well as lipid modifications and flux through central metabolism. Our study focuses on the physiological response of E. coli in stationary phase as a result of being starved for glucose, not...

Data from: Molecular physiology of chemical defenses in a poison frog

Stephanie N Caty, Aurora Alvarez-Buylla, Gary` D Byrd, Charles Vidoudez, Alexandre B Roland, Elicio E Tapia, Bogdan Bodnik, Sunia A Trauger, Luis A Coloma & Lauren A O'Connell
Poison frogs sequester small molecule lipophilic alkaloids from their diet of leaf litter arthropods for use as chemical defenses against predation. Although the dietary acquisition of chemical defenses in poison frogs is well-documented, the physiological mechanisms of alkaloid sequestration has not been investigated. Here, we used RNA sequencing and proteomics to determine how alkaloids impact mRNA or protein abundance in the Little Devil Frog (Oophaga sylvatica) and compared wild caught chemically defended frogs to laboratory...

Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum

Amy E. Zanne, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, David A. Coomes, Jugo Ilic, Steven Jansen, Simon L. Lewis, Regis B. Miller, Nathan G. Swenson, Michael C. Wiemann & Jerome Chave
Wood performs several essential functions in plants, including mechanically supporting aboveground tissue, storing water and other resources, and transporting sap. Woody tissues are likely to face physiological, structural and defensive trade-offs. How a plant optimizes among these competing functions can have major ecological implications, which have been under-appreciated by ecologists compared to the focus they have given to leaf function. To draw together our current understanding of wood function, we identify and collate data on...

Data from: Anchored phylogenomics illuminates the skipper butterfly tree of life

Emmanuel F.A. Toussaint, Jesse W. Breinholt, Chandra Earl, Andrew D. Warren, Andrew V.Z. Brower, Masaya Yago, Kelly M. Dexter, Marianne Espeland, Naomi E. Pierce, David J. Lohman & Akito Y. Kawahara
Butterflies (Papilionoidea) are perhaps the most charismatic insect lineage, yet phylogenetic relationships among them remain incompletely studied and controversial. We sequenced nearly 400 loci using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment and sampled all tribes and more than 120 genera of skippers (Hesperiidae), one of the most species-rich and poorly studied butterfly families. Maximum-likelihood, parsimony and coalescent multi-species methods all converged on a novel, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for skippers. Different optimality criteria and methodologies recovered almost identical phylogenetic...

Data from: Sequence capture phylogenomics of eyeless Cicurina spiders from Texas caves, with emphasis on US federally-endangered species from Bexar County (Araneae, Hahniidae)

Marshal Hedin, Shahan Derkarabetian, Jennifer Blair & Pierre Paquin
We combined morphological, mitochondrial, and nuclear phylogenomic data to address phylogenetic and species delimitation questions in cave-limited Cicurina spiders from central Texas. We focused special effort on specimens and cave locations in the San Antonio region (Bexar County), home to four eyeless species listed as US Federally Endangered. Our sequence capture experiments resulted in the recovery of ~ 200-400 homologous ultra-conserved element (UCE) nuclear loci across taxa, and nearly complete COI mitochondrial DNA sequences from...

Data from: Dispersing hydrophobic natural colorant β-carotene in shellac particles for enhanced stability and tunable color

Dong Chen, Chun-Xia Zhao, Camille Lagoin, Mingtan Hai, Laura R. Arriaga, Stephan Koehler, Alireza Abbaspourrad & David A. Weitz
Color is one of the most important visual attributes of food and is directly related to the perception of food quality. The interest in natural colorants, especially β-carotene that not only imparts color but also has well-documented health benefits, has triggered the research and development of different protocols designed to entrap these hydrophobic natural molecules to improve their stability against oxidation. Here, we report a versatile microfluidic approach that utilizes single emulsion droplets as templates...

