58 Works

Plant Respiration Modelling with JULES for a changing climate (1860-2100)

C. Huntingford, O.K. Atkin, A. Martinez-De La Torre, L.M. Mercado, M.A. Heskel, A.B. Harper, K.J. Bloomfield, O.S. O'Sullivan, P.B. Reich, K.R. Wythers, E.E. Butler, M. Chen, K.L. Griffin, P. Meir, M.G. Tjoelker, M.H. Turnbull, S. Sitch, A. Wiltshire & Y. Malhi
The dataset contains annual global plant respiration (and related diagnostics, such as Net Primary Productivity, Gross Primary Productivity and soil respiration), applicable for pre-industrial times (taken as year 1860) through to the end of the 21st Century (year 2100). The spatial resolution of the data is 2.5 degrees latitude x 3.75 degrees longitude. These diagnostics are outputs from the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES land surface model) under four different approaches to calcluate leaf...

Plant aboveground and belowground standing biomass measurements in the Conwy catchment in North Wales (2013 and 2014)

S.M. Smart., S. Reinsch, L. Mercado, M.C. Blanes, B.J. Cosby, H.C. Glanville, D.L. Jones, M.R. Marshall & B.A. Emmett
The data consists of, standing aboveground biomass, and belowground biomass measurements, from sites in the Conwy catchment. Standing aboveground biomass was measured at 7 sites and belowground biomass measurements were made at 8 sites. Data were collected in 2013 and 2014. The sites were chosen to represent habitat types and the terrestrial productivity gradient in Britain from intensive agriculturally managed lowland grasslands through to montane heath. Standing aboveground biomass (grams of dry mass per metre...

Data from: Evolutionary associations between host traits and parasite load: insights from Lake Tanganyika cichlids

Alexander Hayward, Masahito Tsuboi, Christian Owusu, Kotrschal Alexander, Severine D. Buechel, Josefina Zidar, Charlie K. Cornwallis, Hanne Lovlie, Niclas Kolm & A. Kotrschal
Parasite diversity and abundance (parasite load) vary greatly among host species. However, the influence of host traits on variation in parasitism remains poorly understood. Comparative studies of parasite load have largely examined measures of parasite species richness and are predominantly based on records obtained from published data. Consequently, little is known about the relationships between host traits and other aspects of parasite load, such as parasite abundance, prevalence and aggregation. Meanwhile, understanding of parasite species...

Data from: Divergent artificial selection for female reproductive investment has a sexually concordant effect on male reproductive success

Joel L. Pick, Pascale Hutter & Barbara Tschirren
Depending on the genetic architecture of male and female fitness, sex-specific selection can have negative, positive or neutral consequences for the opposite sex. Theory predicts that conflict between male and female function may drive the breakdown of intrasexual genetic correlations, allowing sexual dimorphism in sexually antagonistic traits. Reproductive traits are the epitome of this, showing highly differentiated proximate functions between the sexes. Here we use divergent artificial selection lines for female reproductive investment to test...

Data from: Does coevolution with a shared parasite drive hosts to partition their defences among species?

Eleanor M. Caves, Martin Stevens & Claire N. Spottiswoode
When mimicry imposes costs on models, selection may drive the model's phenotype to evolve away from its mimic. For example, brood parasitism often drives hosts to diversify in egg appearance among females within a species, making mimetic parasitic eggs easier to detect. However, when a single parasite species exploits multiple host species, parasitism could also drive host egg evolution away from other co-occurring hosts, to escape susceptibility to their respective mimics. This hypothesis predicts that...

Data from: Ecosystem engineering strengthens bottom-up and weakens top-down effects via trait-mediated indirect interactions

Zhiwei Zhong, Xiaofei Li, Dean Pearson, Deli Wang, Dirk Sanders, Yu Zhu & Ling Wang
Trophic interactions and ecosystem engineering are ubiquitous and powerful forces structuring ecosystems, yet how these processes interact to shape natural systems is poorly understood. Moreover, trophic effects can be driven by both density- and trait-mediated interactions. Microcosm studies demonstrate that trait-mediated interactions may be as strong as density-mediated interactions, but the relative importance of these pathways at natural spatial and temporal scales is underexplored. Here, we integrate large-scale field experiments and microcosms to examine the...

