39 Works

Data from: Heterochronic shifts and conserved embryonic shape underlie crocodylian craniofacial disparity and convergence

Zachary S. Morris, Kent A. Vliet, Arkhat Abzhanov & Stephanie E. Pierce
The distinctive anatomy of the crocodylian skull is intimately linked with dietary ecology, resulting in repeated convergence on blunt- and slender-snouted ecomorphs. These evolutionary shifts depend upon modifications of the developmental processes which direct growth and morphogenesis. Here we examine the evolution of cranial ontogenetic trajectories to shed light on the mechanisms underlying convergent snout evolution. We use geometric morphometrics to quantify skeletogenesis in an evolutionary context and reconstruct ancestral patterns of ontogenetic allometry to...

Stepwise shifts underlie evolutionary trends in morphological complexity of the mammalian vertebral column

Katrina Jones
A fundamental concept in evolutionary biology is that life tends to become more complex through geologic time, but empirical examples of this phenomenon are controversial. One debate is whether increasing complexity is the result of random variations, or if there are evolutionary processes which actively drive its acquisition, and if these processes act uniformly across clades. The mammalian vertebral column provides an opportunity to test these hypotheses because it is composed of serially-repeating vertebrae for...

The Church, intensive kinship, and global psychological variation

Jonathan Schulz, Duman Bahrami Rad, Jonathan Beauchamp & Joseph Henrich
Recent research not only confirms the existence of substantial psychological variation around the globe but also highlights the peculiarity of many Western populations. We propose that part of this 15 variation can be traced back to the action and diffusion of the Western Church, the branch of Christianity that evolved into the Roman Catholic Church. Specifically, we propose that the Church’s transformation of European kinship, by promoting small, nuclear households, weak family ties and residential...

Data from: Strength of species interactions determines biodiversity and stability in microbial communities

Christoph Ratzke, Julien Barrere & Jeff Gore
Organisms, especially microbes, tend to live in complex communities. While some of these ecosystems are very bio-diverse, others aren′t, and while some are very stable over time others undergo strong temporal fluctuations. Despite a long history of research and a plethora of data it is not fully understood what sets biodiversity and stability of ecosystems. Theory as well as experiments suggest a connection between species interaction, biodiversity, and stability of ecosystems, where an increase of...

Data from: Biological traits, phylogeny and human footprint signatures on the geographic range size of passerines (Order Passeriformes) worldwide

Miguel Ángel Olalla-Tárraga, Talita Amado, Luis Mauricio Bini, Pablo Martínez, Ignacio Morales-Castilla, Erik Joaquin Torres-Romero & Fabricio Villalobos
Aim Multiple hypotheses exist to explain the astonishing geographic range size variation across species, but these have rarely been tested under a unifying framework that simultaneously considers direct and indirect effects of ecological niche processes and evolutionary dynamics. Here, we jointly evaluate ecological and evolutionary hypotheses that may account for global interspecific patterns of range size in the most species-rich avian order: Passeriformes (perching birds). Location Global Time period CurrentMajor taxa studied Order Passeriformes Methods...

Transitions in paternal social status predict patterns of offspring growth and metabolic transcription

Joseph W. Cauceglia, Adam C. Nelson, Nimrod D. Rubinstein, Shweta Kukreja, Lynsey N. Sasso, John A. Beaufort, Oliver J. Rando & Wayne K. Potts
Parental effects occur when changes in the parental phenotype or environment cause changes to offspring phenotype. While some parental effects are triggered in response to an environmental cue in a time-locked fashion, other parental effects persist even after the cue has been removed, suggesting multiple timescales of action. For parental effects to serve as reliable signals of current environmental conditions, they should be reversible, such that when the cue changes, offspring phenotypes change in accordance....

Data from: Population genomics and demographic sampling of the ant-plant Vachellia drepanolobium and its symbiotic ants from sites across its range in East Africa.

