180 Works

Data from: Flowering overlap and floral trait similarity help explain the structure of pollination network

Víctor Parra-Tabla, Alexander Suárez-Mariño, Gerardo Arceo-Gómez & Cristopher Albor
Co-flowering communities are usually characterized by high plant generalization but knowledge of the underlying factors leading to high levels of generalization and pollinator sharing, and how these may contribute to network structure is still limited. Flowering phenology and floral trait similarity are considered among the most important factors determining plant generalization and pollinator sharing. However, these have been evaluated independently even though they can act in concert with each other. Moreover, the importance of flowering...

Evaluating the use of hair as a non-invasive indicator of trace mineral status in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

Naima Jutha, Claire Jardine, Helen Schwantje, Jesper Mosbacher, David Kinniburgh & Susan Kutz
Trace mineral imbalances can have significant effects on animal health, reproductive success, and survival. Monitoring their status in wildlife populations is, therefore, important for management and conservation. Typically, livers and kidneys are sampled to measure mineral status, but biopsies and lethal-sampling are not always possible, particularly for Species at Risk. We aimed to: 1) determine baseline mineral levels in Northern Mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou; Gmelin, 1788) in northwestern British Columbia, Canada, and 2) determine...

Prospective Quantification of CSF Biomarkers in Antibody-Mediated Encephalitis

Gregory Day, Melanie L. Yarbrough, Peter Körtvelyessy, Harald Prüss, Robert C. Bucelli, Marvin J. Fritzler, Warren Mason, David F. Tang-Wai, Claude Steriade, Julien Hébert, Rachel L. Henson, Elizabeth M. Herries, Jack H. Ladenson, A. Sebastian Lopez-Chiriboga, Neill R. Graff-Radford, John C. Morris & Anne Fagan
Objective: To determine whether neuronal and neuroaxonal injury, neuroinflammation, and synaptic dysfunction associate with clinical course and outcomes in antibody-mediated encephalitis (AME), we measured biomarkers of these processes in CSF from patients presenting with AME and cognitively normal individuals. Methods: Biomarkers of neuronal (total tau, VILIP-1) and neuroaxonal damage (neurofilament light chain [NfL]), inflammation (YKL-40), and synaptic function (neurogranin, SNAP-25) were measured in CSF obtained from 45 patients at the time of diagnosis of NMDA...

Data from: A prospective harmonized multicentre DTI study of cerebral white matter degeneration in ALS

Sanjay Kalra, Hans-Peter Müller, Abdullah Ishaque, Lorne Zinman, Lawrence Korngut, Angela Genge, Christian Beaulieu, Richard Frayne, Simon J. Graham & Jan Kassubek
Objective: To evaluate progressive white matter (WM) degeneration in ALS. Methods: Sixty-six patients with ALS and 43 healthy controls were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal, multicentre study in the Canadian ALS Neuroimaging Consortium (CALSNIC). Participants underwent a harmonized neuroimaging protocol across 4 centres including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment of WM integrity. Three visits were accompanied by clinical assessments of disability (ALSFRS-R) and upper motor neuron (UMN) function. Voxel-wise whole brain and quantitative tractwise...

Data from: eDNA concentration, population size structure, and mark-recapture data

Matthew Yates, Dylan Glaser, John Post, Melania Cristescu, Dylan Fraser & Alison Derry
Organism abundance is a critical parameter in ecology, but its estimation is often challenging. Approaches utilizing eDNA to indirectly estimate abundance have recently generated substantial interest. However, preliminary correlations observed between eDNA concentration and abundance in nature are typically moderate in strength with significant unexplained variation. Here we apply a novel approach to integrate allometric scaling coefficients into models of eDNA concentration and organism abundance. We hypothesize that eDNA particle production scales non-linearly with mass,...

