60 Works

Investigating the influence of neuter status on paw preference in dogs and cats

Elisa Frasnelli

Data from: On the origin of mongrels: evolutionary history of free-breeding dogs in Eurasia

Małgorzata Pilot, Tadeusz Malewski, Andre E. Moura, Tomasz Grzybowski, Kamil Oleński, Anna Ruść, Stanisław Kamiński, Fernanda Fadel, Daniel S. Mills, Abdulaziz N. Alagaili, Osama B. Mohammed, Grzegorz Kłys, Innokentiy M. Okhlopkov, Ewa Suchecka, Wieslaw Bogdanowicz & Fernanda Ruiz Fadel
Although a large part of the global domestic dog population is free-ranging and free-breeding, knowledge of genetic diversity in these free-breeding dogs (FBDs) and their ancestry relations to pure-breed dogs is limited, and the indigenous status of FBDs in Asia is still uncertain. We analyse genome-wide SNP variability of FBDs across Eurasia, and show that they display weak genetic structure and are genetically distinct from pure-breed dogs rather than constituting an admixture of breeds. Our...

Data from: Genomic evidence of demographic fluctuations and lack of genetic structure across flyways in a long distance migrant, the European turtle dove

Luciano Calderón, Leonardo Campagna, Thomas Wilke, Hervé Lormee, Cyril Eraud, Jenny C. Dunn, Gregorio Rocha, Pavel Zehtindjiev, Dimitrios E. Bakaloudis, Benjamin Metzger, Jacopo G. Cecere, Melanie Marx & Petra Quillfeldt
Background: Understanding how past climatic oscillations have affected organismic evolution will help predict the impact that current climate change has on living organisms. The European turtle dove, Streptopelia turtur, is a warm-temperature adapted species and a long distance migrant that uses multiple flyways to move between Europe and Africa. Despite being abundant, it is categorized as vulnerable because of a long-term demographic decline. We studied the demographic history and population genetic structure of the European...

Data from: Contrasting effects of large density changes on relative testes size in fluctuating populations of sympatric vole species

Ines Klemme, Carl D. Soulsbury & Heikki Henttonen
Across species, there is usually a positive relationship between sperm competition level and male reproductive effort on ejaculates, typically measured using relative testes size (RTS). Within populations, demographic and ecological processes may drastically alter the level of sperm competition and thus, potentially affect the evolution of testes size. Here, we use longitudinal records (across 38 years) from wild sympatric Fennoscandian populations of five species of voles to investigate whether RTS responds to natural fluctuations in...

Spectral data for analysis: Full spectra colouration and condition-dependent signalling in a skin-based carotenoid sexual ornament

Carl Soulsbury
Carotenoid-based traits commonly act as condition-dependent signals of quality to both males and females. Such colours are typically quantified using summary metrics (e.g. redness) derived by partitioning measured reflectance spectra into blocks. However perceived colouration is a product of the whole spectrum. Recently, new methods have quantified a range of environmental factors and their impact on reflection data at narrow wavebands across the whole spectrum. Using this approach, we modelled the reflectance of red integumentary...

Data from: Male–female interactions drive the (un)repeatability of copula duration in an insect

Paul E. Eady & Denise V. Brown
Across the animal kingdom the duration of copulation varies enormously from a few seconds to several days. Functional explanations for this variation are largely embedded within sperm competition theory in which males modulate the duration of copula in order to optimize their fitness. However, copulation is the union of two protagonists which are likely to have separate and often conflicting reproductive interests, yet few experimental designs specifically assess the effect of male–female interactions on the...

Data from: Inner ear morphology of diadectomorphs and seymouriamorphs (Tetrapoda) uncovered by high‐resolution x‐ray microcomputed tomography, and the origin of the amniote crown group

Jozef Klembara, Miroslav Hain, Marcello Ruta, David S. Berman, Stephanie E. Pierce & Amy C. Henrici
The origin of amniotes was a key event in vertebrate evolution, enabling tetrapods to break their ties with water and invade terrestrial environments. Two pivotal clades of early tetrapods, the diadectomorphs and the seymouriamorphs, have played an unsurpassed role in debates about the ancestry of amniotes for over a century, but their skeletal morphology has provided conflicting evidence for their affinities. Using high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography, we reveal the three-dimensional architecture of the well preserved...

Data from: Decision-level adaptation in motion perception

George Mather & Rebecca J. Sharman
Prolonged exposure to visual stimuli causes a bias in observers' responses to subsequent stimuli. Such adaptation-induced biases are usually explained in terms of changes in the relative activity of sensory neurons in the visual system which respond selectively to the properties of visual stimuli. However, the bias could also be due to a shift in the observer's criterion for selecting one response rather than the alternative; adaptation at the decision level of processing rather than...

