452 Works

Data from: Sibling rivalry: males with more brothers develop larger testes

Kristin Hook, Heidi Fisher, W. David Weber & Hopi Hoekstra
When females mate with multiple partners in a reproductive cycle, the relative number of competing sperm from rival males is often the most critical factor in determining paternity. Gamete production is directly related to testis size in most species, and is associated with both mating behavior and perceived risk of competition. Deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, are naturally promiscuous and males invest significantly more in sperm production than males of P. polionotus, their monogamous sister‐species. Here,...

Data from: Reporting guidelines for community-based participatory research (CBPR) did not improve the reporting quality of published studies: a systematic review of studies on smoking cessation

Daisuke Kato, Yuki Kataoka, Erfen Suwangto, Makoto Kaneko, Hideki Wakabayashi, Daisuke Son & Ichiro Kawachi
Although a guideline for reporting the results of community-based participatory research (CBPR) was published in 2010, the impact on the quality of reporting a CBPR on smoking cessation is unknown. Here we provide the raw data of a systematic review that assessed the impact of a 2010 community-based participatory research reporting guideline. on the quality of reporting a CBPR on smoking cessation. Specifically, we searched the MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials...

Information transfer efficiency differs in wild chimpanzees and bonobos, but not social-cognition

Cedric Girard-Buttoz, Martin Surbeck, Liran Samuni, Patrick Tkaczynski, Christophe Boesch, Barbara Fruth, Roman Wittig, Gottfried Hohmann & Catherine Crockford
Several theories have been generated to understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying the unique cooperative abilities of humans. The “interdependence hypothesis” posits that the cognitive dimension of human cooperation evolved in contexts when several individuals needed to collaborate to achieve a common goal and that more interdependent individuals are more likely to cooperate (provide services to conspecifics) in non-collaborative contexts. Alternatively, the “social tolerance hypothesis” proposes that higher social tolerance allows conspecifics to cooperate more efficiently...

Data from: Dynamic reorganization of neuronal activity patterns in parietal cortex dataset

Laura N. Driscoll, Noah L. Pettit, Matthias Minderer, Selmaan N. Chettih & Christopher D. Harvey
Neuronal representations change as associations are learned between sensory stimuli and behavioral actions. However, it is poorly understood whether representations for learned associations stabilize in cortical association areas or continue to change following learning. We tracked the activity of posterior parietal cortex neurons for a month as mice stably performed a virtual-navigation task. The relationship between cells’ activity and task features was mostly stable on single days but underwent major reorganization over weeks. The neurons...

Data from: Specialized breeding in plants affects diversification trajectories in Neotropical frogs

Joao Filipe Tonini, Rodrigo Ferreira & R. Alexander Pyron
Many animals breed exclusively in plants that accumulate rainwater (phytotelma; e.g., bromeliad, bamboo, fruit husk, and tree hole), to which they are either physiologically or behaviorally specialized for this microhabitat. Of the numerous life-history modes observed in frogs, few are as striking or potentially consequential as the transition from pond- or stream-breeding to the deposition of eggs or larvae in phytotelmata. Such specialization can increase offspring survivorship due to reduced competition and predation, representing potential...

Data from: Demography, life history trade-offs, and the gastrointestinal virome of wild chimpanzees

Jacob D. Negrey, Melissa Emery Thompson, Kevin E. Langergraber, Zarin P. Machanda, John C. Mitani, Martin N. Muller, Emily Otali, Leah A. Owens, Richard W. Wrangham & Tony L. Goldberg
In humans, senescence increases susceptibility to viral infection. However, comparative data on viral infection in free-living non-human primates—even in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos (Pan troglodytes and P. paniscus)—are relatively scarce, thereby constraining an evolutionary understanding of age-related patterns of viral infection. We investigated a population of wild eastern chimpanzees (P. t. schweinfurthii), using metagenomics to characterize viromes (full viral communities) in the feces of 42 sexually mature chimpanzees (22 males, 20 females)...

Data from: The extension of internal humidity levels beyond the soil surface facilitates mound expansion in Macrotermes

Daniel S. Calovi, Paul Bardunias, Nicole Carey, Rupert Soar, Scott Turner, Radhika Nagpal & Justin Werfel
Termites in the genus Macrotermes construct large-scale soil mounds above their nests. The classic explanation for how termites coordinate their labour to build the mound, based on a putative cement pheromone, has recently been called into question. Here we present evidence for an alternate interpretation based on sensing humidity. The high humidity characteristic of the mound internal environment extends a short distance into the low-humidity external world, in a “bubble” that can be disrupted by...

