121 Works

Data from: Using multiple imputation to estimate missing data in meta-regression

E. Hance Ellington, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Cayla Austin, Kristen N. Landolt, Bruce A. Pond, Erin E. Rees, Nicholas Robar & Dennis L. Murray
1. There is a growing need for scientific synthesis in ecology and evolution. In many cases, meta-analytic techniques can be used to complement such synthesis. However, missing data is a serious problem for any synthetic efforts and can compromise the integrity of meta-analyses in these and other disciplines. Currently, the prevalence of missing data in meta-analytic datasets in ecology and the efficacy of different remedies for this problem have not been adequately quantified. 2. We...

Data from: Directed dispersal by rotational shepherding supports landscape genetic connectivity in a calcareous grassland plant

Yessica Rico, Rolf Holderegger, Hans Juergen Boehmer & Helene H. Wagner
Directed dispersal by animal vectors has been found to have large effects on the structure and dynamics of plant populations adapted to frugivory. Yet, empirical data are lacking on the potential of directed dispersal by rotational grazing of domestic animals to mediate gene flow across the landscape. Here, we investigated the potential effect of large-flock shepherding on landscape-scale genetic structure in the calcareous grassland plant Dianthus carthusianorum, whose seeds lack morphological adaptations to dispersal to...

Data from: Self-fertilization and the role of males in populations of tadpole shrimp (Branchiopoda: Notostraca: Triops)

Rebekah L. Horn & David E. Cowley
Self-fertilization has both negative and positive fitness effects on species evolution. Selfing can increase inbreeding depression, thereby decreasing genetic diversity. In contrast, self-fertilization can preserve beneficial gene combinations and facilitate colonization success. Within the class of crustaceans Branchiopoda, selfing is a primary reproductive mode. Some species of Triops, in the family Notostraca, are a few of the animal species thought to have a mixed mating system between hermaphrodites and males termed androdioecy. The objective of...

Geography, seasonality, and host‐associated population structure influence the fecal microbiome of a genetically depauparate Arctic mammal

Samantha Bird, Erin Prewer, Susan Kutz, Lisa-Marie Leclerc, Sibelle T. Vilaça & Christopher J. Kyle
The Canadian Arctic is an extreme environment with low floral and faunal diversity characterized by major seasonal shifts in temperature, moisture and daylight. Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are one of few large herbivores able to survive this harsh environment. Microbiome research of the gastrointestinal tract may hold clues as to how muskoxen exist in the Arctic, but also how this species may respond to rapid environmental changes. In this study, we investigated the effects of season...

Increased spatial-genetic structure in a population of the clonal aquatic plant Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae) following disturbance

Marcel Dorken, Ryan Holt & Allison Kwok
The spatial genetic structure (SGS) of plant populations is determined by the outcome of key ecological processes, including pollen and seed dispersal, the intensity of local resource competition among newly recruited plants, and patterns of mortality among established plants. Changes in the magnitude of SGS over time can provide insights into the operation of these processes. We measured SGS in a population of the clonal aquatic plant, Sagittaria latifolia that had been disturbed by flooding,...

Data from: Linking isotopes and panmixia: high within-colony variation in feather δ2H, δ13C, and δ15N across the range of the American white pelican

Matthew W. Reudink, Christopher J. Kyle, Ann E. McKellar, Christopher M. Somers, Robyn L.F. Reudink, T. Kurt Kyser, Samantha E. Franks & Joseph J. Nocera
Complete panmixia across the entire range of a species is a relatively rare phenomenon; however, this pattern may be found in species that have limited philopatry and frequent dispersal. American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhyncos) provide a unique opportunity to examine the role of long-distance dispersal in facilitating gene flow in a species recently reported as panmictic across its broad breeding range. This species is also undergoing a range expansion, with new colonies arising hundreds of...