Data from: Reproductive isolation in the acoustically divergent groups of Tettigoniid, Mecopoda elongata

Rochishnu Dutta, Tregenza Tom & Balakrishnan Rohini
Sympatric divergent populations of the same species provide an opportunity to study the evolution and maintenance of reproductive isolation. Male mating calls are important in sexual selection acoustically communicating species, and they also have the potential to maintain isolation among species or incipient species. We studied divergent south Indian populations of the bush cricket Mecopoda elongata which are extremely difficult to distinguish morphologically, but which exhibit striking divergence in male acoustic signals. We performed phonotactic...

Data from: Sensitivity of commercial pumpkin yield to potential decline among different groups of pollinating bees

Sonja C. Pfister, Philipp W. Eckerter, Jens Schirmel, James E. Cresswell & Martin H. Entling
The yield of animal-pollinated crops is threatened by bee declines, but its precise sensitivity is poorly known. We therefore determined the yield dependence of Hokkaido pumpkin in Germany on insect pollination by quantifying: (i) the relationship between pollen receipt and fruit set and (ii) the cumulative pollen deposition of each pollinator group. We found that approximately 2500 pollen grains per flower were needed to maximize fruit set. At the measured rates of flower visitation, we...

Data from: Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae during experimental evolution on a native versus alternative host plant

Sean Meaden & Britt Koskella
The specialization and distribution of pathogens among species has substantial impact on disease spread, especially when reservoir hosts can maintain high pathogen densities or select for increased pathogen virulence. Theory predicts that optimal within-host growth rate will vary among host genotypes/species and therefore that pathogens infecting multiple hosts should experience different selection pressures depending on the host environment in which they are found. This should be true for pathogens with broad host ranges, but also...

Data from: Evidence for selection-by-environment but not genotype-by-environment interactions for fitness-related traits in a wild mammal population

Adam Hayward, Josephine Pemberton, Camillo Berenos, Alastair J. Wilson, Jill G. Pilkington, Loeske E.B. Kruuk, Josephine M. Pemberton & Adam D. Hayward
How do environmental conditions influence selection and genetic variation in wild populations? There is widespread evidence for selection-by-environment interactions (S*E), but we reviewed studies of natural populations estimating the extent of genotype-by-environment interactions (G*E) in response to natural variation in environmental conditions, and found that evidence for G*E appears to be rare within single populations in the wild. Studies estimating the simultaneous impact of environmental variation on both selection and genetic variation are especially scarce....

Data from: Genetic drift and selection in many-allele range expansions

Bryan T. Weinstein, Maxim O. Lavrentovich, Wolfram Moebius, Andrew W. Murray, David R. Nelson & Wolfram Möbius
We experimentally and numerically investigate the evolutionary dynamics of four competing strains of E. coli with differing expansion velocities in radially expanding colonies. We compare experimental measurements of the average fraction, correlation functions between strains, and the relative rates of genetic domain wall annihilations and coalescences to simulations modeling the population as a one-dimensional ring of annihilating and coalescing random walkers with deterministic biases due to selection. The simulations reveal that the evolutionary dynamics can...

Data from: Biological markets in cooperative breeders: quantifying outside options

Lena Grinsted & Jeremy Field
A major aim in evolutionary biology is to understand altruistic help and reproductive partitioning in cooperative societies, where subordinate helpers forego reproduction to rear dominant breeders' offspring. Traditional models of cooperation in these societies typically make a key assumption: that the only alternative to staying and helping is solitary breeding, an often unfeasible task. Using large-scale field experiments on paper wasps (Polistes dominula), we show that individuals have high-quality alternative nesting options available that offer...

Data from: Single cell genomics of uncultured marine alveolates shows paraphyly of basal dinoflagellates

Jürgen F. H. Strassert, Anna Karnkowska, Elisabeth Hehenberger, Javier Del Campo, Martin Kolisko, Noriko Okamoto, Fabien Burki, Jan Janouškovec, Camille Poirier, Guy Leonard, Steven J. Hallam, Thomas A. Richards, Alexandra Z. Worden, Alyson E. Santoro & Patrick J. Keeling
Marine alveolates (MALVs) are diverse and widespread early-branching dinoflagellates, but most knowledge of the group comes from a few cultured species that are generally not abundant in natural samples, or from diversity analyses of PCR-based environmental SSU rRNA gene sequences. To more broadly examine MALV genomes, we generated single cell genome sequences from seven individually isolated cells. Genes expected of heterotrophic eukaryotes were found, with interesting exceptions like presence of proteorhodopsin and vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase. Phylogenetic...

