182 Works

Canoe Reach Geothermal Field

Investigate the structure of the Canoe Reach Geothermal Field near Valemount, British Columbia. This array was also deployed to investigate the dynamics of the Rocky Mountain Trench in the Canadian Cordillera. The network included the temporary deployment of 10 three-component sensors comprised of a combination of broadband and short period instruments. These instruments occupied 12 locations. The network recorded continuous data between the late summer of 2017 until the summer of 2019.

Data from: Heavily hunted wolves have higher stress and reproductive steroids than wolves with lower hunting pressure

Heather Bryan, Judit Smits, Lee Koren, Paul Paquet, Marco Musiani, Katherine Wynne-Edwards, Paul C. Paquet, Heather M. Bryan, Judit E. G. Smits & Katherine E. Wynne-Edwards
1. Human-caused harassment and mortality (e.g. hunting) affects many aspects of wildlife population dynamics and social structure. Little is known, however, about the social and physiological effects of hunting, which might provide valuable insights into the mechanisms by which wildlife respond to human-caused mortality. To investigate physiological consequences of hunting, we measured stress and reproductive hormones in hair, which reflect endocrine activity during hair growth. Applying this novel approach, we compared steroid hormone levels in...

Data from: GloPL, a global data base on pollen limitation of plant reproduction

Joanne. M. Bennett, Janette. A. Steets, Jean. H. Burns, Walter Durka, Jana. C. Vamosi, Gerardo Arceo-Gómez, Martin Burd, Laura. A. Burkle, Allan. G Ellis, Leandro Freitas, Junmin Li, James. G. Rodger, Marina Wolowski, Jing Xia, Tia-Lynn Ashman & Tiffany. M. Knight
Plant reproduction relies on transfer of pollen from anthers to stigmas, and the majority of flowering plants depend on biotic or abiotic agents for this transfer. A key metric for characterizing if pollen receipt is insufficient for reproduction is pollen limitation, which is assessed by pollen supplementation experiments. In a pollen supplementation experiment, fruit or seed production by flowers exposed to natural pollination is compared to that following hand pollination either by pollen supplementation (i.e....

Data from: Association between integration structure and functional evolution in the opercular four-bar apparatus of the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus (Pisces: Gasterosteidae)

Heather A. Jamniczky, Emily E. Harper, Rebecca Garner, William A. Cresko, Peter C. Wainwright, Benedikt Hallgrimsson & Charles B. Kimmel
Phenotypes may evolve to become integrated in response to functional demands. Once evolved, integrated phenotypes, often modular, can also influence the trajectory of subsequent responses to selection. Clearly, connecting modularity and functionally adaptive evolution has been challenging. The teleost skull and jaw structures are useful for understanding this connection because of the key roles that these structures play in feeding in novel environments with different prey resources. In the present study, we examined such a...

Data from: Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

Anne M. Bronikowski, Marina Cords, Susan C. Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K. Brockman, Linda M. Fedigan, Anne Pusey, Tara Stoinski, Karen B. Strier & William F. Morris
We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point...

Data from: Experimental evidence that primate trichromacy is well suited for detecting primate social colour signals

Chihiro Hiramatsu, Amanda D. Melin, William L. Allen, Constance Dubuc & James P. Higham
Primate trichromatic colour vision has been hypothesized to be well tuned for detecting variation in facial coloration, which could be due to selection on either signal wavelengths or the sensitivities of the photoreceptors themselves. We provide one of the first empirical tests of this idea by asking whether, when compared with other visual systems, the information obtained through primate trichromatic vision confers an improved ability to detect the changes in facial colour that female macaque...

