180 Works

Early noninvasive metabolic biomarkers of mutant IDH inhibition in glioma

Marina Radoul, Donghyun Hong, Anne Marie Gillespie, Chloé Najac, Pavithra Viswanath, Russell Pieper, Joseph Costello, Hema Artee Luchman & Sabrina Ronen
Approximately 80% of low-grade glioma (LGGs) harbor mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) driver mutations leading to accumulation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Thus, inhibition of mutant IDH is considered a potential therapeutic target. Several mutant IDH inhibitors are currently in clinical trials, including AG-881 and BAY-1436032. However, to date, early detection of response remains a challenge. In this study we used high resolution 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to identify early noninvasive MR-detectable metabolic biomarkers...

Supplemental material for: Validation of intraluminal filling defect length to identify carotid free-floating thrombus in patients with stroke/TIA

Carlos Torres, Cheemun Lum, Grant Stotts, Michel Shamy, Dylan Blacquiere, Ronda Lun, Prasham Dave, Aditya Bharatha, Rebecca Thornhill, Franco Momoli, Bijoy Menon, Paulo Puac & Dar Dowlatshahi
Objective: To validate a previously proposed filling defect length threshold of >3.8 mm on CT-angiography (CTA) to discriminate between free-floating thrombus (FFT) and plaque of atheroma. Materials and Methods: Prospective multicenter observational study of 100 participants presenting with TIA/stroke symptoms and a carotid intraluminal filling defect on initial CTA. Follow-up CTA was obtained within one week, and at weeks 2 and 4 if the intraluminal filling defect was unchanged in length. Resolution or decreased length...

The influences of progenitor filtering, domestication selection and the boundaries of nature on the domestication of grain crops

Lucas Alejandro Garibaldi, Marcelo Aizen, Agustin Saez, Gabriela Gleiser, Marina Strelin & Lawrence Harder
1. Domestication generally involves two sequential processes: initial identification of wild species with desirable characteristics (“progenitor filtering”); and subsequent artificial and natural selection that respectively improve features preferred by humans and adapt species to cultivation/captivity (“domestication selection”). Consequently, domesticated species can differ from wild species and may share characteristics owing to convergent evolution (“domestication syndrome”). Baring evolutionary constraints, domestication selection may generate extreme phenotypes that transcend the “boundaries of nature” evident for wild species. Despite...

Testing the niche differentiation hypothesis in wild capuchin monkeys with polymorphic color vision

Allegra DePasquale, Shasta Webb, Rachel Williamson, Linda Fedigan & Amanda Melin
The polymorphic color vision system of most North, Central, and South American monkeys is a textbook case of balancing selection, yet the mechanism behind it is poorly understood. Previous work has established task-specific foraging advantages to different color vision phenotypes: dichromats (red-green colorblind) are more efficient foraging for invertebrates, while trichromats (color “normal” relative to humans) are more efficient foraging for “reddish” ripe fruit, suggesting that niche differentiation may underlie the maintenance of color vision...

Data and R code from: GC-MS analysis of murine oestrous odours

Jia Tang
For female mammals, communicating the timing of ovulation is essential for successful reproduction. Urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a key role in intraspecific communication among many mammals. Using laboratory mice as a model species, we investigated urinary VOCs across the oestrous cycle. We monitored the oestrous stage through daily vaginal cytology assessment and analysed urinary VOCs using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), testing the utility of portable GC-MS against the more robust benchtop device....

Microsatellite data for Bull Trout

Steven Vamosi & Emma Carroll
Freshwater ecosystems are negatively impacted by a variety of anthropogenic stressors, with concomitant elevated rates of population decline for freshwater aquatic vertebrates. Because reductions in population size and extent can negatively impact genetic diversity and gene flow, which are vital for sustained local adaptation, it is important to measure these characteristics in threatened species that may yet be rescued from extinction. Across its native range, Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus) extent and abundance are in decline...