John H. Boyle, Dino Martins, Paul M. Musili & Naomi E. Pierce
The association between the African ant plant, Vachellia drepanolobium, and the ants that inhabit it has provided insight into the boundaries between mutualism and parasitism, the response of symbioses to environmental perturbations, and the ecology of species coexistence. We use a landscape genomics approach at sites sampled throughout the range of this system in Kenya to investigate the demographics and genetic structure of the different partners in the association. We find that different species of...

Coping with impostor feelings: evidence-based recommendations from a mixed methods study

Jill Barr-Walker, Debra A. Werner, Liz Kellermeyer & Michelle B. Bass
The negative effects of impostor phenomenon, also called impostor syndrome, include burnout and decreased job satisfaction and have led to an increased interest in addressing this issue in libraries in recent years. While previous research has shown that many librarians experience impostor phenomenon, the experience of coping with these feelings has not been widely studied. Our study’s aim was to understand how health sciences librarians cope with impostor phenomenon in the workplace, using a quantitative...

London Stage Database

Mattie Burkert, Will Daland, Emma Hallock, Todd Hugie, Lauren Liebe, Derek Miller, Dustin Olsen & Ben R. Schneider Jr.
Recovered files, and documents and archival data used to revitalize the London Stage Information Bank, which was completed in the 1970s but had become technologically obsolete.

Data from: phenotools: an R package for visualizing and analyzing phenomic datasets

Chad M. Eliason, Scott V. Edwards & Julia A. Clarke
1.Phenotypic data is crucial for understanding genotype–phenotype relationships, assessing the tree of life, and revealing trends in trait diversity over time. Large‐scale description of whole organisms for quantitative analyses (phenomics) presents several challenges, and technological advances in the collection of genomic data outpace those for phenomic data. Reasons for this disparity include the time‐consuming and expensive nature of collecting discrete phenotypic data and mining previously‐published data on a given species (both often requiring anatomical expertise...

Data from: Functional performance of turtle humerus shape across an ecological adaptive landscape

Blake V Dickson & Stephanie E Pierce
The concept of the adaptive landscape has been invaluable to evolutionary biologists for visualizing the dynamics of selection and adaptation; and is increasingly being used to study morpho-functional data. Here we construct adaptive landscapes to explore functional trade-offs of humerus morphology in turtles adapted to three different locomotor environments: marine, semiaquatic, and terrestrial. Humerus shape from 40 species of cryptodire turtles was quantified using a pseudolandmark approach. Hypothetical shapes were extracted in a grid across...

Data from: Earth history and the passerine superradiation

Carl H. Oliveros, Daniel J. Field, Daniel T. Ksepka, F. Keith Barker, Alexandre Aleixo, Michael J. Andersen, Per Alström, Brett W. Benz, Edward L. Braun, Michael J. Braun, Gustavo A. Bravo, Robb T. Brumfield, R. Terry Chesser, Santiago Claramunt, Joel Cracraft, Andrés M. Cuervo, Elizabeth P. Derryberry, Travis C. Glenn, Michael G. Harvey, Peter A. Hosner, Leo Joseph, Rebecca T. Kimball, Andrew L. Mack, Colin M. Miskelly, A. Townsend Peterson … & Brant C. Faircloth
Avian diversification has been influenced by global climate change, plate tectonic movements, and mass extinction events. However, the impact of these factors on the diversification of the hyperdiverse perching birds (passerines) is unclear because family level relationships are unresolved and the timing of splitting events among lineages is uncertain. We analyzed DNA data from 4,060 nuclear loci and 137 passerine families using concatenation and coalescent approaches to infer a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis that clarifies relationships...

Data from: Convergent regulatory evolution and loss of flight in palaeognathous birds

Timothy B. Sackton, Phil Grayson, Alison Cloutier, Zhirui Hu, Jun S. Liu, Nicole E. Wheeler, Paul P. Gardner, Julia A. Clarke, Allan J. Baker, Michele Clamp & Scott V. Edwards
A core question in evolutionary biology is whether convergent phenotypic evolution is driven by convergent molecular changes in proteins or regulatory regions. We combined phylogenomic, developmental, and epigenomic analysis of 11 new genomes of paleognathous birds, including an extinct moa, to show that convergent evolution of regulatory regions, more so than protein-coding genes, is prevalent among developmental pathways associated with independent losses of flight. A Bayesian analysis of 284,001 conserved noncoding elements, 60,665 of which...