Data from: Effect of IV glyburide on adjudicated edema endpoints in the GAMES-RP Trial

W. Taylor Kimberly, Matthew B. Bevers, Rüdiger Von Kummer, Andrew M. Demchuk, Javier M. Romero, Jordan J. Elm, Holly E. Hinson, Bradley J. Molyneaux, J. Marc Simard & Kevin Navin Sheth
Objective: In this secondary analysis of the GAMES-RP trial, we report the effect of IV glyburide on adjudicated, edema-related endpoints. Methods: Blinded adjudicators assigned designations for hemorrhagic transformation, neurological deterioration, malignant edema and edema-related death to patients from the GAMES-RP Phase II randomized controlled trial of IV glyburide for large hemispheric infarct. Rates of these endpoints were compared between treatment arms in the per-protocol sample. In those participants with malignant edema, the effects of treatment...

Data from: Impacts of genetic correlation on the independent evolution of body mass and skeletal size in mammals

Marta Marchini, Leah Sparrow, Miranda Cosman, Alexandra S. Dowhanik, Carsten B. Krueger, Benedikt Hallgrimsson & Campbell Rolian
Mammals show a predictable scaling relationship between limb bone size and body mass. This relationship has a genetic basis which likely evolved via natural selection but it is unclear how much the genetic correlation between these traits in turn impacts their capacity to evolve independently. We selectively bred laboratory mice for increases in tibia length independent of body mass to test the hypothesis that a genetic correlation with body mass constrains evolutionary change in tibia...

Data from: Chronic protein restriction in mice impacts placental function and maternal body weight before fetal growth

Paula N. Gonzalez, Malgorzata Gasperowicz, Jimena Barbeito-Andrés, Natasha Klenin, James C. Cross & Benedikt Hallgrímsson
Mechanisms of resource allocation are essential for maternal and fetal survival, particularly when the availability of nutrients is limited. We investigated the responses of feto-placental development to maternal chronic protein malnutrition to test the hypothesis that maternal low protein diet produces differential growth restriction of placental and fetal tissues, and adaptive changes in the placenta that may mitigate impacts on fetal growth. C57BL/6J female mice were fed either a low-protein diet (6% protein) or control...

Data from: Aging in the natural world: comparative data reveal similar mortality patterns across primates

Anne M. Bronikowski, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K. Brockman, Marina Cords, Linda M. Fedigan, Anne Pusey, Tara Stoinski, William F. Morris, Karen B. Strier & Susan C. Alberts
Human senescence patterns – late onset of mortality increase, slow mortality acceleration, and exceptional longevity – are often described as unique in the animal world. Using an individual-based dataset from longitudinal studies of wild populations of seven primate species, we show that contrary to assumptions of human uniqueness, human senescence falls within the primate continuum of aging, the tendency for males to have shorter lifespans and higher age-specific mortality than females throughout much of adulthood...

Data from: Using a ‘time machine’ to test for local adaptation of aquatic microbes to temporal and spatial environmental variation

Jeremy W. Fox & Lawrence D. Harder
Local adaptation occurs when different environments are dominated by different specialist genotypes, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions and relatively unfit under other conditions. Analogously, ecological species sorting occurs when different environments are dominated by different competing species, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions. The simplest theory predicts that spatial, but not temporal, environmental variation selects for local adaptation (or generates species sorting), but this prediction is...

Data from: Mind the gap: genetic manipulation of basicranial growth within synchondroses modulates calvarial and facial shape in mice through epigenetic interactions

Trish E. Parsons, Charlene M. Downey, Frank R. Jirik, Benedikt Hallgrimsson & Heather A. Jamniczky
Phenotypic integration patterns in the mammalian skull have long been a focus of intense interest as a result of their suspected influence on the trajectory of hominid evolution. Here we test the hypothesis that perturbation of cartilage growth, which directly affects only the chondrocranium during development, will produce coordinated shape changes in the adult calvarium and face regardless of mechanism. Using two murine models of cartilage undergrowth that target two very different mechanisms, we show...

Data from: Porosity and water vapor conductance of two Troodon formosus eggs an assessment of incubation strategy in a maniraptoran dinosaur

David J. Varricchio, Frankie D. Jackson, Robert A. Jackson & Darla K. Zelenitsky
Using tangential thin sections, we examined variation in porosity and water vapor conductance across two eggs of Troodon formosus, a small (∼50 kg) theropod dinosaur from the North American Upper Cretaceous, testing two hypotheses of egg incubation: (1) full burial within sediments or vegetation and (2) partial burial with exposed upper egg portions. We divided and sampled the eggs in five zones, 1 through 5 from blunt top to more pointed bottom. A geometric model...

