14 Works

Data from: Genetic isolation within the malaria mosquito Anopheles melas

Kevin C. Deitz, Giridhar Athrey, Michael R. Reddy, Hans J. Overgaard, Abrahan Matias, Jawara Musa, Alessandra Della Torre, Vincenzo Petrarca, Joao Pinto, Anthony E. Kiszewski, Pierre Kengne, Carlo Costantini, Adalgisa Caccone, Michel A. Slotman, Musa Jawara & Giri Athrey
Anopheles melas is a brackish water-breeding member of the An. gambiae complex that is distributed along the coast of West Africa and is a major malaria vector within its range. Because little is known about the population structure of this species, we analyzed 15 microsatellite markers and 1,161 bp of mtDNA in 11 An. melas populations collected throughout its range. Compared to its sibling species An. gambiae, An. melas populations have a high level of...

Data from: Nitric oxide signals are interlinked with calcium signals in normal pancreatic stellate cells upon oxidative stress and inflammation

Monika A. Jakubowska, Pawel E. Ferdek, Oleg V. Gerasimenko, Julia V. Gerasimenko & Ole H. Petersen
The mammalian diffuse stellate cell system comprises retinoid-storing cells capable of remarkable transformations from a quiescent to an activated myofibroblast-like phenotype. Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) attract attention owing to the pivotal role they play in development of tissue fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, little is known about the actual role of PSCs in the normal pancreas. These enigmatic cells have recently been shown to respond to physiological stimuli in a manner...

Data from: Prominent intra-specific genetic divergence within Anopheles gambiae sibling species triggered by habitat discontinuities across a riverine landscape

Beniamino Caputo, Davis Nwakanma, Francesco Paolo Caputo, Musa Jawara, Cheryll Oriero, Majidah Adiamoh, Ibrahima Dia, Lassana Konate, Vincenzo Petrarca, Joao Pinto, David J. Conway, Alessandra Della Torre, E. C. Oriero & M. Hamid-Adiamoh
The Anopheles gambiae complex of mosquitoes includes malaria vectors at different stages of speciation, whose study enables a better understanding of how adaptation to divergent environmental conditions leads to evolution of reproductive isolation. We investigated the population genetic structure of closely-related sympatric taxa that have recently been proposed as separate species (An. coluzzii and An. gambiae), sampled from diverse habitats along the Gambia River in West Africa. We characterised putatively neutral microsatellite loci as well...

Data from: Unravelling the immune signature of Plasmodium falciparum transmission-reducing immunity

Will J. R. Stone, Joseph J. Campo, André Lin Ouédraogo, Lisette Meerstein-Kessel, Isabelle Morlais, Dari Da, Anna Cohuet, Sandrine Nsango, Colin J. Sutherland, Marga Van De Vegte-Bolmer, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Geert-Jan Van Gemert, Wouter Graumans, Kjerstin Lanke, Adam D. Shandling, Jozelyn V. Pablo, Andy A. Teng, Sophie Jones, Roos M. De Jong, Amanda Fabra-García, John Bradley, Will Roeffen, Edwin Lasonder, Giuliana Gremo, Evelin Schwarzer … & Matthijs M. Jore
Infection with Plasmodium can elicit antibodies that inhibit parasite survival in the mosquito, when they are ingested in an infectious blood meal. Here, we determine the transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of naturally acquired antibodies from 648 malaria-exposed individuals using lab-based mosquito-feeding assays. Transmission inhibition is significantly associated with antibody responses to Pfs48/45, Pfs230, and to 43 novel gametocyte proteins assessed by protein microarray. In field-based mosquito-feeding assays the likelihood and rate of mosquito infection are significantly...

Data from: Impact on offspring methylation patterns of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and intrauterine growth restraint suggest common genes and pathways linked to subsequent type 2 diabetes risk

Claire R. Quilter, Wendy N. Cooper, Kerry M. Cliffe, Benjamin M. Skinner, Philippa M. Prentice, LaTasha Nelson, Julien Bauer, Ken K. Ong, Constância Miguel, William L. Lowe, Nabeel A. Affara & David B. Dunger
Size at birth, postnatal weight gain, and adult risk for type 2 diabetes may reflect environmental exposures during developmental plasticity and may be mediated by epigenetics. Both low birth weight (BW), as a marker of fetal growth restraint, and high birth weight (BW), especially after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), have been linked to increased risk of adult type 2 diabetes. We assessed DNA methylation patterns using a bead chip in cord blood samples from infants...