Data from: The biomechanical basis of evolutionary change in a territorial display

Terry J. Ord, David C. Collar & Thomas J. Sanger
1. Few studies have examined how the anatomy of an animal signal contributes to, or limits, the evolution of signal differentiation among closely related species. 2. In Anolis lizards, adult males extend a large, conspicuous dewlap as part of a territorial advertisement display. Males of species from the island of Jamaica rely on the rapid extension of the dewlap to facilitate display detection by territorial neighbours and conspecific females. Males of other species on the...

Data from: Ant-plant mutualism: a dietary by-product of a tropical ant's macronutrient requirements

Lina M. Arcila Hernández, Jon G. Sanders, Gabriel A. Miller, Alison Ravenscraft & Megan E. Frederickson
Many arboreal ants depend on myrmecophytic plants for both food and shelter; in return, these ants defend their host plants against herbivores, which are often insects. Ant-plant and other mutualisms do not necessarily involve the exchange of costly rewards or services; they may instead result from by-product benefits, or positive outcomes that do not entail a cost for one or both partners. Here, we examined whether the plant-ant Allomerus octoarticulatus pays a short-term cost to...

Data from: Sexual selection constrains the body mass of male but not female mice

James S. Ruff, Douglas H. Cornwall, Linda C. Morrison, Joseph W. Cauceglia, Adam C. Nelson, Shannon M. Gaukler, Shawn Meagher, Lara S. Carroll & Wayne K. Potts
Sexual size dimorphism results when female and male body size is influenced differently by natural and sexual selection. Typically, in polygynous species larger male body size is thought to be favored in competition for mates and constraints on maximal body size are due to countervailing natural selection on either sex; however, it has been postulated that sexual selection itself may result in stabilizing selection at an optimal mass. Here we test this hypothesis by retrospectively...

Data from: Distinctive fungal communities in an obligate African ant-plant mutualism

Christopher C.M. Baker, Dino J. Martins, Julianne N. Pelaez, Johan P.J. Billen, Anne Pringle, Megan E. Frederickson, Naomi E. Pierce, Christopher C. M. Baker & Johan P. J. Billen
Three ant species nest obligately in the swollen-thorn domatia of the African ant-plant Vachellia (Acacia) drepanolobium, a model system for the study of ant-defence mutualisms and species coexistence. Here we report on the characteristic fungal communities generated by these ant species in their domatia. First, we describe behavioural differences between the ant species when presented with a cultured fungal isolate in the laboratory. Second, we use DNA metabarcoding to show that each ant species has...

Data from: The UBR-1 ubiquitin ligase regulates glutamate metabolism to generate coordinated motor pattern in Caenorhabditis elegans

Jysothna Chitturi, Wesley Hung, Anas M. Abdel Rahman, Min Wu, Maria A. Lim, John Calarco, Rene Baran, Xun Huang, James W. Dennis, Mei Zhen & Jyothsna Chitturi
UBR1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase best known for its ability to target protein degradation by the N-end rule. The physiological functions of UBR family proteins, however, remain not fully understood. We found that the functional loss of C. elegans UBR-1 leads to synchronized motor neuron activation, preventing body bending when animals generate reversal movements. This motor deficit is rescued by removing GOT-1, a transaminase that converts aspartate to glutamate. Both UBR-1 and GOT-1 are...

Data from: Does moonlight increase predation risk? Meta-analysis reveals divergent responses of nocturnal mammals to lunar cycles

Laura R. Prugh & Christopher D. Golden
1. The risk of predation strongly affects mammalian population dynamics and community interactions. Bright moonlight is widely believed to increase predation risk for nocturnal mammals by increasing the ability of predators to detect prey, but the potential for moonlight to increase detection of predators and the foraging efficiency of prey has largely been ignored. Studies have reported highly variable responses to moonlight among species, calling into question the assumption that moonlight increases risk. 2. Here,...

Data from: Variation in context-dependent foraging behavior across pollinators

Heather M. Briggs, Stuart Graham, Callin M. Switzer & Robin Hopkins
Pollinator foraging behavior has direct consequences for plant reproduction and has been implicated in driving floral trait evolution. Exploring the degree to which pollinators exhibit flexibility in foraging behavior will add to a mechanistic understanding of how pollinators can impose selection on plant traits. Although plants have evolved suites of floral traits to attract pollinators, flower color is a particularly important aspect of the floral display. Some pollinators show strong innate color preference, but many...