The density of anthropogenic features explains seasonal and behaviour-based functional responses in selection of linear features by a social predator

Karine Pigeon, Doug MacNearney, Mark Hebblewhite, Marco Musiani, Jerome Cranston, Gord Stenhouse, Fiona Schmiegelow & Laura Finnegan
Anthropogenic linear features facilitate access and travel efficiency for predators, and can influence predator distribution and encounter rates with prey. We used GPS collar data from eight wolf packs and characteristics of seismic lines to investigate whether (1) ease-of-travel or (2) access to areas presumed to be preferred by prey best explained seasonal selection patterns of wolves near seismic lines, and whether the density of anthropogenic features led to functional responses in habitat selection. At...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

Data from: Diabetes, brain infarcts, cognition and small vessels in the Canadian alliance for healthy hearts and minds study

Hertzel Gerstein, Eric Smith & Chinthanie Ramasundarahettige
Background: Diabetes is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment. The anatomical basis for this is uncertain. Methods: The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) collected brain and carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and two cognitive tests (DSST and MoCA) in a cross-sectional sample of men and women. Brain MRIs identified brain infarcts (BI), lacunar BI, high white matter hyperintensity (WMH), vascular brain injury (VBI - BI or high WMH) and...

Causes and consequences of an unusually male-biased adult sex ratio in an unmanaged feral horse population

Charlotte Regan, Sarah Medill, Jocelyn Poissant & Philip McLoughlin
1. The adult sex ratio (ASR) is important within ecology due to its predicted effects on behaviour, demography, and evolution, but research examining the causes and consequences of ASR bias have lagged behind studies of sex ratios at earlier life stages. Although ungulate ASR is relatively well-studied, exceptions to the usual female-biased ASR challenge our understanding of the underlying drivers of biased ASR, and provide an opportunity to better understand its consequences. 2. Some feral...

The evolution of startle displays: a case study in praying mantises

Marta Vidal-Garcia, James C. O’Hanlon, Gavin J. Svenson & Kate D. L. Umbers
Anti-predator defences are typically regarded as static signals that conceal prey or advertise their unprofitability. However, startle displays are performed by prey when attacked and can include a spectacular array of movements, colours, and sounds. Here we present the first phylogenetically-controlled comparative analyses of startle displays including behaviour, using praying mantises as a test case. For 58 species, with a dated phylogeny, we estimate the strength of phylogenetic signal in the presence and ‘complexity’ (number...

Cryptic speciation in the Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus)

Scott F. Lovell, M. Ross Lein & Sean M. Rogers
Eastern (Vireo gilvus gilvus) and western (V. g. swainsoni) forms of the Warbling Vireo have essentially allopatric breeding ranges across north-central North America, but come into contact in central Alberta, Canada. In 1986, Jon Barlow presented preliminary morphological and song evidence suggesting that the Warbling Vireo complex might comprise more than one valid species. However, to date Barlow’s suggestion is supported by only limited DNA evidence, demonstration of molt and migration differences between the taxa,...

Expansion of rDNA and pericentromere satellite repeats in the genomes of bank voles Myodes glareolus exposed to environmental radionuclides

Toni Jernfors, John Danforth, Jenni Kesäniemi, Anton Lavrinienko, Eugene Tukalenko, Jiří Fajkus, Martina Dvořáčková, Phillip Watts & Tapio Mappes
Altered copy number of certain highly repetitive regions of the genome, such as satellite DNA within heterochromatin and ribosomal RNA loci (rDNA), is hypothesized to help safeguard the genome against damage derived from external stressors. We quantified copy number of the 18S rDNA and a pericentromeric satellite DNA (Msat-160) in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), an area that is contaminated by radionuclides and where organisms are exposed to elevated levels...