Data from: Global circulation patterns of seasonal influenza viruses vary with antigenic drift

Trevor Bedford, Steven Riley, Ian G. Barr, Shobha Broor, Mandeep Chadha, Nancy J. Cox, Rodney S. Daniels, C. Palani Gunasekaran, Aeron C. Hurt, Anne Kelso, Alexander Klimov, Nicola S. Lewis, Xiyan Li, John W. McCauley, Takato Odagiri, Varsha Potdar, Andrew Rambaut, Yuelong Shu, Eugene Skepner, Derek J. Smith, Marc A. Suchard, Masato Tashiro, Dayan Wang, Xiyan Xu, Philippe Lemey … & Colin A. Russell
Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of emergence and circulation of new human seasonal influenza virus variants is a key scientific and public health challenge. The global circulation patterns of influenza A/H3N2 viruses are well characterized1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, but the patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that the global circulation patterns of A/H1N1 (up to 2009), B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata viruses differ substantially from those of A/H3N2...

Data from: Examining the human infectious reservoir for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in areas of differing transmission intensity

Bronner P. Gonçalves, Melissa C. Kapulu, Patrick Sawa, Wamdaogo M. Guelbéogo, Alfred B. Tiono, Lynn Grignard, Will Stone, Joel Hellewell, Kjerstin Lanke, Guido J. H. Bastiaens, John Bradley, Issa Nébié, Joyce M. Ngoi, Robin Oriango, Dora Mkabili, Maureen Nyaurah, Janet Midega, Dyann F. Wirth, Kevin Marsh, Thomas S. Churcher, Philip Bejon, Sodiomon B. Sirima, Chris Drakeley & Teun Bousema
A detailed understanding of the human infectious reservoir is essential for improving malaria transmission-reducing interventions. Here we report a multi-regional assessment of population-wide malaria transmission potential based on 1209 mosquito feeding assays in endemic areas of Burkina Faso and Kenya. Across both sites, we identified 39 infectious individuals. In high endemicity settings, infectious individuals were identifiable by research-grade microscopy (92.6%; 25/27), whilst one of three infectious individuals in the lowest endemicity setting was detected by...

Data from: Safety of single low-dose primaquine in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient falciparum-infected African males: two open-label, randomized, safety trials

Guido Bastiaens, Alfred B. Tiono, Joseph Okebe, Helmi Pett, Sam A. Coulibaly, Bronner P. Gonçalves, Muna Affara, Alphonse Ouédraogo, Edith C. Bougouma, Guillaume S. Sanou, Issa Nébié, John Bradley, Kjerstin H. W. Lanke, Mikko Niemi, Sodiomon B. Sirima, Umberto D'Alessandro, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley, Guido J. H. Bastiaens, Helmi E. Pett & Umberto D’Alessandro
Background: Primaquine (PQ) actively clears mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes but in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals can cause hemolysis. We assessed the safety of low-dose PQ in combination with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) in G6PDd African males with asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria. Methods and findings: In Burkina Faso, G6PDd adult males were randomized to treatment with AL alone (n = 10) or with PQ at 0.25 (n = 20) or 0.40 mg/kg (n =...

Data from: Effective population size of malaria mosquitoes: large impact of vector control

Giridhar Athrey, Theresa K. Hodges, Michael R. Reddy, Hans J. Overgaard, Abrahan Matias, Frances C. Ridl, Immo Kleinschmidt, Adalgisa Caccone & Michel A. Slotman
Malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa have proven themselves very difficult adversaries in the global struggle against malaria. Decades of anti-vector interventions have yielded mixed results – with successful reductions in transmission in some areas, and limited impacts in others. These varying successes can be ascribed to a lack of universally effective vector control tools, as well as the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. Understanding the impact of vector control on mosquito populations is...

