453 Works

Data from: The relationship between post-mating reproductive isolation and reinforcement in Phlox

Sevan S. Suni & Robin Hopkins
The process of speciation involves the accumulation of reproductive isolation (RI) between diverging lineages. Selection can favor increased RI via the process of reinforcement, whereby costs to hybridization impose selection for increased prezygotic RI. Reinforcement results in phenotypic divergence within at least one taxon, as a result of costly hybridization between sympatric taxa. The strength of selection driving reinforcement is determined by the cost of hybridization and the frequency of hybridization. We investigated the cost...

Data from: DOG1 expression is predicted by the seed-maturation environment and contributes to geographic variation in germination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

George C K Chiang, Melanie Bartsch, Deepak Barua, Kazumi Nakabayashi, Marilyne Debieu, Ilkka Kronholm, Maarten Koornneef, Wim J J Soppe, Kathleen Donohue & Juliette De Meaux
Seasonal germination timing of Arabidopsis thaliana strongly influences overall life history expression and is the target of intense natural selection. This seasonal germination timing depends strongly on the interaction between genetics and seasonal environments both before and after seed dispersal. DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) is the first gene that has been identified to be associated with natural variation in primary dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we report inter-accession variation in DOG1 expression and document...

Data from: Mutation is a sufficient and robust predictor of genetic variation for mitotic spindle traits in Caenorhabditis elegans

Reza Farhadifar, Jose Miguel Ponciano, Erik C. Andersen, Daniel J. Needleman & Charles F. Baer
Different types of phenotypic traits consistently exhibit different levels of genetic variation in natural populations. There are two potential explanations: either mutation produces genetic variation at different rates, or natural selection removes or promotes genetic variation at different rates. Whether mutation or selection is of greater general importance is a longstanding unresolved question in evolutionary genetics. We report mutational variances (VM) for 19 traits related to the first mitotic cell division in C. elegans, and...

Data from: Evolutionary novelty in a butterfly wing pattern through enhancer shuffling

Richard W. R. Wallbank, Simon W. Baxter, Carolina Pardo-Diaz, Joseph J. Hanly, Simon H. Martin, James Mallet, Kanchon K. Dasmahapatra, Camilo Salazar, Mathieu Joron, Nicola Nadeau, W. Owen McMillan & Chris D. Jiggins
An important goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic changes underlying novel morphological structures. We investigated the origins of a complex wing pattern found among Amazonian Heliconius butterflies. Genome sequence data from 142 individuals across 17 species identified narrow regions associated with two distinct red colour pattern elements, dennis and ray. We hypothesise that these modules in non-coding sequence represent distinct cis-regulatory loci that control expression of the transcription factor optix, which in...

Data from: Patterns and limitations of urban human mobility resilience under the influence of multiple types of natural disaster

Qi Wang & John E. Taylor
Natural disasters pose serious threats to large urban areas, therefore understanding and predicting human movements is critical for evaluating a population’s vulnerability and resilience and developing plans for disaster evacuation, response and relief. However, only limited research has been conducted into the effect of natural disasters on human mobility. This study examines how natural disasters influence human mobility patterns in urban populations using individuals’ movement data collected from Twitter. We selected fifteen destructive cases across...

Data from: Edge effects on components of diversity and above-ground biomass in a tropical rainforest

Onja H. Razafindratsima, Kerry A. Brown, Fabio Carvalho, Steig E. Johnson, Patricia C. Wright & Amy E. Dunham
1. Edge effects are among the most significant consequences of forest fragmentation. Therefore, understanding the impacts of edge creation on biodiversity is crucial for forest management and biological conservation. 2. In this study, we used trait-based and phylogenetic approaches to examine the effects of fragmentation on components of diversity and above-ground biomass of rainforest tree communities in Madagascar in forest edge vs. interior habitats. 3. Tree communities in forest edges showed lower phylogenetic diversity relative...