Data from: Do cladistic and morphometric data capture common patterns of morphological disparity?

Alexander J. Hetherington, Emma Sherratt, Marcello Ruta, Mark Wilkinson, Bradley Deline & Philip C. J. Donoghue
The distinctly non-random diversity of organismal form manifests itself in discrete clusters of taxa that share a common body plan. As a result, analyses of disparity require a scalable comparative framework. The difficulties of applying geometric morphometrics to disparity analyses of groups with vastly divergent body plans are overcome partly by the use of cladistic characters. Character-based disparity analyses have become increasingly popular, but it is not clear how they are affected by character coding...

Data from: Micropyle number is associated with elevated female promiscuity in Lepidoptera

Graziella Iossa, Matthew J.G. Gage & Paul E. Eady
In the majority of insects, sperm fertilize the egg via a narrow canal through the outer chorion called the micropyle. Despite having this one primary function, there is considerable unexplained variation in the location, arrangement and number of micropyles within and between species. Here, we examined the relationship between micropyle number and female mating pattern through a comparative analysis across Lepidoptera. Three functional hypotheses could explain profound micropylar variation: (i) increasing micropyle number reduces the...

Data from: Phylogenetic stability, tree shape, and character compatibility: a case study using early tetrapods

Massimo Bernardi, Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Jonathan S. Mitchell & Marcello Ruta
Phylogenetic tree shape varies as the evolutionary processes affecting a clade change over time. In this study, we examined an empirical phylogeny of fossil tetrapods during several time intervals, and studied how temporal constraints manifested in patterns of tree imbalance and character change. The results indicate that the impact of temporal constraints on tree shape is minimal and highlights the stability through time of the reference tetrapod phylogeny. Unexpected values of imbalance for Mississippian and...

Data from: Discrimination of signal carotenoid content using multidimensional chromatic information

Thomas W. Pike
Red, orange and yellow carotenoid-based ornaments, which are widely used as sexual signals in many birds, fish and reptiles, are known to exhibit multidimensional chromatic variation as a result of both the concentration and relative proportions of different constituent carotenoids with differing spectral properties. This is thought to reflect intrinsic variation in signaller quality, making it a useful basis for female choice. However, whether females are able to discriminate relevant variation in carotenoid concentration and/or...

Data from: TMS reveals flexible use of form and motion cues in biological motion perception

George Mather, Luca Battaglini & Gianluca Campana
The perception of human movement is a key component of daily social interactions. Although extrastriate area MT+/V5 is closely associated with motion processing, its role in the processing of sparse 'biological motion' displays is still unclear. We developed two closed matched psychophysical tasks to assess simple coherent motion perception and biological motion perception, and measured changes in performance caused by application of TMS over MT+/V5. Performance of the simple motion discrimination task was significantly depressed...

Data from: The nutritional ecology of maturation in a carnivorous insect

Ekhlas Al Shareefi & Sheena C. Cotter
Herbivores and omnivores, faced with a nutritionally complex diet, have evolved the capacity to balance the intake of specific nutrients. Recent studies have found that carnivores also have this capacity, despite their more nutritionally homogeneous diet. However, unlike herbivores and omnivores who prioritise protein intake when restricted to imbalanced foods, carnivores instead show much stricter regulation of fat intake. These choices to over- or under-consume nutrients when the intake target cannot be achieved are known...

Data from: Limited indirect fitness benefits of male group membership in a lekking species

Christophe Lebigre, Rauno V. Alatalo, Carl D. Soulsbury, Jacob Höglund & Heli Siitari
In group living species, individuals may gain the indirect fitness benefits characterising kin selection when groups contain close relatives. However, tests of kin selection have primarily focused on cooperatively breeding and eusocial species, whereas its importance in other forms of group living remains to be fully understood. Lekking is a form of grouping where males display on small aggregated territories, which females then visit to mate. As females prefer larger aggregations, territorial males might gain...

Data and code for \"Biomechanical properties of a buzz-pollinated flower\"

Vinícius Brito, Carlos Nunes, Caíque Resende, Fernando Montealegre-Zapata & Mario Vallejo-Marín
Approximately half of all bee species use vibrations to remove pollen from plants with diverse floral morphologies. In many buzz-pollinated flowers, these mechanical vibrations generated by bees are transmitted through floral tissues, principally pollen-containing anthers, causing pollen to be ejected from small openings (pores or slits) at the tip of the stamen. Despite the importance of substrate-borne vibrations for both bees and plants, few studies to date have characterised the transmission properties of floral vibrations....