Data from: Human cytomegalovirus epidemiology and relationship to tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Ugandan cohort

Lisa Stockdale, Stephen Nash, Angela Nalwoga, Hannah Painter, Gershim Asiki, Helen Fletcher & Robert Newton
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been associated with increased mortality, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD), in high-income countries (HICs). There is a paucity of data in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where HCMV seropositivity is higher. Serum samples from 2,174 Ugandan individuals were investigated for HCMV antibodies and data linked to demographic information, co-infections and a variety of CVD measurements. HCMV seropositivity was 83% by one year of age, increasing to 95% by five years. Female...

Data from: Screening of candidate substrates and coupling ions of transporters by thermostability shift assays

Homa Majd, Martin S. King, Shane M. Palmer, Anthony C. Smith, Liam D. H. Elbourne, Ian T. Paulsen, David Sharples, Peter J. F. Henderson, Edmund R. S. Kunji, Peter JF Henderson, Liam DH Elbourne & Edmund RS Kunji
Substrates of most transport proteins have not been identified, limiting our understanding of their role in physiology and disease. Traditional identification methods use transport assays with radioactive compounds, but they are technically challenging and many compounds are unavailable in radioactive form or are prohibitively expensive, precluding large-scale trials. Here, we present a high-throughput screening method that can identify candidate substrates from libraries of unlabeled compounds. The assay is based on the principle that transport proteins...

Data from: Genetic analysis of circadian responses to low frequency electromagnetic fields in Drosophila melanogaster

Giorgio Fedele, Matthew D. Edwards, Supriya Bhutani, John M. Hares, Manuel Murbach, Edward W. Green, Stephane Dissel, Michael H. Hastings, Ezio Rosato, Charalambos P. Kyriacou & Mathew D. Edwards
The blue-light sensitive photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY) may act as a magneto-receptor through formation of radical pairs involving a triad of tryptophans. Previous genetic analyses of behavioral responses of Drosophila to electromagnetic fields using conditioning, circadian and geotaxis assays have lent some support to the radical pair model (RPM). Here, we describe a new method that generates consistent and reliable circadian responses to electromagnetic fields that differ substantially from those already reported. We used the Schuderer...

Data from: The temporal dynamics and infectiousness of subpatent Plasmodium falciparum infections in relation to parasite density

Hannah C. Slater, Amanda Ross, Ingrid Felger, Natalie E. Hofmann, Leanne Robinson, Jackie Cook, Bronner P. Gonçalves, Anders Björkman, Andre Lin Ouedraogo, Ulrika Morris, Mwinyi Msellem, Cristian Koepfli, Ivo Mueller, Fitsum Tadesse, Endalamaw Gadisa, Smita Das, Gonzalo Domingo, Melissa Kapulu, Janet Midega, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Cécile Nabet, Renaud Piarroux, Ogobara Doumbo, Safiatou Niare Doumbo, Kwadwo Koram … & Lucy C. Okell
Malaria infections occurring below the limit of detection of standard diagnostics are common in all endemic settings. However, key questions remain surrounding their contribution to sustaining transmission and whether they need to be detected and targeted to achieve malaria elimination. In this study we analyse a range of malaria datasets to quantify the density, detectability, course of infection and infectiousness of subpatent infections. Asymptomatically infected individuals have lower parasite densities on average in low transmission...

Vesicles clustering around Wdr35-/- cilia lack electron dense decorations although electron-dense clathrin coated vesicles are still observed budding from the mutant plasma membrane (Figure 7- source data 1)

Pleasantine Mill, Tooba Quidwai, Laura Murphy & Gaia Pigino
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a highly conserved mechanism for motor-driven transport of cargo within cilia, but how this cargo is selectively transported to cilia is unclear. WDR35/IFT121 is a component of the IFT-A complex best known for its role in ciliary retrograde transport. In the absence of WDR35, small mutant cilia form but fail to enrich in diverse classes of ciliary membrane proteins. In Wdr35 mouse mutants, the non-core IFT-A components are degraded and core...

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