Data from: Social behavior in bees influences the abundance of Sodalis (Enterobacteriaceae) symbionts

Benjamin E. R. Rubin, Jon G. Sanders, Kyle M. Turner, Naomi E. Pierce & Sarah D. Kocher
Social interactions can facilitate transmission of microbes between individuals, reducing variation in gut communities within social groups. Thus, the evolution of social behaviors and symbiont community composition have the potential to be tightly linked. We explored this connection by characterizing the diversity of bacteria associated with both eusocial and solitary bee species within the behaviorally variable family Halictidae using 16S amplicon sequencing. Contrary to expectations, we found few differences in bacterial abundance or variation between...

Data from: The effects of skeletal asymmetry on interpreting biological variation and taphonomy in the fossil record

Brandon P. Hedrick, Emma R. Schachner, Gabriel Rivera, Peter Dodson & Stephanie E. Pierce
Biological asymmetry is present in all bilaterally symmetric organisms as a result of normal developmental instability. However, fossilized organisms, which have undergone distortion due to burial, may have additional asymmetry as a result of taphonomic processes. To investigate this issue, we evaluated the magnitude of shape variation resulting from taphonomy on vertebrate bone using a novel application of fluctuating asymmetry. We quantified the amount of total variance attributed to asymmetry in a taphonomically distorted fossil...

Data from: A Palaeozoic stem-group to mite harvestmen revealed through integration of phylogenetics and development

Russell J. Garwood, Prashant P. Sharma, Jason A. Dunlop & Gonzalo Giribet
Successfully placing fossils in phylogenies is integral to understanding the tree of life. Crown-group Paleozoic members of the arachnid order Opiliones are indicative of ancient origins and one of the earliest arthropod terrestrialization events. Opiliones epitomize morphological stasis, and all known fossils have been placed within the four extant suborders. Here we report a Carboniferous harvestman species, Hastocularis argusgen. nov., sp. nov., reconstructed with microtomography (microCT). Phylogenetic analysis recovers this species, and the Devonian Eophalangium...

Data from: Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools

Stephen A. Smith, Casey W. Dunn, Nerida G. Wilson, Freya E. Goetz, Caitlin Feehery, Sónia C. S. Andrade, Greg W. Rouse & Gonzalo Giribet
Molluscs (snails, octopuses, clams, and relatives) have great body plan disparity, and among animals only arthropods surpass them in species number. This diversity has made Mollusca one of the best-studied groups of animals, yet their evolutionary relationships remain poorly resolved. Open questions have important implications for the origin of Mollusca and morphological evolution within the group. These include whether the shell-less vermiform aplacophoran molluscs diverged prior to the origin of the shelled molluscs (Conchifera), or...

Data from: A NGS approach to the encrusting Mediterranean sponge Crella elegans (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida): transcriptome sequencing, characterization and overview of the gene expression along three life cycle stages

Alicia R. Pérez-Porro, Daniel Navarro-Gómez, Maria J. Uriz & Gonzalo Giribet
Sponges can be dominant organisms in many marine and freshwater habitats where they play essential ecological roles. They also represent a key group to address important questions in early metazoan evolution. Recent approaches for improving knowledge on sponge biological and ecological functions as well as on animal evolution have focused on the genetic toolkits involved in ecological responses to environmental changes (biotic and abiotic), development and reproduction. These approaches are possible thanks to newly available,...

Data from: Heterochronic shifts and conserved embryonic shape underlie crocodylian craniofacial disparity and convergence

Zachary S. Morris, Kent A. Vliet, Arkhat Abzhanov & Stephanie E. Pierce
The distinctive anatomy of the crocodylian skull is intimately linked with dietary ecology, resulting in repeated convergence on blunt- and slender-snouted ecomorphs. These evolutionary shifts depend upon modifications of the developmental processes which direct growth and morphogenesis. Here we examine the evolution of cranial ontogenetic trajectories to shed light on the mechanisms underlying convergent snout evolution. We use geometric morphometrics to quantify skeletogenesis in an evolutionary context and reconstruct ancestral patterns of ontogenetic allometry to...