The effect of face masks and sunglasses on identity and expression recognition with super-recognisers and typical observers

Eilidh Noyes, Josh P. Davis, Nikolay Petrov, Katie L.H. Gray & Kay L. Ritchie
Face masks present a new challenge to face identification and emotion recognition in Western cultures. Here we present the results of three experiments that test the effect of masks, and also the effect of sunglasses (an occlusion that individuals tend to have more experience with) on 1) familiar face matching, 2) unfamiliar face matching, and 3) emotion recognition. Occlusion reduced accuracy in all three tasks, with most errors in the mask condition, however, there was...

Using a new video rating tool to crowd-source analysis of behavioural reaction to stimuli

Holly Root-Gutteridge, Jemma Forman, Louise Brown, Anna Korzeniowska, Julia Simner & David Reby
Quantifying the intensity of animals’ reaction to stimuli is notoriously difficult as classic unidimensional measures of responses such as latency or duration of looking, can fail to capture the overall strength of behavioural responses. More holistic rating can be useful but have the inherent risks of subjective bias and lack of repeatability. Here, we explored whether crowdsourcing could be used to efficiently and reliably overcome these potential flaws. A total of 396 participants watched online...

Genotypes of Italian free-ranging dogs

Eugenia Natoli, Roberto Bonnani, Simona Cafazzo, Daniel Mills, Dominique Pontier & Malgorzata Pilot
Domestication has greatly changed the social and reproductive behavior of dogs relative to that of wild members of the genus Canis, which typically exhibit social monogamy and extended parental care. Unlike a typical grey wolf pack that consists of a single breeding pair and their offspring from multiple seasons, a group of free-ranging dogs (FRDs) can include multiple breeding individuals of both sexes. To understand the consequences of this shift in reproductive behavior, we reconstructed...

High pitch sounds small for domestic dogs dataset

Anna Korzeniowska, Julia Simner, Holly Root-Gutteridge & David Reby
Humans possess intuitive associations linking certain non-redundant features of stimuli – e.g., high-pitched sounds with small object-size (or similarly, low-pitched sounds with large object-size). This phenomenon, known as crossmodal correspondence, has been identified in humans across multiple different senses. There is some evidence that non-human animals also form crossmodal correspondences, but the known examples are mostly limited to the associations between the pitch of vocalisations and the size of callers. To investigate whether domestic dogs,...

Data from: Reliability assessment of null allele detection: inconsistencies between and within different methods

Michal J. Dąbrowski, Malgorzata Pilot, Marcin Kruczyk, Michal Żmihorski, Husen M. Umer & Joanna Gliwicz
Microsatellite loci are widely used in population genetic studies, but the presence of null alleles may lead to biased results. Here, we assessed five methods that indirectly detect null alleles and found large inconsistencies among them. Our analysis was based on 20 microsatellite loci genotyped in a natural population of Microtus oeconomus sampled during 8 years, together with 1200 simulated populations without null alleles, but experiencing bottlenecks of varying duration and intensity, and 120 simulated...

Data from: Dogs recognize dog and human emotions

Natalia Albuquerque, Kun Guo, Anna Wilkinson, Carine Savalli, Emma Otta & Daniel Mills
The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we...

Data from: Shorebirds as important vectors for plant dispersal in Europe

Ádám Lovas-Kiss, Marta I. Sanchez, David M. Wilkinson, Neil E. Coughlan, Jose A. Alves & Andy J. Green
Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) undergo rapid migrations with potential for long-distance dispersal (LDD) of plants. We studied the frequency of endozoochory by shorebirds in different parts of Europe covering a broad latitudinal range and different seasons. We assessed whether plants dispersed conformed to morphological dispersal syndromes. A total of 409 excreta samples (271 faeces and 138 pellets) were collected from redshank (Tringa totanus), black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus), pied avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), Eurasian curlew...

Data from: Pelvis morphology suggests that early Mesozoic birds were too heavy to contact incubate their eggs

D. Charles Deeming & Gerald Mayr
Numerous new fossils have driven an interest in reproduction of early birds but direct evidence remains elusive. No Mesozoic avian eggs can be unambiguously assigned to a species, which hampers our understanding of the evolution of contact incubation, which is a defining feature of extant birds. Compared to living species eggs of Mesozoic birds are relatively small, but whether the eggs of Mesozoic birds could actually have borne the weight of a breeding adult has...

Data from: Temperature-induced developmental plasticity in Plodia interpunctella: reproductive behaviour and sperm length.

Graziella Iossa, Chloris Maury, Rachel M Fletcher & Paul E Eady
In both plants and animals, male gametogenesis is particularly sensitive to heat stress, to the extent that a single hot or cold day can compromise crop productivity or population persistence. In animals, heat stress during development can impact a male’s ability to secure copulations and/or his post-copulatory fertility. Despite such observations, relatively few studies have examined the consequences of developmental temperature on the reproductive behaviour and physiology of individuals. Here we report for the first...

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