48 Works

Data from: Habitat patterns in tropical rain forests: a comparison of 105 plots in northwest Borneo

Matthew D. Potts, Peter S. Ashton, Les S. Kaufman & Joshua B. Plotkin
Understanding the maintenance of high tropical tree species diversity requires disentangling the effects of habitat vs. geographic distance. Using floristic, topographic, and soil nutrient data from 105 0.6-ha plots in mixed dipterocarp forest throughout Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, we explore the degree to which floristic patterns are habitat-driven from local to landscape scales. We assess how the floristic influence of geographic distance vs. abiotic factors varies from local to regional scales. We employ several multivariate analytical...

Data from: Repeated losses of PRDM9-directed recombination despite the conservation of PRDM9 across vertebrates

Zachary Baker, Molly Schumer, Yuki Haba, Lisa Bashkirova, Chris Holland, Gil G Rosenthal & Molly Przeworski
Studies of highly diverged species have revealed two mechanisms by which meiotic recombination is directed to the genome—through PRDM9 binding or by targeting promoter-like features—that lead to dramatically different evolutionary dynamics of hotspots. Here, we identify PRDM9 orthologs from genome and transcriptome data in 225 species. We find the complete PRDM9 ortholog across distantly related vertebrates but, despite this broad conservation, infer a minimum of six partial and three complete losses. Strikingly, taxa carrying the...

Data from: Edge effects on components of diversity and above-ground biomass in a tropical rainforest

Onja H. Razafindratsima, Kerry A. Brown, Fabio Carvalho, Steig E. Johnson, Patricia C. Wright & Amy E. Dunham
1. Edge effects are among the most significant consequences of forest fragmentation. Therefore, understanding the impacts of edge creation on biodiversity is crucial for forest management and biological conservation. 2. In this study, we used trait-based and phylogenetic approaches to examine the effects of fragmentation on components of diversity and above-ground biomass of rainforest tree communities in Madagascar in forest edge vs. interior habitats. 3. Tree communities in forest edges showed lower phylogenetic diversity relative...

Data from: Spatially explicit analysis sheds new light on the Pleistocene megafaunal extinction in North America

Meaghan M. Emery-Wetherell, Brianna K. McHorse & Edward Byrd Davis
The late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions may have been the first extinctions directly related to human activity, but in North America the close temporal proximity of human arrival and the Younger Dryas climate event has hindered efforts to identify the ultimate extinction cause. Previous work evaluating the roles of climate change and human activity in the North American megafaunal extinction has been stymied by a reliance on geographic binning, yielding contradictory results among researchers. We used...

Data from: Temporal specificity of the initial adaptive response in motor adaptation

Wilsaan M. Joiner, Gary C. Sing & Maurice A. Smith
Repeated exposure to a novel physical environment eventually leads to a mature adaptive response whereby feedforward changes in motor output mirror both the amplitude and temporal structure of the environmental perturbations. However, adaptive responses at the earliest stages of learning have been found to be not only smaller, but systematically less specific in their temporal structure compared to later stages of learning. This observation has spawned a lively debate as to whether the temporal structure...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Mechanics of evolutionary digit reduction in fossil horses (Equidae)

Brianna K. McHorse, Andrew A. Biewener & Stephanie E. Pierce
Digit reduction is a major trend that characterizes horse evolution, but its causes and consequences have rarely been quantitatively tested. Using beam analysis on fossilized centre metapodials, we tested how locomotor bone stresses changed with digit reduction and increasing body size across the horse lineage. Internal bone geometry was captured from 13 fossil horse genera that covered the breadth of the equid phylogeny and the spectrum of digit reduction and body sizes, from Hyracotherium to...

Data from: Widespread cumulative influence of small effect size mutations on yeast quantitative traits

Bo Hua & Michael Springer
Quantitative traits are influenced by pathways that have traditionally been defined through genes that have a large loss- or gain-of-function effect. However, in theory, a large number of small effect-size genes could cumulatively play a substantial role in pathway function. Here, we determined the number, strength and identity of all non-essential test genes that affect two quantitative galactose-responsive traits, in addition to re-analyzing two previously screened quantitative traits. We find that over a quarter of...

Data from: Cyanobacteria maintain constant protein concentration despite genome copy-number variation

Xiao-Yu Zheng & Erin K. O'Shea
The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 has multiple copies of its single chromosome, and the copy number varies in individual cells, providing an ideal system to study the effect of genome copy-number variation on cell size and gene expression. Using single-cell fluorescence imaging, we found that protein concentration remained constant across individual cells regardless of genome copy number. Cell volume and the total protein amount from a single gene were both positively, linearly correlated with...

Data from: Bringing ecology blogging into the scientific fold: measuring reach and impact of science community blogs

Manu E. Saunders, Meghan A. Duffy, Stephen B. Heard, Margaret Kosmala, Simon R. Leather, Terrence P. McGlynn, Jeff Ollerton & Amy L. Parachnowitsch
The popularity of science blogging has increased in recent years, but the number of academic scientists who maintain regular blogs is limited. The role and impact of science communication blogs aimed at general audiences is often discussed, but the value of science community blogs aimed at the academic community has largely been overlooked. Here, we focus on our own experiences as bloggers to argue that science community blogs are valuable to the academic community. We...