Data from: Visual ecology of true lemurs suggests a cathemeral origin for the primate cone opsin polymorphism

Kim Valenta, Melissa Edwards, Radoniaina R. Rafaliarison, Steig E. Johnson, Sheila M. Holmes, Kevin A. Brown, Nathaniel J. Dominy, Shawn M. Lehman, Esteban J. Parra & Amanda D. Melin
In contrast to the majority of primates, which exhibit dedicated diurnality or nocturnality, all species of Eulemur are cathemeral. Color vision, in particular, is strongly affected by the spectral composition and intensity of ambient light, and the impact of activity period on the evolution of primate color vision is actively debated. We studied three groups of wild brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar over a one-year span. We also used non-invasive fecal...

Data from: An integrative genomic analysis of the Longshanks selection experiment for longer limbs in mice

João P. L. Castro, Michelle N. Yancoskie, Marta Marchini, Stefanie Belohlavy, Layla Hiramatsu, Marek Kučka, William H. Beluch, Ronald Naumann, Isabella Skuplik, John Cobb, Nick H. Barton, Campbell Rolian & Yingguang Frank Chan
Evolutionary studies are often limited by missing data that are critical to understanding the history of selection. Selection experiments, which reproduce rapid evolution under controlled conditions, are excellent tools to study how genomes evolve under selection. Here we present a genomic dissection of the Longshanks selection experiment, in which mice were selectively bred over 20 generations for longer tibiae relative to body mass, resulting in 13% longer tibiae in two replicates. We synthesized evolutionary theory,...

Data from: Molecular phylogeny of the burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorinae)

Derek S. Sikes & Chandra Venables
Burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus) are well-known for their monopolization of small vertebrate carcasses in subterranean crypts and complex biparental care behaviors. They have been the focus of intense behavioral, ecological, and conservation research since the 1980s yet no thorough phylogenetic estimate for the group exists. Herein, we infer relationships, test past hypotheses of relationships, and test biogeographic scenarios among 55 of the subfamily Nicrophorinae’s currently valid and extant 72 species. Two mitochondrial genes, COI and...

Earthworm invasion causes declines across soil fauna size classes and biodiversity facets in northern North American forests

Malte Jochum, Olga Ferlian, Madhav Thakur, Marcel Ciobanu, Bernhard Klarner, Jörg-Alfred Salamon, Lee Frelich, Ed Johnson & Nico Eisenhauer
Anthropogenic pressures alter the biodiversity, structure, and organization of biological communities with severe consequences for ecosystem processes. Species invasion is such a human-induced ecosystem change with pronounced impacts on recipient ecosystems. Around the globe, earthworms invade habitats and impact abiotic soil conditions and a wide range of above- and belowground organisms. In northern North America, where earthworms have been largely absent since the last glaciation period and most earthworm species present today have only been...

Niche Differentiation Data

Shasta Webb, Amanda Melin & Rachel Williamson
Understanding variation in social grouping patterns among animal taxa is an enduring goal of ethologists, who seek to evaluate the selective pressures shaping the evolution of sociality. Cohesive association with conspecifics increases intragroup feeding competition and is posited as an important pressure affecting grouping patterns. Furthermore, in sexually dimorphic species, males and females may have different nutritional requirements, which may lead to suboptimal foraging in mixed-sex groups. How do animals living in permanent social groups...

Data from: Differential impact of severe drought on infant mortality in two sympatric neotropical primates

Fernando Campos, Urs Kalbitzer, Amanda Melin, Jeremy Hogan, Saul Cheves, Evin Murillo-Chacon, Adrián Guadamuz, Monica Myers, Colleen Schaffner, Katharine Jack, Filippo Aureli & Linda Fedigan
Extreme climate events can have important consequences for the dynamics of natural populations, and severe droughts are predicted to become more common and intense due to climate change. We analysed infant mortality in relation to drought in two primate species (white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus imitator, and Geoffroy's spider monkeys, Ateles geoffroyi) in a tropical dry forest in north-western Costa Rica. Our survival analyses combine several rare and valuable long-term data sets, including long-term primate life-history,...