Genetic structure in hybrids and progenitors provides insight into processes underlying an invasive cattail (Typha x glauca) hybrid zone

Sara Pieper, Marcel Dorken & Joanna Freeland
Traditional models of hybrid zones have assumed relatively low hybrid fitness, and thus focussed more on interspecific gene flow than on hybrid dispersal. Therefore, when hybrids have high fitness and the potential for autonomous dispersal, we have limited understanding of whether hybrid dispersal or repeated local hybrid formation is more important for maintaining hybrid zones. The invasive hybrid cattail Typha × glauca occupies an extensive hybrid zone in northeastern North America where it is sympatric...

Data from: Multi-species genetic connectivity in a terrestrial habitat network

Robby R. Marrotte, Jeff Bowman, Michael G. C. Brown, Chad Cordes, Kimberley Y. Morris, Melanie B. Prentice & Paul J. Wilson
Background: Habitat fragmentation reduces genetic connectivity for multiple species, yet conservation efforts tend to rely heavily on single-species connectivity estimates to inform land-use planning. Such conservation activities may benefit from multi-species connectivity estimates, which provide a simple and practical means to mitigate the effects of habitat fragmentation for a larger number of species. To test the validity of a multi-species connectivity model, we used neutral microsatellite genetic datasets of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), American marten...

Habitat use of co-occurring burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) in southeastern Ontario, Canada

Kevin Burke, Jillian Wettlaufer, David Beresford & Paul Martin
The coexistence of closely related species plays an important role in shaping local diversity. However, competition for shared resources can limit the ability of species to coexist. Many species avoid the costs of coexistence by diverging in habitat use, known as habitat partitioning. We examine patterns of habitat use in seven co-occurring species of burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus Fabricius, 1775), testing the hypothesis that Nicrophorus species partition resources by occupying distinct habitats. We surveyed Nicrophorus...

SRP54 locus genotypes of white-tailed deer from Jamieson et al.

Aaron Shafer
Estimating heritability (h2) is required to predict the response to selection and is useful in species that are managed or farmed using trait information. Estimating h2 in free-ranging populations is challenging due to the need for pedigrees; genomic-relatedness matrices (GRMs) circumvent this need and can be implemented in nearly any system where phenotypic and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data are available. We estimated the heritability of five body and three antler traits in a...

Data from: An assessment of sampling designs using SCR analyses to estimate abundance of boreal caribou

Samantha McFarlane, Micheline Manseau, Robin Steenweg, Dave Hervieux, Troy Hegel, Simon Slater & Paul Wilson
Accurately estimating abundance is a critical component of monitoring and recovery of rare and elusive species. Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models are an increasingly popular method for robust estimation of ecological parameters. We provide an analytical framework to assess results from empirical studies to inform SCR sampling design, using both simulated and empirical data from non-invasive genetic sampling of seven boreal caribou populations (Rangifer tarandus caribou) which varied in range size and estimated population density. We...

Data from: Evidence of degradation of hair corticosterone in museum specimens

Nathan D. Stewart, Aoife Reilly, Christine Gilman, Gabriela F. Mastromonaco, Gary Burness & N.D. Stewart
Researchers increasingly rely on non-invasive physiological indices, such as glucocorticoid (GC) levels, to interpret how vertebrates respond to changes in their environment. Recently, hair GCs have been of particular interest, because they are presumed stable over long periods of storage, which may facilitate the study of large-scale spatial and temporal patterns of stress in mammals. In the current study, we evaluated the stability of hair corticosterone levels in museum specimens, and the potential effects of...

Data from: Maternal immunization increases nestling energy expenditure, immune function, and fledging success in a passerine bird

Gary Burness, Deanna Moher, Noah Ben-Ezra, Ryan J Kelly, Dennis Hasselquist & Eunice H Chin
Female birds transfer maternally-derived antibodies (matAb) to their nestlings, via the egg yolk. These antibodies are thought to provide passive protection, and allow nestlings to avoid the costs associated with mounting an innate immune response. To test whether there is an energetic benefit to nestlings of receiving matAb, we challenged adult female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) prior to clutch initiation with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline (Control). Following hatching, one half of each females nestlings...