Data from: Size-related scaling of tree form and function in a mixed-age forest

Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Jennifer C. McGarvey, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Janice Y. Park, Erika B. Gonzalez-Akre, Valentine Herrmann, Amy C. Bennett, Christopher V. So, Norman A. Bourg, Jonathan R. Thompson, Sean M. McMahon & William J. McShea
Many morphological, physiological and ecological traits of trees scale with diameter, shaping the structure and function of forest ecosystems. Understanding the mechanistic basis for such scaling relationships is key to understanding forests globally and their role in Earth's changing climate system. Here, we evaluate theoretical predictions for the scaling of nine variables in a mixed-age temperate deciduous forest (CTFS-ForestGEO forest dynamics plot at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Virginia, USA) and compare observed scaling parameters...

Data from: How many routes lead to migration? Comparison of methods to assess and characterise migratory movements

Francesca Cagnacci, Stefano Focardi, Anne Ghisla, Bram Van Moorter, Eliezer Gurarie, Marco Heurich, Atle Mysterud, John Linnell, Manuela Panzacchi, Evelyn Merrill, Roel May, Torgeir Nygård, Christer Rolandsen, Mark Hebblewhite & Evelyn H. Merrill
1. Decreasing rate of migration in several species as a consequence of climate change and anthropic pressure, together with increasing evidence of space-use strategies intermediate between residency and complete migration, are very strong motivations to evaluate migration occurrence and features in animal populations. 2. The main goal of this paper was to perform a relative comparison between methods for identifying and characterising migration at the individual and population level on the basis of animal location...

Data from: Extracting spatio-temporal patterns in animal trajectories: an ecological application of sequence analysis methods

Johannes De Groeve, Nico Van De Weghe, Nathan Ranc, Tijs Neutens, Lino Ometto, Omar Rota-Stabelli & Francesca Cagnacci
Digital tracking technologies have considerably increased the amount and quality of animal trajectories, enabling the study of habitat use and habitat selection at a fine spatial and temporal scale. However, current approaches do not yet explicitly account for a key aspect of habitat use, namely the sequential variation in the use of different habitat features. To overcome this limitation, we propose a tree-based approach that makes use of sequence analysis methods, derived from molecular biology,...

Data from: Convergent losses of decay mechanisms and rapid turnover of symbiosis genes in mycorrhizal mutualists

Annegret Kohler, Alan Kuo, Laszlo G. Nagy, Emmanuelle Morin, Kerrie W. Barry, Francois Buscot, Bjorn Canback, Cindy Choi, Nicolas Cichocki, Alicia Clum, Jan Colpaert, Alex Copeland, Mauricio D. Costa, Jeanne Dore, Dimitrios Floudas, Gilles Gay, Mariangela Girlanda, Bernard Henrissat, Sylvie Herrmann, Jaqueline Hess, Nils Hogberg, Tomas Johansson, Hassine-Radhouane Khouja, Kurt LaButti, Urs Lahrmann … & Francis Martin
To elucidate the genetic bases of mycorrhizal lifestyle evolution, we sequenced new fungal genomes, including 13 ectomycorrhizal (ECM), orchid (ORM) and ericoid (ERM) species, and five saprotrophs, which we analyzed along with other fungal genomes. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have a reduced complement of genes encoding plant cell wall–degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), as compared to their ancestral wood decayers. Nevertheless, they have retained a unique array of PCWDEs, thus suggesting that they possess diverse abilities to decompose lignocellulose....

Data from: Ancient horizontal gene transfer and the last common ancestors

Gregory P. Fournier, Cheryl P. Andam & Johann Peter Gogarten
Background: The genomic history of prokaryotic organismal lineages is marked by extensive non-vertical inheritance of genes, with horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between many groups of organisms at all taxonomic levels. These HGT events have played an essential role in the origin and distribution of biological innovations. Analyses of ancient gene families show that HGT existed in the distant past, even at the time of the organismal last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Most gene transfers originated...