Data from: Structurally assisted super black in colorful peacock spiders

Dakota E. McCoy, Victoria E. McCoy, Nikolaj K. Mandsberg, Anna V. Shneidman, Joanna Aizenberg, Richard O. Prum & David Haig
Male peacock spiders (Maratus, Salticidae) compete to attract female mates using elaborate, sexually-selected displays. They evolved both brilliant color and velvety black. Here we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hyperspectral imaging, and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) optical modeling to investigate the deep black surfaces of peacock spiders. We found that super black regions reflect <0.5% of light (for a 30° collection angle) in Maratus speciosus (0.44%) and Maratus karrie (0.35%) due to microscale structures. Both species...

The genetics of morphological and behavioural island traits in deer mice

Felix Baier & Hopi Hoekstra
Animals on islands often exhibit dramatic differences in morphology and behaviour compared to mainland individuals, a phenomenon known as the "island syndrome". These differences are thought to be adaptations to island environments, but the extent to which they have a genetic basis or instead represent plastic responses to environmental extremes is often unknown. Here, we revisit a classic case of island syndrome in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) from British Columbia. We first show that Saturna...

Mechanisms of convergent egg provisioning in poison frogs

Eva K. Fischer, Alexandre B. Roland, Nora A. Moskowitz, Charles Vidoudez, Ndimbintsoa Ranaivorazo, Elicio E. Tapia, Sunia A. Trauger, Miguel Vences, Luis A. Coloma & Lauren A. O'Connell
Parental provisioning of offspring with physiological products (nursing) occurs in many animals, yet little is known about the neuroendocrine basis of nursing in non-mammalian species. Within amphibians, maternal provisioning has evolved multiple times, with mothers of some species feeding unfertilized eggs to their developing offspring until tadpoles complete metamorphosis. We conducted field studies in Ecuador and Madagascar to ask whether convergence at the behavioral level provides similar benefits to offspring and relies on shared neural...

Learning from dynamic traits: Seasonal shifts yield insights into ecophysiological tradeoffs across scales from macroevolutionary to intra-individual

Chase Mason, Michael C. LaScaleia, Danielle R. De La Pascua, J. Grey Monroe & Eric W. Goolsby
Premise of the Research. Phylogenetic comparative methods provide a powerful approach for exploring the macroevolution of plant functional traits. Such approaches can uncover trait-trait correlations through evolutionary time, as well as provide evidence of the role of traits in adaptation across environmental gradients. For continuous traits, most phylogenetic comparative approaches to date employ a single trait value per species, often a mean of sampled individuals, or alternatively incorporate intraspecific variation as a distribution around such...

Dataset for the Environmental Risk Assessment of Chlorpyrifos to Chinook Salmon in four Rivers of Washington State, United States

Wayne G. Landis, Valerie R. Chu, Scarlett E. Graham, Meagan J. Harris, April J. Markiewicz, Chelsea J. Mitchell, Katherine E. von Stackelberg & John D. Stark

Data from: Mortality and morphology in egg masses of unisexual and Jefferson Salamanders

Noah Charney, Jacob Kubel, Craig Woodard, Blanca Carbajal-González, Samantha Avis, Julia Blyth, Charles Eiseman, John Castorino & John Malone
Unisexual Ambystoma salamander egg masses have often been observed to exhibit very high rates of embryo mortality. The ecological consequences and underlying mechanisms are of great concern to researchers and managers studying these and other members of the species complex, all of which are listed as rare species throughout much of their range. Substantial embryo mortality is commonly used by field ecologists as an indicator that unisexual salamanders are present in a pond; egg masses...