Data from: The International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) revisited: data availability and global ecological representativity

Shoudong Zhao, Neil Pederson, Loïc D'Orangeville, Janneke HilleRisLambers, Emery Boose, Caterina Penone, Bruce Bauer, Yuan Jiang & Rubén D. Manzanedo
Aim: The International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) is the most comprehensive database of tree growth. To evaluate its usefulness and improve its accessibility to the broad scientific community, we aimed to: i) quantify its biases, ii) assess how well it represents global forests, iii) develop tools to identify priority areas to improve its representativity, and iv) make available the corrected database. Location: Worldwide. Time period: Contributed datasets between 1974 and 2017. Major taxa studied: Trees....

Data from: Ant and mite diversity drives toxin variation in the Little Devil poison frog

Jenna R. McGugan, Gary D. Bryd, Alexandre B. Roland, Stephanie N. Caty, Nisha Kabir, Elicio E. Tapia, Sunia A. Trauger, Luis A. Coloma, Lauren A. O'Connell & Gary D. Byrd
Poison frogs sequester chemical defenses from arthropod prey, although the details of how arthropod diversity contributes to variation in poison frog toxins remains unclear. We characterized skin alkaloid profiles in the Little Devil poison frog, Oophaga sylvatica (Dendrobatidae), across three populations in northwestern Ecuador. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified histrionicotoxins, 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines, decahydroquinolines, and lehmizidines as the primary alkaloid toxins in these O. sylvatica populations. Frog skin alkaloid composition varied along a...

Data from: Does ecological specialization transcend scale? Habitat partitioning among individuals and species of Anolis lizards

Ambika Kamath & Jonathan B. Losos
Ecological specialization is common across all levels of biological organization, raising the question of whether the evolution of specialization at one scale in a taxon is linked to specialization at other scales. Anolis lizards have diversified repeatedly along axes of habitat use, but it remains unknown if this diversification into habitat use specialists is underlain by individual specialization. From repeated observations of individuals in a population of Anolis sagrei in Florida, we show that the...

Data from: Step matrices and the interpretation of homoplasy

Richard H. Ree & Michael J. Donoghue
Assumptions about the costs of character change, coded in the form of a step matrix, determine most-parsimonious inferences of character evolution on phylogenies. We present a graphical approach to exploring the relationship between cost assumptions and evolutionary inferences from character data. The number of gains and losses of a binary trait on a phylogeny can be plotted over a range of cost assumptions, to reveal the inflection point at which there is a switch from...

Data from: Structural complexity of hunting habitat and territoriality increase the reversed sexual size dimorphism in diurnal raptors

Lorenzo Pérez-Camacho, Sara Martínez-Hesterkamp, Salvador Rebollo, Gonzalo García-Salgado & Ignacio Morales-Castilla
Despite numerous efforts and many hypotheses to explain the selective pressures that may have favoured reversed sexual dimorphism (RSD) in raptors ‐ i.e. that the female is larger than the male ‐ some drivers of RSD are still unknown. Here we analyse how much variation in RSD is explained by hunting habitat structure, territoriality or territory size. We do so using data on diurnal raptors from the New World and the Western Palearctic – i.e....

Data from: MADA: Malagasy Animal trait Data Archive

Onja H. Razafindratsima, Yasmin Yacoby & Daniel S. Park
Species are characterized by their behavioral, physiological and ecological attributes, which determine their role in ecosystems. In turn, ecosystems and their functions are defined by the species that inhabit them. Thus, evaluating the functional diversity and distributions of species is of utmost importance to studies of biogeography, community ecology, macroevolution, and conservation. The functional diversity of species are determined by traits such as diet, foraging strata, trophic level, activity cycle, litter size, generation length, habitat...