Low- versus standard-dose alteplase in acute lacunar ischemic stroke: the ENCHANTED trial - online supplemental

Zien Zhou, Candice Delcourt, Chao Xia, Sohei Yoshimura, Cheryl Carcel, Takako Torii-Yoshimura, Shoujiang You, Alejandra Malavera, Xiaoying Chen, Maree Hackett, Mark Woodward, John Chalmers, Jianrong Xu, Thompson Robinson, Mark Parsons, Andrew Demchuk, Richard Lindley, Grant Mair, Joanna Wardlaw & Craig Anderson
Objective: To determine any differential efficacy and safety of low- versus standard-dose intravenous alteplase for lacunar versus non-lacunar acute ischemic stroke (AIS), we performed post-hoc analyzes from the Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study (ENCHANTED) alteplase dose-arm. Methods: In a cohort of 3297 ENCHANTED participants, we identified those with lacunar or non-lacunar AIS with different levels of confidence (definite/probable/possible) according to pre-specified definitions based on clinical and adjudicated imaging findings. Logistic regression models...

Primordial GATA6 macrophages function as extravascular platelets in sterile injury

Joel Zindel, Moritz Peiseler, Mokarram Hossain, Carsten Deppermann, Woo Yong Lee, Beat Haenni, Bas Surewaard, Daniel Candinas & Paul Kubes
Most multicellular organisms have a major body cavity that harbors immune cells. In primordial species like purple sea urchins, these cells perform phagocytic functions but are also crucial in repairing injuries. In mammals, the peritoneal cavity contains large numbers of resident GATA6+ macrophages, which may play a similar role. It is unclear how cavity macrophages suspended in the fluid phase (peritoneal fluid) identify and migrate towards injuries, however. Here, we show that cavity macrophages in...

Datasets relating (i) A wetland fish multimetric index to variation in agricultural stress among Laurentian Great Lakes coastal wetlands, (ii) Cyanobacteria biomass to total phosphorus concentrations among Canadian lakes

Jabed Tomal & Jan Ciborowski
We present two datasets of biological responses against environmental stresses. In the first dataset, the biological response and environmental stress variables are fish multimetric index of community health and agricultural stress, respectively, in watersheds draining to Laurentian Great Lakes. In the second dataset, the biological response and environmental stress variables are cyanobacterial biomass and total phosphorus, respectively, in Canadian Lakes.

Behavioral responses by a bumble bee to competition with a niche-constructing congener

Nick Rosenberger, Marcelo Aizen, Rachel Dickson & Lawrence Harder
While feeding, foragers can alter their environment. Such alteration constitutes ecological niche construction (ENC) if it enables future benefits for the constructor and conspecific individuals. The environmental modification may also affect non-constructing, bystander species, especially if they share resources with constructor species. If so, ENC could confer the constructor species a competitive advantage by both enhancing its foraging returns and reducing those of bystander species. Expectations – (E1) ENC frequency should vary positively with the...

Data from: Landscape complementation is a driver of bumble bee (Bombus sp.) abundance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

Danielle Clake, Sean Rogers & Paul Galpern
Context: Land use change is a major factor influencing biodiversity, but the mechanisms that drive species losses require further examination. Habitat loss often reduces biodiversity, but habitat fragmentation can increase biodiversity when examined independently. Processes driving this pattern remain largely unclear. Objectives: We aimed to determine the effects of habitat fragmentation on bumble bee populations after controlling for habitat amount, and to examine possible mechanisms behind observed effects. Methods: We sampled 22 species of bumble...

A deglacial hazard cascade exemplified by the landslide, tsunami and outburst flood at Elliot Creek, Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada

Marten Geertsema, Brian Menounos, Gemma Bullard, Jonathan Carrivick, John Clague, Chunli Dai, Davide Donati, Goran Ekstrom, Jennifer Jackson, Patrick Lynett, Manuele Pichierri, Andy Pon, Dan Shugar, Doug Stead, Justin Del Bel Belluz, Pierre Friele, Ian Giesbrecht, Derek Heathfield, Tom Millard, Sasha Nasonova, Andrew Schaeffer, Brent Ward, Darren Blaney, Erik Blaney, Camille Brillon … & Meghan Sharp
We describe and model the evolution of a recent landslide and outburst flood in the southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. About 18 Mm3 of rock descended 1000 m from a steep valley wall and traveled across the toe of a glacier before entering a 0.6 km2 glacier lake and producing a >100-m high wave. Water overtopped the lake outlet and scoured a 10-km long channel before depositing debris on a 2 km2 fan below...