Data from: Carryover effects and the evolution of polyphenism

David Pfennig, Sofia De La Serna Buzón & Ryan Martin
An individual’s early-life environment and phenotype often influence its traits and performance as an adult. We investigated whether such ‘carryover effects’ are associated with alternative, environmentally induced phenotypes (‘polyphenism’), and, if so, whether they influence polyphenism’s evolution. To do so, we studied spadefoot toads, Spea multiplicata, which have evolved a polyphenism consisting of two, dramatically different forms: a carnivore morph and an omnivore morph. We sampled both morphs from a fast-drying and a slow-drying pond...

Investigating sources of conflict in deep phylogenomics of vetigastropod snails

Tauana Cunha, James Reimer & Gonzalo Giribet
Phylogenetic analyses may suffer from multiple sources of error leading to conflict between genes and methods of inference. The evolutionary history of the mollusc clade Vetigastropoda makes them susceptible to these conflicts, their higher level phylogeny remaining largely unresolved. Originating over 350 million years ago, vetigastropods were the dominant marine snails in the Paleozoic. Multiple extinction events and new radiations have resulted in both very long and very short branches and a large extant diversity...

Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks

Nancy H. L. Leung, Daniel K. W. Chu, Eunice Y. C. Shiu, Kwok-Hung Chan, James J. McDevitt, Benien J. P. Hau, Hui-Ling Yen, Yuguo Li, Dennis K. M. Ip, J. S. Malik Peiris, Wing-Hong Seto, Gabriel M. Leung, Donald K. Milton & Benjamin J. Cowling
We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in the exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a marginally significant reduction in coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that surgical facemasks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals.

Data from: Combining experimental evolution and genomics to understand how seed beetles adapt to a marginal host plant

Zachariah Gompert, Alexandre Rego, Samridhi Chaturvedi, Alexandra Lish, Caroline Barton, Karen Kapheim & Frank Messina
Genes that affect adaptive traits have been identified, but our knowledge of the genetic basis of adaptation in a more general sense (across multiple traits) remains limited. We combined population-genomic analyses of evolve and resequence experiments, genome-wide association mapping of performance traits, and analyses of gene expression to fill this knowledge gap, and shed light on the genomics of adaptation to a marginal host (lentil) by the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Using population-genomic approaches, we...

Association of caffeine and related analytes with resistance to Parkinson’s disease among LRRK2 mutation carriers: a metabolomic study

Grace F Crotty, Romeo Maciuca, Eric A Macklin, Junhua Wang, Manuel Montalban, Sonnet S. Davis, Jamal I Alkabsh, Rachit Bakshi, Xiqun Chen, Alberto Ascherio, Giuseppe Astarita, Sarah Huntwork-Rodriguez & Michael A Schwarzschild
Objective: To identify markers of resistance to developing Parkinson’s disease (PD) among LRRK2 mutation (LRRK2+) carriers, we carried out metabolomic profiling in individuals with PD and unaffected controls (UC), with and without the LRRK2 mutation. Methods: Plasma from 368 PD and UC subjects in the LRRK2 Cohort Consortium (LCC), comprising 118 LRRK2+/PD+, 115 LRRK2+/UC, 70 LRRK2-/PD+ and 65 LRRK2-/UC, and CSF available from 68 of them were analyzed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. For...

Dopamine axon population Ca signals in the striatum during odor cue- and reward-based choice tasks in mice

Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Hideyuki Matsumoto & Naoshige Uchida
Dopamine axon activity in the ventral, dorsomedial, and dorsolateral striatum was recorded, while mice performed a perceptual and value-based decision-making task. In one experiment, thirsty mice performed a perceptual decision-making task using mixtures of odor A and B (100/0, 90/10, 65/35, 35/65, 10/90, 0/100), in which identity of a dominant odor determined an available water port, and odor C which signaled no outcome. A fixed amount of water was always delivered with a correct choice....