Data from: Semicircular canals in Anolis lizards: ecomorphological convergence and ecomorph affinities of fossil species

Blake V. Dickson, Emma Sherratt, Jonathan B. Losos & Stephanie E. Pierce
Anolis lizards are a model system for the study of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution. Greater Antillean anoles have repeatedly evolved six similar forms or ecomorphs: crown-giant, grass-bush, twig, trunk, trunk-crown and trunk-ground. Members of each ecomorph category possess a specific set of morphological, ecological and behavioural characteristics which have been acquired convergently. Here we test whether the semicircular canal system—the organ of balance during movement—is also convergent among ecomorphs, reflecting the shared sensory requirements...

Data from: How environmental conditions shape the chemical signal design of lizards

Simon Baeckens, José Martín, Roberto García-Roa, Panayiotis Pafilis, Katleen Huyghe & Raoul Van Damme
1. The signals that animals use to communicate often differ considerably among species. Part of this variation in signal design may derive from differential natural selection on signal efficacy; the ability of the signal to travel efficiently through the environment and attract the receiver’s attention. For the visual and acoustic modalities, the effect of the physical environment on signal efficacy is a well-studied selective force. Still, very little is known on its impact on the...

Data from: Ecological character displacement between a native and an introduced species: the invasion of Anolis cristatellus in Dominica

Claire M. Dufour, Anthony Herrel & Jonathan B. Losos
Species invasions are a global scourge. Nonetheless, they provide the appropriate evolutionary setting to rigorously test the role that interspecific competition plays in species evolution. The process of ecological character displacement, in which species diverge in sympatry to minimize resource use overlap, is one example. Here, we examine whether ecological character displacement occurs as the result of a species invasion and, if so, whether morphological adaptations subsequently evolve. We studied the invasion of the lizard...

Data from: Reconstructing Asian faunal introductions to eastern Africa from multi-proxy biomolecular and archaeological datasets

Mary E. Prendergast, Michael Buckley, Alison Crowther, Heidi Eager, Laurent Frantz, Ophélie Lebrasseur, Rainer Hutterer, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Wim Van Neer, Katerina Douka, Margaret-Ashley Veall, Eréndira M. Quintana Morales, Verena J. Schuenemann, Ella Reiter, Richard Allen, Evangelos A. Dimopoulos, Richard M. Helm, Ceri Shipton, Ogeto Mwebi, Christiane Denys, Mark C. Horton, Stephanie Wynne-Jones, Jeffrey Fleisher, Chantal Radimilahy, Henry Wright … & Mark Horton
Human-mediated biological exchange has had global social and ecological impacts. In sub-Saharan Africa, several domestic and commensal animals were introduced from Asia in the pre-modern period; however, the timing and nature of these introductions remain contentious. One model supports introduction to the eastern African coast after the mid-first millennium CE, while another posits introduction dating back to 3000 BCE. These distinct scenarios have implications for understanding the emergence of long-distance maritime connectivity, and the ecological...

Data from: Molecular investigation of genetic assimilation during the rapid adaptive radiations of East African cichlid fishes

Helen M. Gunter, Ralf F. Schneider, Immanuel Karner, Christian Sturmbauer & Axel Meyer
Adaptive radiations are characterized by adaptive diversification intertwined with rapid speciation within a lineage resulting in many ecologically specialized, phenotypically diverse species. It has been proposed that adaptive radiations can originate from ancestral lineages with pronounced phenotypic plasticity in adaptive traits, facilitating ecologically-driven phenotypic diversification that is ultimately fixed through genetic assimilation of gene regulatory regions. This study aimed to investigate how phenotypic plasticity is reflected in gene expression patterns in the trophic apparatus of...

Data from: Sexual imprinting and speciation in two Peromyscus species

Emily Kay Delaney & Hopi E. Hoekstra
Sexual isolation, a reproductive barrier, can prevent interbreeding between diverging populations or species. Sexual isolation can have a clear genetic basis; however, it may also result from learned mate preferences that form via sexual imprinting. Here, we demonstrate that two sympatric sister species of mice—the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) and its closest relative, the cotton mouse (P. gossypinus)—hybridize only rarely in the wild despite co-occurring in the same habitat and lack of any measurable intrinsic...

Data from: A new genus of horse from Pleistocene North America

Peter D. Heintzman, Grant D. Zazula, Ross D.E. MacPhee, Eric Scott, James A. Cahill, Brianna K. McHorse, Joshua D. Kapp, Mathias Stiller, Matthew J. Wooller, Ludovic Orlando, John R. Southon, Duane G. Froese, Beth Shapiro & John Southon
The extinct “New World stilt-legged”, or NWSL, equids constitute a perplexing group of Pleistocene horses endemic to North America. Their slender distal limb bones resemble those of Asiatic asses, such as the Persian onager. Previous palaeogenetic studies, however, have suggested a closer relationship to caballine horses than to Asiatic asses. Here, we report complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes from NWSL equids from across their geographic range. Although multiple NWSL equid species have been named,...