On the genetic architecture of rapidly adapting and convergent life history traits in guppies

James Whiting, Josephine Paris, Paul Parsons, Sophie Matthews, Yuridia Reynoso, Kimberly Hughes, David Reznick & Bonnie Fraser
The genetic basis of traits shapes and constrains how adaptation proceeds in nature; rapid adaptation can be facilitated by polygenic traits, which subsequently provide multiple, redundant, genetic routes to adaptive phenotypes, reducing re-use of the same genes (genetic convergence). Guppy life history traits evolve rapidly and convergently among natural high- (HP) and low-predation (LP) environments in northern Trinidad. This system has been studied extensively at the phenotypic level, but little is known about the underlying...

Diet variation driven by color vision phenotype in wild capuchin monkeys

Allegra DePasquale & Amanda Melin
The polymorphic color vision of platyrrhine monkeys is a fascinating example of balancing selection acting on multiple genetic and phenotypic morphs. Yet, the mechanism of natural selection maintaining this variation remains elusive. Past research has demonstrated task-specific foraging advantages to dichromatic (two-opsin vision, red-green colorblind) and trichromatic (three-opsin vision, human “normal”) monkeys, raising the potential for dietary niche differentiation. We ask whether color vision type influences diet variation in a population of wild, white-faced capuchins...

Haploid, diploid, and pooled exome capture recapitulate features of biology and paralogy in two non-model tree species

Brandon Lind, Mengmeng Lu, Dragana Obreht Vidakovic, Pooja Singh, Tom Booker, Sally Aikten & Sam Yeaman
Despite their suitability for studying evolution, many conifer species have large and repetitive giga-genomes (16-31Gbp) that create hurdles to producing high coverage SNP datasets that capture diversity from across the entirety of the genome. Due in part to multiple ancient whole genome duplication events, gene family expansion and subsequent evolution within Pinaceae, false diversity from the misalignment of paralog copies creates further challenges in accurately and reproducibly inferring evolutionary history from sequence data. Here, we...

The energetic basis for smooth human arm movements

Jeremy Wong
The central nervous system plans human reaching movements with stereotypically smooth kinematic trajectories and fairly consistent durations. Smoothness seems to be explained by accuracy as a primary movement objective, whereas duration seems to avoid excess energy expenditure. But energy does not explain smoothness, so that two aspects of the same movement are governed by seemingly incompatible objectives. Here we show that smoothness is actually economical, because humans expend more metabolic energy for jerkier motions. The...

Data from: Natural regeneration on seismic lines influences movement behaviour of wolves and grizzly bears

Laura Finnegan, Karine E. Pigeon, Jerome Cranston, Mark Hebblewhite, Marco Musiani, Lalenia Neufeld, Fiona Schmiegelow, Julie Duval & Gordon B. Stenhouse
Across the boreal forest of Canada, habitat disturbance is the ultimate cause of caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) declines. Habitat restoration is a focus of caribou recovery efforts, with a goal to finding ways to reduce predator use of disturbances, and caribou-predator encounters. One of the most pervasive disturbances within caribou ranges in Alberta, Canada are seismic lines cleared for energy exploration. Seismic lines facilitate predator movement, and although vegetation on some seismic lines is regenerating,...

Data from: Partitioning drivers of spatial genetic variation for a continuously-distributed population of boreal caribou: implications for management unit delineation

Pauline Priadka, Micheline Manseau, Tim Trottier, Dave Hervieux, Paul Galpern, Philip D. McLoughlin & Paul J. Wilson
Isolation-by-distance (IBD) is a natural pattern not readily incorporated into theoretical models nor traditional metrics for differentiating populations, although clinal genetic differentiation can be characteristic of many wildlife species. Landscape features can also drive population structure additive to baseline IBD resulting in differentiation through isolation-by-resistance (IBR). We assessed the population genetic structure of boreal caribou across western Canada using non-spatial (STRUCTURE) and spatial (MEMGENE) clustering methods and investigated the relative contribution of IBD and IBR...

Data from: The influence of geomorphic processes on plant distribution and abundance as reflected in plant tolerance curves

Marianne N. Chase, Edward A. Johnson & Yvonne E. Martin
Ecologists describe plant distribution using direct gradient analysis, by which a tolerance curve of species abundance is described along an environmental gradient (any environmental variable that affects plant distribution). Soil moisture is generally the gradient in low relief areas that explains the most variation. Traditional direct gradient analyses have used terrain structure (i.e. transects up or down hillslopes) as a correlate to soil moisture. Here we use a numerical tectonic and geomorphic process-based landscape development...