Cross-continental comparison of parasite communities in a wide-ranging carnivore suggests associations with prey diversity and host density

Astrid Stronen, Barbara Molnar, Paolo Ciucci, Chris Darimont, Lorenza Grottoli, Paul Paquet, Tim Sallows, Judit Smits & Heather Bryan
Parasites are integral to ecosystem functioning yet often overlooked. Improved understanding of host-parasite associations is important, particularly for wide-ranging species for which host range shifts and climate change could alter host-parasite interactions and their effects on ecosystem function. Among the most widely distributed mammals with diverse diets, grey wolves (Canis lupus) host parasites that are transmitted among canids and via prey species. Grey wolf-parasite associations may therefore influence the population dynamics and ecological functions of...

Data from: A coupled soil water balance model for simulating depression-focused groundwater recharge

Saskia L. Noorduijn, Masaki Hayashi, Getachew A. Mohammed & Aaron A. Mohammed
In arid and semi-arid environments focussed infiltration of rain and snowmelt water under topographic depressions is an important mechanism of groundwater recharge. Quantifying the aggregated recharge from numerous small depressions is a major challenge in water resource management. Building on field-based investigations into the surface water-groundwater interaction of individual depressions and their catchments (i.e. uplands) in the Canadian Prairies, we have developed a simple water balance model to simulate groundwater recharge considering the hydrological coupling...

Data from: Impacts of degraded DNA on restriction enzyme associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq)

Carly F. Graham, Travis C. Glenn, Andrew G. McArthur, Douglas R. Boreham, Troy Kieran, Stacey Lance, Richard G. Manzon, Jessica A. Martino, Todd Pierson, Sean M. Rogers, Joanna Y. Wilson & Christopher M. Somers
Degraded DNA from suboptimal field sampling is common in molecular ecology. However, its impact on techniques that use restriction site associated next-generation DNA sequencing (RADSeq, GBS) is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of in situDNA degradation on data generation for a modified double-digest RADSeq approach (3RAD). We generated libraries using genomic DNA serially extracted from the muscle tissue of 8 individual lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) following 0-, 12-, 48- and 96-h incubation at room...

Data from: Alloparenting is associated with reduced maternal lactation effort and faster weaning in wild chimpanzees

Iulia Badescu, David P. Watts, M. Anne Katzenberg & Daniel W. Sellen
Alloparenting, when individuals other than the mother assist with infant care, can vary between and within populations and has potential fitness costs and benefits for individuals involved. We investigated the effects of alloparenting on the speed with which infants were weaned, a potential component of maternal fitness because of how it can affect inter-birth intervals, in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Uganda. We also provide, to our knowledge, the first description of alloparenting...

Data from: Persistently rare species experience stronger negative frequency dependence than common species: a statistical attractor that is hard to avoid

Jacob Rovere & Jeremy W. Fox
Aim: Why are so many species rare, yet persistent? Possibly, rare species experience strong negative frequency dependence (NFD, i.e. strong intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition), which both makes them rare and buffers them against extinction. A second, not mutually exclusive, possibility is that rare species that experience weak NFD go extinct quickly due to demographic and environmental stochasticity. Both possibilities predict that persistent rare species will experience stronger NFD than common ones. Yenni et...

Data from: The design of a beautiful weapon: compensation for opposing sexual selection on a trait with two functions

Stefan Dennenmoser & John H. Christy
Male fiddler crabs, genus Uca, have one greatly enlarged claw with which they court females and threaten and fight other males. Longer claws are more effective signals but are thought to be less effective weapons because the relative closing force at the tip of the claw decreases with claw length. We studied claw morphology and fighting in Uca terpsichores and Uca beebei and found a mechanism that may resolve opposing selection for signaling and fighting...

