There is growing interest in the capacity of mangrove ecosystems to sequester and store “blue carbon”. Here we provide a synthesis of sixty-six dated sediment cores with previously calculated carbon accumulation rates in mangrove ecosystems to assess the effects of environmental and anthropogenic pressures. Conserved sedimentary environments were found to be within the range of the current global average for sediment accretion (~2.5 mm yr-1) and carbon accumulation (~160 g m-2yr-1). Moreover, similar sediment accretion...
Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999–2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0–12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1–9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9–8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5–7.2). A...
Data from: Nasal compartmentalization in Kogiidae (Cetacea, Physeteroidea): Insights from a new late Miocene dwarf sperm whale from the Pisco FormationAldo Benites-Palomino, Jorge Velez-Juarbe, Alberto Collareta, Diana Ochoa, Ali Altamirano, Matthieu Carré, Manuel J. Laime, Mario Urbina & Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi
Facial compartmentalization in the skull of extant pygmy whales (Kogiidae) is a unique feature among cetaceans that allows the housing of a wide array of organs responsible for echolocation. Recent fossil findings depict a remarkable disparity of the facial bone organization in Miocene kogiids, but the significance of such a rearrangement for the evolution of the clade has been barely explored. Here we describe Kogia danomurai sp. nov., a late Miocene (ca. 5.8 Ma) taxon...
Data from: Transmission of multidrug-resistant and drug-susceptible tuberculosis within households: a prospective cohort studyLouis Grandjean, Robert H. Gilman, Laura Martin, Esther Soto, Beatriz Castro, Sonia Lopez, Jorge Coronel, Edith Castillo, Valentina Alarcon, Virginia Lopez, Angela San Miguel, Neyda Quispe, Luis Asencios, Christopher Dye & David A. J. Moore
Background: The “fitness” of an infectious pathogen is defined as the ability of the pathogen to survive, reproduce, be transmitted, and cause disease. The fitness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) relative to drug-susceptible tuberculosis is cited as one of the most important determinants of MDRTB spread and epidemic size. To estimate the relative fitness of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases, we compared the incidence of tuberculosis disease among the household contacts of MDRTB index patients to that among...
Data from: Population structure of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in an urban environmentCamilo E. Khatchikian, Erica A. Foley, Corentin M. Barbu, Josephine Hwang, Jenny Ancca-Juárez, Katty Borrini-Mayori, Victor R. Quıspe-Machaca, Cesar Naquira, Dustin Brisson & Michael Z. Levy
Chagas disease is a vector-borne disease endemic in Latin America. Triatoma infestans, a common vector of this disease, has recently expanded its range into rapidly developing cities of Latin America. We aim to identify the environmental features that affect the colonization and dispersal of T. infestans in an urban environment. We amplified 13 commonly used microsatellites from 180 T. infestans samples collected from a sampled transect in the city of Arequipa, Peru, in 2007 and...
The living tree sloths Choloepus and Bradypus are the only remaining members of Folivora, a major xenarthran radiation that occupied a wide range of habitats in many parts of the western hemisphere during the Cenozoic, including both continents and the West Indies. Ancient DNA evidence has played only a minor role in folivoran systematics, as most sloths lived in places not conducive to genomic preservation. Here we utilize collagen sequence information, both separately and in...
Data from: Patient characteristics associated with tuberculosis treatment default: a cohort study in a high-incidence area of Lima, PeruBrian Lackey, Carlos Seas, Patrick Van Der Stuyft & Larissa Otero
Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) is usually curable with antibiotics, poor adherence to medication can lead to increased transmission, drug resistance, and death. Prior research has shown several factors to be associated with poor adherence, but this problem remains a substantial barrier to global TB control. We studied patients in a high-incidence district of Lima, Peru to identify factors associated with premature termination of treatment (treatment default). Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of adult...
Data from: Cognitive function and mood at high altitude following acclimatization and use of supplemental oxygen and adaptive servoventilation sleep treatmentsErica C. Heinrich, Matea A. Djokic, Dillon Gilbertson, Pamela N. DeYoung, Naa-Oye Bosompra, Lu Wu, Cecilia Y. Anza-Ramirez, Jeremy E. Orr, Frank L. Powell, Atul Malhotra & Tatum S. Simonson
Impairments in cognitive function, mood, and sleep quality occur following ascent to high altitude. Low oxygen (hypoxia) and poor sleep quality are both linked to impaired cognitive performance but their independent contributions at high altitude remain unknown. Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) improves sleep quality by stabilizing breathing and preventing central apneas without supplemental oxygen. We compared the efficacy of ASV and supplemental oxygen sleep treatments for improving daytime cognitive function and mood in high-altitude visitors (N...