Data from: Optimal foraging by herbivores maintains polymorphism in defence in a natural plant population

Yasuhiro Sato, Koichi Ito & Hiroshi Kudoh
1. Many species of plants and animals exhibit polymorphism for defensive traits. Adaptive foraging by natural enemies has long been hypothesized to maintain such polymorphism, but this has not been clearly demonstrated in a natural prey or host population. 2. The purpose of this study was to address whether the brassica leaf beetle Phaedon brassicae promotes the maintenance of defence polymorphism in the trichome-producing (hairy) and trichomeless (glabrous) morphs of Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera. Here,...

Data from: Genetic kinship analyses reveal that Gray's beaked whales strand in unrelated groups

Selina Patel, Kirsten F. Thompson, Anna W. Santure, Rochelle Constantine & Craig D. Millar
Some marine mammals are so rarely seen that their life history and social structure remain a mystery. Around New Zealand, Gray’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon grayi) are almost never seen alive, yet they are a commonly stranded species. Gray’s are unique among the beaked whales in that they frequently strand in groups, providing an opportunity to investigate their social organization. We examined group composition and genetic kinship in 113 Gray’s beaked whales with samples collected over...

Plant physiological measurements in North Wales and Northwest England (2013, 2014 and 2016)

M.C. Blanes, S. Reinsch, L. Mercado, H. Harmens, S. Smart, B.J. Cosby, H.C. Glanville, D.L. Jones, M.R. Marshall & B.A. Emmett
The data consists of plant physiological measurements from 15 sites located in the Conwy catchment (North Wales) and from 2 sites in North West England. Plant photosynthetic parameters for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) and the maximum light saturated photosynthesis (Asat) were measured on the dominant plant species as were foliar nitrogen (Foliar N) and phosphorus (Foliar P). Leaf mass area (LMA) and specific leaf area (SLA)...

Data from: Testing social learning of anti-predator responses in juvenile jackdaws: the importance of accounting for levels of agitation

Guillam E. McIvor, Victoria E. Lee & Alex Thornton
Social learning is often assumed to help young animals respond appropriately to potential threats in the environment. We brought wild, juvenile jackdaws briefly into captivity to test whether short exposures to conspecific vocalisations are sufficient to promote anti-predator learning. Individuals were presented with one of two models – a stuffed fox representing a genuine threat, or a toy elephant simulating a novel predator. Following an initial baseline presentation, juveniles were trained by pairing models with...

Data from: Little evidence for intralocus sexual conflict over the optimal intake of nutrients for lifespan and reproduction in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus

James Rapkin, C. Ruth Archer, Charles E. Grant, Kim Jensen, Clarissa M. House, Alastair J. Wilson & John Hunt
There is often large divergence in the effects of key nutrients on lifespan and reproduction in the sexes, yet nutrient intake is regulated in the same way in males and females given dietary choice. This suggests that the sexes are constrained from feeding to their sex-specific nutritional optima for these traits. Here we examine the potential for intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) over optimal protein and carbohydrate intake for lifespan and reproduction to constrain the evolution...

Data from: Defining conservation units with enhanced molecular tools to reveal fine scale structuring among Mediterranean green turtle rookeries

Phil J. Bradshaw, Annette C. Broderick, Carlos Carreras, Wayne Fuller, Robin T.E. Snape, Lucy I. Wright, Brendan J. Godley, A.C. Broderick, R.T.E. Snape, B.J. Godley, P.J. Bradshaw & L.I. Wright
Understanding the connectivity among populations is a key research priority for species of conservation concern. Genetic tools are widely used for this purpose, but the results can be limited by the resolution of the genetic markers in relation to the species and geographic scale. Here, we investigate natal philopatry in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from four rookeries within close geographic proximity (~ 200km) on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. We genotyped hypervariable mtSTRs, a mtDNA...