Data from: Feather corticosterone reveals stress associated with dietary changes in a breeding seabird

Alexis P. Will, Yutaka Watanuki, Dale M. Kikuchi, Nobuhiko Sato, Motohiro Ito, Matt Callahan, Katherine Wynne-Edwards, Scott Hatch, Kyle H. Elliott, Leslie Slater, Akinori Takahashi, Alexander S. Kitaysky, Kyle Elliott, Alexis Will & Alexander Kitaysky
Changes in climate and anthropogenic pressures might affect the composition and abundance of forage fish in the world's oceans. The junk-food hypothesis posits that dietary shifts that affect the quality (e.g., energy content) of food available to marine predators may impact their physiological state and consequently affect their fitness. Previously, we experimentally validated that deposition of the adrenocortical hormone, corticosterone, in feathers is a sensitive measure of nutritional stress in seabirds. Here, we use this...

Data from: Feeding the enemy: loss of nectar and nectaries to herbivores reduces tepal damage and increases pollinator attraction in Iris bulleyana

Ya-Ru Zhu, Min Yang, Jana C. Vamosi, W. Scott Armbruster, Tao Wan & Yan-Bing Gong
Floral nectar usually functions as a pollinator reward, yet it may also attract herbivores. However, the effects of herbivore consumption of nectar or nectaries on pollination have rarely been tested. We investigated Iris bulleyana, an alpine plant that has showy tepals and abundant nectar, in the Hengduan Mountains of SW China. In this region, flowers are visited mainly by pollen-collecting pollinators and nectarivorous herbivores. We tested the hypothesis that, in I. bulleyana, sacrificing nectar and...

Data from: Inbreeding avoidance and female mate choice shape reproductive skew in capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus imitator)

Eva C. Wikberg, Katherine M. Jack, Linda M. Fedigan, Fernando A. Campos, Akiko S. Yahsima, Mackenzie L. Bergstrom, Tomohide Hiwatashi, Shoji Kawamura, Katharine M. Jack & Akiko S. Yashima
Reproductive skew in multimale groups may be determined by the need for alpha males to offer reproductive opportunities as staying incentives to subordinate males (concessions), by the relative fighting ability of the alpha male (tug-of-war) or by how easily females can be monopolized (priority-of-access). These models have rarely been investigated in species with exceptionally long male tenures, such as white-faced capuchins, where female mate choice for novel unrelated males may be important in shaping reproductive...

Data from: Assessing individual patterns of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in urban coyotes: non-invasive genetic sampling as epidemiological tool

Stefano Liccioli, Sean Rogers, Claudia Greco, Susan J. Kutz, Florence Chan, Kathreen E. Ruckstuhl & Alessandro Massolo
1. In epidemiological studies of wildlife parasites, faecal genotyping has been introduced to prevent bias in estimates of parasite prevalence from faecal samples collected in the field. Such an approach could be particularly relevant in the study of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission in urban settings, where estimates of prevalence and patterns of infection in wild canid hosts are key parameters used in zoonotic risk assessment and management. However, no previous study has evaluated the reliability of...

Dataset: Inverse responses of species richness and niche specialization to human development

Martin Jeanmougin, Cari D. Ficken, Jan J.H. Ciborowski & Rebecca C. Rooney
Humans impact biodiversity by altering land use and introducing nonnative species. Yet the extent to which coexistence processes, such as competition and niche shifts, mediate these relationships is not clear. This dataset was used in a study that aims to compare how human development influences wetland plant diversity by examining patterns of species richness, niche specialization, and nonnative species occurrences along a human development gradient. This dataset can be used to analyzed species richness and...

Using Delaunay triangulation to sample whole-specimen color from digital images

Jennifer Valvo, J. Aponte, Mitch Daniel, Kenna Dwinell, Helen Rodd, David Houle & Kimberly Hughes
1. Color variation is one of the most obvious examples of variation in nature, but biologically meaningful quantification and interpretation of variation in color and complex patterns is challenging. Many current methods for assessing variation in color patterns classify color patterns using categorical measures, provide aggregate measures that ignore spatial pattern, or both, losing potentially important aspects of color pattern. 2. Here, we present Colormesh, a novel method for analyzing complex color patterns that offers...

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