Data from: Archipelagic genetics in a widespread Caribbean anole

Robert Graham Reynolds, Tanner R. Strickland, Jason J. Kolbe, Bryan G. Falk, Gad Perry, Liam J. Revell & Jonathan B. Losos
Aim We examine the influence of fluctuating sea levels in a land-bridge archipelago on the apportioning of intraspecific genetic diversity and divergence in the widespread Puerto Rican crested anole (Anolis cristatellus). We compare three alternative scenarios for genetic diversification in an archipelagic species that contrast the relative influences of periodic isolation versus island connectedness driven by fluctuating sea levels. Our approach combines information from geography and population genetics to assess the influence of island size,...

Data from: SNPs across time and space: population genomic signatures of founder events and epizootics in the House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)

Allison J. Shultz, Allan J. Baker, Geoffrey E. Hill, Paul M. Nolan & Scott V. Edwards
Identifying genomic signatures of natural selection can be challenging against a background of demographic changes such as bottlenecks and population expansions. Here, we disentangle the effects of demography from selection in the House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) using samples collected before and after a pathogen-induced selection event. Using ddRADseq, we genotyped over 18,000 SNPs across the genome in native pre-epizootic western US birds, introduced birds from Hawaii and the eastern United States, post-epizootic eastern birds, and...

Data from: The role of sexual and natural selection in shaping patterns of sexual dichromatism in the largest family of songbirds (Aves: Thraupidae)

Allison J. Shultz & Kevin J. Burns
Males and females can be under different evolutionary pressures if sexual and natural selection is differentially operating in each sex. As a result, many species have evolved sexual dichromatism, or differences in coloration between sexes. Although sexual dichromatism is often used as an index of the magnitude of sexual selection, sexual dichromatism is a composite trait. Here, we examine the evolution of sexual dichromatism in one of the largest and most ecologically diverse families of...

Data from: Repeated evolution of vertebrate pollination syndromes in a recently diverged Andean plant clade

Laura P. Lagomarsino, Elisabeth J. Forrestel, Nathan Muchhala & Charles C. Davis
While specialized interactions, including those involving plants and their pollinators, are often invoked to explain high species diversity, they are rarely explored at macroevolutionary scales. We investigate the dynamic evolution of hummingbird and bat pollination syndromes in the centropogonid clade (Lobelioideae: Campanulaceae), an Andean-centered group of ∼550 angiosperm species. We demonstrate that flowers hypothesized to be adapted to different pollinators based on flower color fall into distinct regions of morphospace, and this is validated by...

Data from: Anchored hybrid enrichment provides new insights into the phylogeny and evolution of longhorned beetles (Cerambycidae)

Stephanie Haddad, Seunggwan Shin, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Petr Svacha, Brian Farrell, Adam Ślipiński, Donald Windsor & Duane D. McKenna
Cerambycidae is a species-rich family of mostly wood-feeding (xylophagous) beetles containing nearly 35 000 known species. The higher-level phylogeny of Cerambycidae has never been robustly reconstructed using molecular phylogenetic data or a comprehensive sample of higher taxa, and its internal relationships and evolutionary history remain the subjects of ongoing debate. We reconstructed the higher-level phylogeny of Cerambycidae using phylogenomic data from 522 single copy nuclear genes, generated via anchored hybrid enrichment. Our taxon sample (31...

Data from: The abiotic and biotic drivers of rapid diversification in Andean bellflowers (Campanulaceae)

Laura P. Lagomarsino, Fabien L. Condamine, Alexandre Antonelli, Andreas Mulch & Charles C. Davis
The tropical Andes of South America, the world’s richest biodiversity hotspot, are home to many rapid radiations. While geological, climatic, and ecological processes collectively explain such radiations, their relative contributions are seldom examined within a single clade. We explore the contribution of these factors by applying a series of diversification models that incorporate mountain building, climate change, and trait evolution to the first dated phylogeny of Andean bellflowers (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Our framework is novel for...

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