Data from: How obstacles perturb population fronts and alter their genetic structure

Wolfram Möbius, Andrew W. Murray & David R. Nelson
As populations spread into new territory, environmental heterogeneities can shape the population front and genetic composition. We focus here on the effects of an important building block of heterogeneous environments, isolated obstacles. With a combination of experiments, theory, and simulation, we show how isolated obstacles both create long-lived distortions of the front shape and amplify the effect of genetic drift. A system of bacteriophage T7 spreading on a spatially heterogeneous Escherichia coli lawn serves as...

Data from: Hybridization promotes color polymorphism in the aposematic harlequin poison frog, Oophaga histrionica

Iliana Medina, Ian J. Wang, Camilo Salazar & Adolfo Amezquita
Whether hybridization can be a mechanism that drives phenotypic diversity is a widely debated topic in evolutionary biology. In poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), assortative mating has been invoked to explain how new color morphs persist despite the expected homogenizing effects of natural selection. Here, we tested the complementary hypothesis that new morphs arise through hybridization between different color morphs. Specifically, we (1) reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among the studied populations of a dart-poison frog to provide...

Data from: Dispersal largely explains the Gondwanan distribution of the ancient tropical clusioid plant clade

Brad R. Ruhfel, Claudia P. Bove, C. Thomas Philbrick & Charles C. Davis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The clusioid clade (Malpighiales) has an ancient fossil record (∼90 Ma) and extant representatives exhibit a pantropical distribution represented on all former Gondwanan landmasses (Africa, Australia, India, Madagascar, and South America) except Antarctica. Several biogeographers have hypothesized that the clusioid distribution is an example of Gondwanan vicariance. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that the modern distribution of the clusioid clade is largely explained by Gondwanan fragmentation. METHODS: Using a...

Data from: Spatially explicit analysis sheds new light on the Pleistocene megafaunal extinction in North America

Meaghan M. Emery-Wetherell, Brianna K. McHorse & Edward Byrd Davis
The late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions may have been the first extinctions directly related to human activity, but in North America the close temporal proximity of human arrival and the Younger Dryas climate event has hindered efforts to identify the ultimate extinction cause. Previous work evaluating the roles of climate change and human activity in the North American megafaunal extinction has been stymied by a reliance on geographic binning, yielding contradictory results among researchers. We used...

Stepwise shifts underlie evolutionary trends in morphological complexity of the mammalian vertebral column

Katrina Jones
A fundamental concept in evolutionary biology is that life tends to become more complex through geologic time, but empirical examples of this phenomenon are controversial. One debate is whether increasing complexity is the result of random variations, or if there are evolutionary processes which actively drive its acquisition, and if these processes act uniformly across clades. The mammalian vertebral column provides an opportunity to test these hypotheses because it is composed of serially-repeating vertebrae for...

The Church, intensive kinship, and global psychological variation

Jonathan Schulz, Duman Bahrami Rad, Jonathan Beauchamp & Joseph Henrich
Recent research not only confirms the existence of substantial psychological variation around the globe but also highlights the peculiarity of many Western populations. We propose that part of this 15 variation can be traced back to the action and diffusion of the Western Church, the branch of Christianity that evolved into the Roman Catholic Church. Specifically, we propose that the Church’s transformation of European kinship, by promoting small, nuclear households, weak family ties and residential...

Data from: Strength of species interactions determines biodiversity and stability in microbial communities

Christoph Ratzke, Julien Barrere & Jeff Gore
Organisms, especially microbes, tend to live in complex communities. While some of these ecosystems are very bio-diverse, others aren′t, and while some are very stable over time others undergo strong temporal fluctuations. Despite a long history of research and a plethora of data it is not fully understood what sets biodiversity and stability of ecosystems. Theory as well as experiments suggest a connection between species interaction, biodiversity, and stability of ecosystems, where an increase of...

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