Data from: Population structure of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, at the urban-rural interfaceErica A. Foley, Camilo E. Khatchikian, Josephine Hwang, Jenny Ancca-Juárez, Katty Borrini-Mayori, Victor R. Quispe-Machaca, Michael Z. Levy & Dustin Brisson
The increasing rate of biological invasions resulting from human transport or human-mediated changes to the environment have had devastating ecologic and public health consequences. The kissing bug, Triatoma infestans, has dispersed through the Peruvian city of Arequipa. The biological invasion of this insect has resulted in a public health crisis, putting thousands of residents of this city at risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and subsequent development of Chagas disease. Here we show that populations...
Data from: Patterns of selection on Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigens after the colonisation of the New WorldErhan Yalcindag, Virginie Rougeron, Eric Elguero, Céline Arnathau, Patrick Durand, Sylvain Brisse, Laure Diancourt, Agnes Aubouy, Pierre Becquart, Umberto D'Alessandro, Didier Fontenille, Dionicia Gamboa, Amanda Maestre, Didier Ménard, Lise Musset, Oscar Noya, Vincent Veron, Albina Wide, Bernard Carme, Eric Legrand, Christine Chevillon, Francisco J. Ayala, François Renaud & Franck Prugnolle
Pathogens, which have recently colonized a new host species or new populations of the same host, are interesting models for understanding how populations may evolve in response to novel environments. During its colonization of South America from Africa Plasmodium falciparum, the main agent of malaria, has been exposed to new conditions in distinctive new human populations (Amerindian and populations of mixed origins), that likely exerted new selective pressures on the parasite's genome. Among the genes...
Phylogenomic discordance in the Eared Seals is best explained by incomplete lineage sorting following explosive radiation in the Southern HemisphereFernando Lopes, Larissa Oliveira, Amanda Kessler, Yago Beux, Enrique Crespo, Susana Cárdenas-Alayza, Patricia Majluf, Maritza Sepulveda, , Valentina Franco-Trecu, Diego Paez-Rosas, Jaime Chaves, Carolina Loch, Bruce Robertson, Karina Acevedo-Whitehouse, Fernando Elorriaga-Verplancken, Stephen Kirkman, Claire Peart, Jochen Wolf & Sandro Bonatto
The phylogeny and systematics of fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae) have long been studied with diverse data types, including an increasing amount of molecular data. However, only a few phylogenetic relationships have reached acceptance pointing at strong gene-tree species tree discordance. Divergence times in the group also vary largely between studies. These uncertainties impeded the understanding of the biogeographical history of the group, such as when and how trans-equatorial dispersal and subsequent speciation events...
Fluorescent biomarkers demonstrate prospects for spreadable vaccines to control disease transmission in wild batsKevin Bakker, Tonie Rocke, Rachel Abbott, Carlos Tello, Jorge Carrera, William Valderrama, Carlos Shiva, Nestor Falcon, Jorge Osorio & Daniel Streicker
Vaccines that autonomously transfer among individuals have been proposed as a strategy to control infectious diseases within wildlife populations. However, understanding rates of spread and epidemiological efficacy in real world systems remain elusive. Here, we investigated whether topical vaccines that transfer among bats through social contacts can control vampire bat rabies, a medically and economically important zoonosis in Latin America. Field experiments in 3 Peruvian bat colonies which used fluorescent biomarkers as a proxy for...
Highland native Andeans have resided at altitude for millennia. They display high aerobic capacity (VO2max) at altitude and this may be a reflection of genetic adaptation to chronic hypoxia. Previous genome-wide (GW) scans for natural selection have nominated EGLN1 as a candidate gene. The encoded protein, EGLN1/PHD2, is an O2 sensor that controls levels of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor-a (HIF-a), which regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. From GWAS and ANCOVA performed on a total...
Cayetano Heredia University13
University of Pennsylvania3
University of Michigan–Ann Arbor2
University of California, Irvine2
Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum1
University of Gezira1
Southern Cross University1
University of Valparaíso1
Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County1