Data from: Natal foraging philopatry in eastern Pacific hawksbill turtles

Alexander R. Gaos, Rebecca L. Lewison, Michael P. Jensen, Michael J. Liles, Ana Henriquez, Sofia Chavarria, Carlos Mario Pacheco, Melissa Valle, David Melero, Velkiss Gadea, Eduardo Altamirano, Perla Torres, Felipe Vallejo, Cristina Miranda, Carolina LeMarie, Jesus Lucero, Karen Oceguera, Didiher Chacón, Luis Fonseca, Marino Abrego, Jeffrey A. Seminoff, Eric E. Flores, Israel Llamas, Rodrigo Donadi, Bernardo Peña … & Daniela Alarcón Ruales
The complex processes involved with animal migration have long been a subject of biological interest and broad-scale movement patterns of many marine turtle populations still remain unresolved. While it is widely accepted that once marine turtles reach sexual maturity they home to natal areas for nesting or reproduction, the role of philopatry to natal areas during other life stages has received less scrutiny, despite widespread evidence across the taxa. Here we report on genetic research...

Data from: Ecological selection of siderophore-producing microbial taxa in response to heavy metal contamination

Elze Hesse, Siobhan O'Brien, Nicolas Tromas, Florian Bayer, Adela M. Lujan, Eleanor M. Van Veen, Dave J. Hodgson & Angus Buckling
Some microbial public goods can provide both individual and community-wide benefits, and are open to exploitation by non-producing species. One such example is the production of metal-detoxifying siderophores. Here, we investigate whether conflicting selection pressures on siderophore production by heavy metals – a detoxifying effect of siderophores, and exploitation of this detoxifying effect – results in a net increase or decrease. We show that the proportion of siderophore-producing taxa increases along a natural heavy metal...

Data from: Social learning in otters

Zosia Ladds, William Hoppitt & Neeltje J. Boogert
The use of information provided by others to tackle life's challenges is widespread, but should not be employed indiscriminately if it is to be adaptive. Evidence is accumulating that animals are indeed selective and adopt ‘social learning strategies’. However, studies have generally focused on fish, bird and primate species. Here we extend research on social learning strategies to a taxonomic group that has been neglected until now: otters (subfamily Lutrinae). We collected social association data...

Data from: Does fuel type influence the amount of charcoal produced in wildfires? Implications for the fossil record

Victoria A. Hudspith, Rory M. Hadden, Alastair I. Bartlett & Claire M. Belcher
Charcoal occurrence is extensively used as a tool for understanding wildfires over geological timescales. Yet, the fossil charcoal literature to date rarely considers that fire alone is capable of creating a bias in the abundance and nature of charcoal it creates, before it even becomes incorporated into the fossil record. In this study we have used state-of-the-art calorimetry to experimentally produce charcoal from twenty species that represent a range of surface fuels and growth habits,...

Data from: Contact networks structured by sex underpin sex-specific epidemiology of infection

Matthew J. Silk, Nicola L. Weber, Lucy C. Steward, David J. Hodgson, Michael Boots, Darren P. Croft, Richard J. Delahay, Robbie A. McDonald & Mike Boots
Contact networks are fundamental to the transmission of infection and host sex often affects the acquisition and progression of infection. However, the epidemiological impacts of sex-related variation in animal contact networks have rarely been investigated. We test the hypothesis that sex-biases in infection are related to variation in multilayer contact networks structured by sex in a population of European badgers Meles meles naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Our key results are that male-male and between-sex...

Data from: Egg mimicry by the pacific koel: mimicry of one host facilitates exploitation of other hosts with similar egg types

Virginia E. Abernathy, Jolyon Troscianko & Naomi E. Langmore
When brood parasites exploit multiple host species, egg rejection by hosts may select for the evolution of host-specific races, where each race mimics a particular host’s egg type. However, some brood parasites that exploit multiple hosts with the ability to reject foreign eggs appear to have only a single egg type. In these cases, it is unclear how the parasite egg escapes detection by its hosts. Three possible explanations are: (i) host-specific races are present,...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    58

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    58

Affiliations

  • University of Exeter
    58
  • Western Sydney University
    4
  • Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
    3
  • UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
    3
  • University of Edinburgh
    3
  • Bangor University
    2
  • Plymouth University
    2
  • University of Pennsylvania
    2
  • University of Glasgow
    2
  • University of Jaén
    2