Data from: Are migratory behaviours of bats socially transmitted?

Erin F. Baerwald & Robert M. R. Barclay
To migrate, animals rely on endogenous, genetically inherited programmes, or socially transmitted information about routes and behaviours, or a combination of the two. In long-lived animals with extended parental care, as in bats, migration tends to be socially transmitted rather than endogenous. For a young bat to learn migration via social transmission, they would need to follow an experienced individual, most likely one roosting nearby. Therefore, we predicted that bats travelling together originate from the...

Data from: New pantolestids (Mammalia; Eutheria) from the late Paleocene (late middle Tiffanian) Roche Percée local fauna, southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada

Brian D. Rankin
The Pantolestidae are an extinct family of mammals known principally from the early Paleocene to late Oligocene (from approximately 64 to 30 million years ago) of North America and Europe. Although never particularly abundant, pantolestids are relatively well represented in the Eocene and Oligocene, with several taxa known from exceptionally well-preserved skulls and postcranial material. The early evolutionary history of the group, however, similar to that of many contemporaneous mammals, remains comparatively poorly known. The...

Data from: How depressed? Estimates of inbreeding effects during seed development depend on reproductive conditions

Lawrence D. Harder, Nina Hobbhahn & Shane A. Richards
Inbreeding depression can reduce the performance of offspring produced by mating between relatives, with consequences for population dynamics and sexual-system evolution. In flowering plants, inbreeding depression commonly acts most intensely during seed development. This predispersal component is typically estimated by comparing seed production following exclusive self- and cross-pollination, but such estimates are unbiased only if seed production is limited by ovule availability, rather than by pollen receipt or seed-development resources. To overcome this problem, we...

Data from: Coevolution of competing Callosobruchus species does not stabilize coexistence

Stephen J. Hausch, Jeremy W. Fox & Steven M. Vamosi
Interspecific resource competition is expected to select for divergence in resource use, weakening interspecific relative to intraspecific competition, thus promoting stable coexistence. More broadly, because interspecific competition reduces fitness, any mechanism of interspecific competition should generate selection favoring traits that weaken interspecific competition. However, species also can adapt to competition by increasing their competitive ability, potentially destabilizing coexistence. We reared two species of bean beetles, the specialist Callosobruchus maculatus and the generalist C. chinensis, in...

Data from: Conservation genetics of prickly sculpin (Cottus asper) at the periphery of its distribution range in Peace River, Canada

Stefan Dennenmoser, Arne W. Nolte, Steven M. Vamosi & Sean M. Rogers
Populations at the edge of their range often invoke taxonomic confusion and are increasingly considered to harbour cryptic genetic diversity of significant adaptive potential. In the Peace River region of northwestern Canada, three sculpin species have been reported: spoonhead (Cottus ricei), slimy (Cottus cognatus) and prickly (Cottus asper) sculpin. Prickly sculpin occurrence in this region represents the most eastern edge of its distribution, but its status has remained uncertain following its initial discovery in 1989....

TRPM8 thermosensation in ectotherms mediates both skin colour and locomotor performance responses to cold temperature

Gabriel Bertolesi, Hannan Malik & Sarah McFarlane
Thermoregulation is a homeostatic process to maintain an organism’s internal temperature within a physiological range compatible with life. In ectotherms, body temperature fluctuates with that of the environment, with both physiological and behavioral responses employed to modify body temperature. Changing skin colour/reflectance and locomotor activity are both well-recognized temperature regulatory mechanisms, but little is known of the participating thermosensor/s. We find that Xenopus laevis tadpoles put in the cold exhibit a temperature-dependent and rapid melanosome...

CaMI Field Research Station Geophone Network (CaMI.FRS)

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Surface and borehole geophones installed within a 1 x 1 km area centered on the injection well of the CaMI Field Research Station. The geophone network records continuously to monitor microseismicity and velocity changes due to shallow CO2 injection. More information on the Field Research Station can be found at https://cmcghg.com/cami/field-research-station/

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