Coronavirus prevalence in Brazilian Amazon and Sao Paulo city

Tassila Salomon, Oliver Pybus, Rafael França, Marcia Castro, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Christopher Dye, Michael Busch, Moritz U. G. Kraemer, Charles Whittaker, Andreza Santos, Nuno Faria, Rafael Pereira, Lewis Buss, , Claudia Abrahim, Maria Carvalho, Allyson Costa, Manoel Barral-Netto, Crispim Myuki, Brian Custer, Cesar De Almeida-Neto, Suzete Ferreira, Nelson Fraiji, Susie Gurzenda, Leonardo Kamaura … & Maria Belotti
SARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly in the Brazilian Amazon. Mortality was elevated, despite the young population, with the health services and cemeteries overwhelmed. The attack rate in this region is an estimate of the final epidemic size in an unmitigated epidemic. Here we show that by June, one month after the epidemic peak in Manaus, capital of the Amazonas state, 44% of the population had detectable IgG antibodies. This equates to a cumulative incidence of 52% after...

Long-term dietary flavonoid intake and subjective cognitive decline in US men and women

Tian-Shin Yeh, Changzheng Yuan, Alberto Ascherio, Bernard Rosner, Walter Willett & Deborah Blacker
Objective: To prospectively examine the associations between long-term dietary flavonoids and subjective cognitive decline (SCD). Methods: We followed 49,493 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (1984-2006) and 27,842 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) (1986-2002). Poisson regression was used to evaluate the associations between dietary flavonoids (flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, polymeric flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins) and subsequent SCD. For the NHS, long-term average dietary intake was calculated from seven repeated food frequency...

The perfect storm: Gene tree estimation error, incomplete lineage sorting, and ancient gene flow explain the most recalcitrant ancient angiosperm clade, Malpighiales

Liming Cai, Zhenxiang Xi, Emily Lemmon, Alan Lemmon, Austin Mast, Christopher Buddenhagen, Liang Liu & Charles Davis
The genomic revolution offers renewed hope of resolving rapid radiations in the Tree of Life. The development of the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model and improved gene tree estimation methods can better accommodate gene tree heterogeneity caused by incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and gene tree estimation error stemming from the short internal branches. However, the relative influence of these factors in species tree inference is not well understood. Using anchored hybrid enrichment, we generated a data...

Data from: Early maternal loss affects diurnal cortisol slopes in immature but not mature wild chimpanzees

Cedric Girard-Buttoz, Patrick Tkaczynski, Liran Samuni, Pawel Fedurek, Cristina Gomes, Therese Löhrich, Virgile Manin, Anna Preis, Prince Valé, Tobias Deschner, Roman Wittig & Catherine Crockford
Biological embedding of stress experienced early in life is a mechanism proposed to explain the fitness costs of maternal loss in mammals. This embedding is expected to lead to long-term alterations of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activity. This idea has, however, rarely been tested in wild long-lived animals. We assessed whether, as in humans, maternal loss had short and long-term impacts on orphan wild chimpanzee urinary cortisol levels and diurnal urinary cortisol slopes,...

Dual DNA/protein tagging of open chromatin unveils dynamics of epigenomic landscapes in leukemia

Jonathan Lee
The architecture of chromatin specifies eukaryotic cell identity by controlling transcription factor access to sites of gene regulation. Here we describe a dual transposase/peroxidase approach, integrative DNA And Protein Tagging (iDAPT), which detects both DNA (iDAPT-seq) and protein (iDAPT-MS) associated with accessible regions of chromatin. In addition to direct identification of bound transcription factors, iDAPT enables the inference of their gene regulatory networks, protein interactors, and regulation of chromatin accessibility. We applied iDAPT to profile...

Taxonomic sampling and rare genomic changes overcome long-branch attraction in the phylogenetic placement of pseudoscorpions

Andrew Ontano, Guilherme Gainett, Shlomi Aharon, Jesús Balesteros, Ligia Benavides, Kevin Corbett, Efrat Gavish-Regev, Mark Harvey, Scott Monsma, Carlos Santibáñez-López, Emily Setton, Jakob Zehms, Jeanne Zeh, David Zeh & Prashant Sharma
Long-branch attraction is a systematic artifact that results in erroneous groupings of fast-evolving taxa. The combination of short, deep internodes in tandem with LBA artifacts has produced empirically intractable parts of the Tree of Life. One such group is the arthropod subphylum Chelicerata, whose backbone phylogeny has remained unstable despite improvements in phylogenetic methods and genome-scale datasets. Pseudoscorpion placement is particularly variable across datasets and analytical frameworks, with this group either clustering with other long-branch...