Data from: A bidirectional network for appetite control in larval zebrafish

Caroline Lei Wee, Erin Song, Robert Johnson, Deepak Ailani, Owen Randlett, Jiyoon Kim, Maxim Nikitchenko, Armin Bahl, Chao-Tsung Yang, Misha Ahrens, Koichi Kawakami, Florian Engert & Sam Kunes
Medial and lateral hypothalamic loci are known to suppress and enhance appetite, respectively, but the dynamics and functional significance of their interaction have yet to be explored. Here we report that, in larval zebrafish, primarily serotonergic neurons of the ventromedial caudal hypothalamus (cH) become increasingly active during food deprivation, whereas activity in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is reduced. Exposure to food sensory and consummatory cues reverses the activity patterns of these two nuclei, consistent with...

A possible Cambrian stem-group gnathiferan-chaetognath from the Weeks Formation (Miaolingian) of Utah

Simon Conway Morris, Ru Smith, Jennifer Hoyal Cuthill, Enrico Bonino & Rudy Lerosey-Aubril
In recent years the plethora of “weird wonders”, the vernacular for the apparently extinct major bodyplans documented in many of the Cambrian Lagerstätten, has been dramatically trimmed. This is because various taxa have either been assigned to known phyla or at least accommodated in larger monophyletic assemblages. Nevertheless, a number of Cambrian taxa retain their enigmatic status. To this intriguing roster we add Dakorhachis thambus n. gen. n. sp., from the Miaolingian (Guzhangian) Weeks Formation...

Experimental evidence that physical activity affects the multivariate associations among muscle attachments (entheses)

Fotios Alexandros Karakostis, Ian J. Wallace, Nicolai Konow & Katerina Harvati
The morphology of entheses (muscle/tendon attachment sites) on bones is routinely used in paleontological and bioarcheological studies to infer the physical activity patterns of ancient vertebrate species including hominins. However, such inferences have often been disputed due to limitations of the quantitative methods commonly employed and a lack of experimental evidence demonstrating direct effects of physical activity on entheseal morphology. Recently, we introduced a new and improved method of quantifying and analyzing entheseal morphology that...

Data from: Whole-genome analyses resolve the phylogeny of flightless birds (Palaeognathae) in the presence of an empirical anomaly zone

Alison Cloutier, Timothy B. Sackton, Phil Grayson, Michele Clamp, Allan J. Baker & Scott V. Edwards
Palaeognathae represent one of the two basal lineages in modern birds, and comprise the volant (flighted) tinamous and the flightless ratites. Resolving palaeognath phylogenetic relationships has historically proved difficult, and short internal branches separating major palaeognath lineages in previous molecular phylogenies suggest that extensive incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) might have accompanied a rapid ancient divergence. Here, we investigate palaeognath relationships using genome-wide data sets of three types of noncoding nuclear markers, together totalling 20,850 loci...

Data from: Bacterial communities within Phengaris (Maculinea) alcon caterpillars are shifted following transition from solitary living to social parasitism of Myrmica ant colonies

Mark A. Szenteczki, Camille Pitteloud, Luca Pietro Casacci, Lucie Kešnerová, Melissa R. L. Whitaker, Philipp Engel, Roger Vila & Nadir Alvarez
Bacterial symbionts are known to facilitate a wide range of physiological processes and ecological interactions for their hosts. In spite of this, caterpillars with highly diverse life histories appear to lack resident microbiota. Gut physiology, endogenous digestive enzymes, and limited social interactions may contribute to this pattern, but the consequences of shifts in social activity and diet on caterpillar microbiota are largely unknown. Phengaris alcon caterpillars undergo particularly dramatic social and dietary shifts when they...

Data from: How do climate change experiments alter plot-scale climate?

Ailene Ettinger & Elizabeth M. Wolkovich
To understand and forecast biological responses to climate change, scientists frequently use field experiments that alter temperature and precipitation. Climate manipulations can manifest in complex ways, however, challenging interpretations of biological responses. We reviewed publications to compile a database of daily plot‐scale climate data from 15 active‐warming experiments. We find that the common practices of analysing treatments as mean or categorical changes (e.g. warmed vs. unwarmed) masks important variation in treatment effects over space and...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Harvard University
  • University of Minnesota
  • Stanford University
  • Utah State University
  • The University of Texas at Austin
  • Columbia University
  • Royal Ontario Museum
  • University of Cambridge
  • Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios
  • University of Chicago