Data from: Differential impacts of vaccination on wildlife disease spread during epizootic and enzootic phases

Erica J. Newton, Bruce A. Pond, Rowland R. Tinline, Kevin Middel, Denise Belanger & Erin E. Rees
1. Dissemination of oral vaccine baits is a cost-effective method to contain and control infectious wildlife diseases. The effectiveness of vaccine barriers in slowing or halting the disease spread depends on host ecology and landscape variability. It is not clear, however, how the success of vaccine barriers to manage disease may change from an epizootic to an enzootic phase of a disease invasion, and if this depends on the quality and configuration of host habitat....

Data from: Consistent declines in wing lengths of Calidridine sandpipers suggest a rapid morphometric response to environmental change

Alexandra M. Anderson, Christian Friis, Cheri L. Gratto-Trevor, R.I. Guy Morrison, Paul A. Smith & Erica Nol
A recent study demonstrated that semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) wing lengths have shortened from the 1980s to the present-day. We examined alternative and untested hypotheses for this change at an important stopover site, James Bay, Ontario, Canada. We evaluated morphometric patterns in wing length and bill length by age and sex, when possible, and assessed if wing shape has also changed during this time-period. We investigated patterns of morphological change in two additional Calidridine sandpipers,...

Experimental evidence for the recovery of mercury-contaminated fish populations

Lee Hrenchuk, Paul Blanchfield, John Rudd, Marc Amyot, Christopher Babiarz, Ken Beaty, Drew Bodaly, Brian Branfireun, Cynthia Gilmour, Jennifer Graydon, Britt Hall, Reed Harris, Andrew Heyes, Holger Hintelmann, James Hurley, Carol Kelly, David Krabbenhoft, Steve Lindberg, Robert Mason, Michael Paterson, Cheryl Podemski, Ken Sandilands, George Southworth, Vincent St. Louis, Lori Tate … & Michael Tate
Anthropogenic releases of mercury (Hg) are a human health issue because the potent toxicant methylmercury (MeHg), formed primarily by microbial methylation of inorganic Hg in aquatic ecosystems, bioaccumulates to high concentrations in fish consumed by humans. Predicting the efficacy of Hg pollution controls on fish MeHg concentrations is complex because many factors influence the production and bioaccumulation of MeHg. Here we conducted a 15-year whole-ecosystem, single-factor experiment to determine the magnitude and timing of reductions...

DNA metabarcoding sequence data for diet analysis of caribou

Greniqueca Mitchell, Paul Wilson, Bridget Redquest, Brent Patterson, Micheline Manseau & Linda Rutledge
Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are threatened in Canada due to the drastic decline in population size caused primarily by human-induced landscape changes that decrease habitat and increase predation risk. Conservation efforts have largely focused on reducing predators and protecting critical habitat, whereas research on dietary niches and the role of potential food constraints in lichen-poor environments is limited. To improve our understanding of dietary niche variability, we used a next-generation sequencing approach with metabarcoding...

Data from: No selection on immunological markers in response to a highly virulent pathogen in an Arctic breeding bird

Pierre Legagneux, Lisha L. Berzins, Mark Forbes, Naomi Jane Harms, Holly L. Hennin, H. G. Gilchrist, Sophie Bourgeon, Joël Bêty, Catherine Soos, Oliver P. Love, Jeffrey T. Foster, Sébastien Descamps & Gary Burness
In natural populations, epidemics provide opportunities to look for intense natural selection on genes coding for life history and immune or other physiological traits. If the populations being considered are of management or conservation concern, then identifying the traits under selection (or ‘markers’) might provide insights into possible intervention strategies during epidemics. We assessed potential for selection on multiple immune and life history traits of Arctic breeding common eiders (Somateria mollissima) during annual avian cholera...

Data from: Morphological change and phenotypic plasticity in native and non–native pumpkinseed sunfish in response to sustained water velocities

Stan Yavno & Michael G. Fox
Phenotypic plasticity can contribute to the proliferation and invasion success of nonindigenous species by promoting phenotypic changes that increase fitness, facilitate range expansion and improve survival. In this study, differences in phenotypic plasticity were investigated using young-of-year pumpkinseed sunfish from colonies established with lentic and lotic populations originating in Canada (native) and Spain (non-native). Individuals were subjected to static and flowing water treatments for 80 days. Inter- and intra-population differences were tested using ancova and...