Data from: A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks

Christopher Stephen Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G. Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M. Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J. Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L. Courtney … & Clive N. Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits...

Data from: Origins of lymphatic and distant metastases in human colorectal cancer

Kamila Naxerova, Johannes G. Reiter, Elena Brachtel, Jochen K. Lennerz, Marc Van De Wetering, Andrew Rowan, Tianxi Cai, Hans Clevers, Charles Swanton, Martin A. Nowak, Stephen J. Elledge & Rakesh K. Jain
The spread of cancer cells from primary tumors to regional lymph nodes is often associated with reduced survival. One prevailing model to explain this association posits that fatal, distant metastases are seeded by lymph node metastases. This view provides a mechanistic basis for the TNM staging system and is the rationale for surgical resection of tumor-draining lymph nodes. Here we examine the evolutionary relationship between primary tumor, lymph node, and distant metastases in human colorectal...

Data from: Ecophysiological variation across a forest-ecotone gradient produces divergent climate change vulnerability within species

Félix Landry Yuan, Adam H. Freedman, Laurent Chirio, Matthew LeBreton & Timothy C. Bonebrake
Climate change related risks and impacts on ectotherms will be mediated by habitats and their influence on local thermal environments. While many studies have documented morphological and genetic aspects of niche divergence across habitats, few have examined thermal performance across such gradients and directly linked this variation to contemporary climate change impacts. In this study, we quantified variation in thermal performance across a gradient from forest to gallery forest-savanna mosaic in Cameroon for a skink...

Data from: Outlier analyses to test for local adaptation to breeding grounds in a migratory arctic seabird

Anna Tigano, Allison J. Shultz, Scott V. Edwards, Gregory J. Robertson & Vicki L. Friesen
Investigating the extent (or the existence) of local adaptation is crucial to understanding how populations adapt. When experiments or fitness measurements are difficult or impossible to perform in natural populations, genomic techniques allow us to investigate local adaptation through the comparison of allele frequencies and outlier loci along environmental clines. The thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) is a highly philopatric colonial arctic seabird that occupies a significant environmental gradient, shows marked phenotypic differences among colonies, and...

Data from: Genomic evidence of gene flow during reinforcement in Texas Phlox

Federico Roda, Fábio K. Mendes, Matthew W. Hahn & Robin Hopkins
Gene flow can impede the evolution of reproductive isolating barriers between species. Reinforcement is the process by which pre-zygotic reproductive isolation evolves in sympatry due to selection to decrease costly hybridization. It is known that reinforcement can be prevented by too much gene flow, but we still do not know how often have pre-zygotic barriers evolved in the presence of gene flow or how much gene flow can occur during reinforcement. Flower color divergence in...

Data from: Excavation and aggregation as organizing factors in de novo construction by mound-building termites

Ben Green, Paul Bardunias, J. Scott Turner, Radhika Nagpal & Justin Werfel
Termites construct complex mounds that are orders of magnitude larger than any individual and fulfil a variety of functional roles. Yet the processes through which these mounds are built, and by which the insects organize their efforts, remain poorly understood. The traditional understanding focuses on stigmergy, a form of indirect communication in which actions that change the environment provide cues that influence future work. Termite construction has long been thought to be organized via a...

Data from: Genomic footprints of adaptation in a cooperatively breeding tropical bird across a vegetation gradient

Flavia Termignoni-Garcia, Juan P. Jaramillo-Correa, Juan Chablé-Santos, Mark Liu, Allison J. Shultz, Scott V. Edwards, Patricia Escalante Pliego & Patricia Escalante-Pliego
Identifying the genetic basis of phenotypic variation and its relationship with the environment is key to understanding how local adaptations evolve. Such patterns are especially interesting among populations distributed across habitat gradients, where genetic structure can be driven by isolation by distance (IBD) and/or isolation by environment (IBE). Here, we used variation in ~1,600 high-quality SNPs derived from paired-end sequencing of double-digest restriction site-associated DNA (ddRAD-Seq) to test hypotheses related to IBD and IBE in...

Data from: Early photosynthetic eukaryotes inhabited low-salinity habitats

Patricia Sánchez-Baracaldo, John A. Raven, Davide Pisani & Andrew H. Knoll
The early evolutionary history of the chloroplast lineage remains an open question. It is widely accepted that the endosymbiosis that established the chloroplast lineage in eukaryotes can be traced back to a single event, in which a cyanobacterium was incorporated into a protistan host. It is still unclear, however, which Cyanobacteria are most closely related to the chloroplast, when the plastid lineage first evolved, and in what habitats this endosymbiotic event occurred. We present phylogenomic...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    48

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    48

Affiliations

  • Harvard University
    48
  • University of Montana
    3
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    3
  • National Museum
    2
  • Rice University
    2
  • Princeton University
    2
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    2
  • University of Queensland
    2
  • University of North Carolina
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2