Data from: Species loss drives ecosystem function in experiments, but in nature the importance of species loss depends on dominance

Mark A. Genung, Jeremy Fox & Rachael Winfree
Aim: Decades of experimental research have conclusively shown a positive relationship between species richness and ecosystem function. However, authoritative reviews find no consensus on how species loss affects function in natural communities. We analyse experimental and observational data in an identical way and test whether they produce similar results. Location: North America and Europe (experimental communities); global (natural communities). Time period: Experimental communities: 1998–2013; natural communities: 1982–2018. Major taxa studied: Experimental communities: temperate grassland plants;...

Human walking in the real world: interactions between terrain type, gait parameters, and energy expenditure

Daniel Kowalsky, John Rebula, Lauro Ojeda, Peter Adamczyk & Art Kuo
Humans often traverse real-world environments with a variety of surface irregularities and inconsistencies, which can disrupt steady gait and require additional effort. Such effects have, however, scarcely been demonstrated quantitatively, because few laboratory biomechanical measures apply outdoors. Walking can nevertheless be quantified by other means. In particular, the foot’s trajectory in space can be reconstructed from foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs), to yield measures of stride and associated variabilities. But it remains unknown whether such...

Comparative gene expression analysis reveals mechanism of Pinus contorta response to the fungal pathogen Dothistroma septosporum

Mengmeng Lu, Nicolas Feau, Dragana Obreht Vidakovic, Nicholas Ukrainetz, Barbara Wong, Sally Aitken, Richard Hamelin & Sam Yeaman
Many conifers have distributions that span wide ranges in both biotic and abiotic conditions, but the basis of response to biotic stress has received much less attention than response to abiotic stress. In this study, we investigated the gene expression response of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) to attack by the fungal pathogen Dothistroma septosporum, which causes Dothistroma needle blight (DNB), a disease that has caused severe climate-related outbreaks in northwestern British Columbia. We inoculated tolerant...

Repolarization and contractility in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients

Andrew Radbill, Lucy Lei, Sachin Paranjape, Robert Abraham, Derek Chew, Satish Raj & Bjorn Knollmann
Aims: Arrhythmia mechanisms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy remain uncertain. Preclinical models suggest hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutations perturb sarcomere length-dependent activation, alter cardiac repolarization in rate-dependent fashion and potentiate triggered electrical activity. This study was designed to assess rate-dependence of clinical surrogates of contractility and repolarization in humans with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods: All participants had a cardiac implantable device capable of atrial pacing. Cases had clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, controls were age-matched. Continuous electrocardiogram and blood pressure...

Vape flavorants dull sensory perception and cause hyperactivity in developing zebrafish embryos

Patrick Gauthier, Alison Holloway & Mathilakath Vijayan
E-cigarette use (vaping) during pregnancy has been increasing, and the potential exists for the developing brain in utero to be exposed to chemical constituents in the vape. Vapes come in over 7,000 unique flavors with and without nicotine, and while nicotine is a known neurotoxicant, the effects of vape flavoring alone, in the absence of nicotine, on brain function are not well understood. Here we performed a screen of vape aerosol extracts (VAEs) to determine...

Data from: Flowering overlap and floral trait similarity help explain the structure of pollination network

Víctor Parra-Tabla, Alexander Suárez-Mariño, Gerardo Arceo-Gómez & Cristopher Albor
Co-flowering communities are usually characterized by high plant generalization but knowledge of the underlying factors leading to high levels of generalization and pollinator sharing, and how these may contribute to network structure is still limited. Flowering phenology and floral trait similarity are considered among the most important factors determining plant generalization and pollinator sharing. However, these have been evaluated independently even though they can act in concert with each other. Moreover, the importance of flowering...

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