Data: Genomic signatures of admixture and selection are shared among populations of Zaprionus indianus across the western hemisphere

Aaron A. Comeault, Andreas F. Kautt & Daniel R. Matute
Introduced species have become an increasingly common component of biological communities around the world. A central goal in invasion biology is therefore to identify the demographic and evolutionary factors that underlie successful introductions. Here we use whole genome sequences, collected from populations in the native and introduced ranges of the African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus, to quantify genetic relationships among them, identify potential sources of the introductions, and test for selection at different spatial scales....

Projected climate risk of aquatic food system benefits

Michelle Tigchelaar, William Cheung, Essam Mohammed, Michael Phillips, Hanna Payne, Elizabeth Selig, Colette Wabnitz, Muhammed Oyinlola, Thomas Frölicher, Jessica Gephart, Christopher Golden, Edward Allison, Abigail Bennett, Ling Cao, Jessica Fanzo, Benjamin Halpern, Fiorenza Micheli, Rosamond Naylor, Rashid Sumaila, Alessandro Tagliabue & Max Troell
Aquatic foods from marine and freshwater systems are critical to the nutrition, health, livelihoods, economies and culture of billions of people worldwide – but climate-related hazards may compromise their ability to provide these benefits. This analysis estimates national-level aquatic food system climate risk using a fuzzy logic modeling approach that connects climate hazards impacting marine and freshwater capture fisheries and aquaculture to their contributions to sustainable food system outcomes, and vulnerability to losing those contributions....

Data from: Developmental origins of the crocodylian skull table and platyrostral face

Zachary S. Morris, Kent A. Vliet, Arhat Abzhanov & Stephanie E. Pierce
The dorsoventrally flattened skull typifies extant Crocodylia perhaps more than any other anatomical feature and is generally considered an adaptation for semi-aquatic feeding. Although the evolutionary origins have been extensively studied, the developmental origins of craniofacial flattening have yet to be explored. To understand how the skull table and platyrostral snout develop, we quantified embryonic development and post-hatching growth (ontogeny) of the crocodylian skull in lateral view using geometric morphometrics. Our dataset (n=103) includes all...

Quantifying the effects of species traits on predation risk in nature: a comparative study of butterfly wing damage

Freerk Molleman, Juhan Javoiš, Robert Davis, Melissa Whitaker, Toomas Tammaru, Andreas Prinzing, Erki Õunap, Niklas Wahlberg, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Ants Kaasik & James Carey
1) Evading predators is a fundamental aspect of the ecology and evolution of all prey animals. In studying the influence of prey traits on predation risk, previous researchers have shown that crypsis reduces attack rates on resting prey, predation risk increases with increased prey activity, and rapid locomotion reduces attack rates and increases chances of surviving predator attacks. However, evidence for these conclusions is nearly always based on observations of selected species under artificial conditions....

Data from: Insect herbivory reshapes a native leaf microbiome

Parris Humphrey & Noah Whiteman
Publication abstract: Insect herbivory is pervasive in plant communities, but its impact on microbial plant colonizers is not well-studied in natural systems. By calibrating sequencing-based bacterial detection to absolute bacterial load, we find that the within-host abundance of most leaf microbiome (phyllosphere) taxa colonizing a native forb is amplified within leaves impacted by insect herbivory. Herbivore-associated bacterial amplification reflects community-wide compositional shifts towards lower ecological diversity, but the extent and direction of such compositional shifts...

Convergence of undulatory swimming kinematics across a diversity of fishes

Elsa Goerig, Valentina Di Santo, Dylan K. Wainwright, Theodore Castro-Santos, James Liao, Otar Akanyeti & George Lauder
Fishes exhibit an astounding diversity of locomotor behaviors, from classic swimming with their body and fins to jumping, flying, walking, and burrowing. Fishes that use their body and caudal fin (BCF) during undulatory swimming have been traditionally divided into modes based on the length of the propulsive body wave and the ratio of head:tail oscillation amplitude: anguilliform, sub-carangiform, carangiform and thunniform. This classification was first proposed based on key morphological traits, such as body stiffness...

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