Data from: No assortative mating based on size in black guillemots breeding in the Canadian Arctic

Lisha L. Berzins, H. Grant Gilchrist & Gary Burness
The Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle) is a monomorphic, socially monogamous member of the Alcidae. Although aspects of their breeding and foraging ecology have been extensively studied, less is known about possible sex-based differences in morphology, nor whether Black Guillemots mate assortatively based on body size. Using molecular techniques, we identified the sex of 26 male and 21 female Black Guillemots captured in the Canadian Arctic, and measured six external body measurements: outer tarsus length, wing...

Data from: Phase-dependent climate-predator interactions explain three decades of variation in neonatal caribou survival

Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, James A. Schaefer, Keith P. Lewis, Matthew Mumma, E. Hance Ellington, Nathaniel D. Rayl, Shane P. Mahoney, Darren Pouliot, Dennis L. Murray & Matthew A. Mumma
1. Climate can have direct and indirect effects on population dynamics via changes in resource competition or predation risk, but this influence can be modulated by density- or phase-dependent processes. We hypothesized that for ungulates, climatic conditions close to parturition have a greater influence on the predation risk of neonates during population declines, when females are already under nutritional stress triggered by food limitation. 2. We examined the presence of phase-dependent climate-predator interactions on neonatal...

Data from: Lack of spatial immunogenetic structure among wolverine (Gulo gulo) populations suggestive of broad scale balancing selection

Yessica Rico, James Morris-Pocock, Joanna Zigouris, Joseph J. Nocera & Christopher J. Kyle
Elucidating the adaptive genetic potential of wildlife populations to environmental selective pressures is fundamental for species conservation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are highly polymorphic, and play a key role in the adaptive immune response against pathogens. MHC polymorphism has been linked to balancing selection or heterogeneous selection promoting local adaptation. However, spatial patterns of MHC polymorphism are also influenced by gene flow and drift. Wolverines are highly vagile, inhabiting varied ecoregions that...

Data from: Recognizing false positives: synthetic oligonucleotide controls for environmental DNA surveillance

Chris C. WIlson, Kristyne M. Wozney & Caleigh M. Smith
Environmental DNA (eDNA) is increasingly used for surveillance and detection of species of interest in aquatic and soil samples. A significant risk associated with eDNA methods is potential false positive results due to laboratory contamination. To minimize and quantify this risk, we designed and validated a set of synthetic oligonucleotides for use as species-specific positive PCR controls for several high-profile aquatic invasive species. The controls consist of species-specific sequences for the species of interest, with...

Data from: De novo assembly of a tadpole shrimp (Triops newberryi) transcriptome and preliminary differential gene expression analysis

Rebekah L. Horn, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Nicholas P. Devitt, Faye D. Schilkey & David E. Cowley
Next-generation sequencing techniques, such as RNA sequencing, have provided a wealth of genomic information for nonmodel species. Transcriptomic information can be used to quantify the patterns of gene expression, which can identify how environmental differences invoke organismal stress responses and provide a gauge in predicting species adaptability. In our study, we used RNA sequencing to characterize the first transcriptome from a naupliar tadpole shrimp (Triops newberryi) to identify the genes expressed during the early life...

Data from: New and Old World phylogeography of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus): the North American origin of introduced populations in Europe

Stan Yavno, Jenilee Gobin, Chris C Wilson, Anna Vila-Gispert, Gordon H Copp & Michael Fox
To determine the origin of introduced European populations of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) – a freshwater sunfish, native to eastern North America that has spread across western and central Europe – we investigated the phylogeography of the species by sequencing the mitochondrial NADH subunit 1 gene. A total of 543 pumpkinseed were sampled from 32 sites across the native range of the species, and from 19 sites covering much of its introduced European range. The presence...

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