32 Works

Earthworm invasion causes declines across soil fauna size classes and biodiversity facets in northern North American forests

Malte Jochum, Olga Ferlian, Madhav Thakur, Marcel Ciobanu, Bernhard Klarner, Jörg-Alfred Salamon, Lee Frelich, Ed Johnson & Nico Eisenhauer
Anthropogenic pressures alter the biodiversity, structure, and organization of biological communities with severe consequences for ecosystem processes. Species invasion is such a human-induced ecosystem change with pronounced impacts on recipient ecosystems. Around the globe, earthworms invade habitats and impact abiotic soil conditions and a wide range of above- and belowground organisms. In northern North America, where earthworms have been largely absent since the last glaciation period and most earthworm species present today have only been...

Niche Differentiation Data

Shasta Webb, Amanda Melin & Rachel Williamson
Understanding variation in social grouping patterns among animal taxa is an enduring goal of ethologists, who seek to evaluate the selective pressures shaping the evolution of sociality. Cohesive association with conspecifics increases intragroup feeding competition and is posited as an important pressure affecting grouping patterns. Furthermore, in sexually dimorphic species, males and females may have different nutritional requirements, which may lead to suboptimal foraging in mixed-sex groups. How do animals living in permanent social groups...

Repolarization and contractility in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients

Andrew Radbill, Lucy Lei, Sachin Paranjape, Robert Abraham, Derek Chew, Satish Raj & Bjorn Knollmann
Aims: Arrhythmia mechanisms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy remain uncertain. Preclinical models suggest hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutations perturb sarcomere length-dependent activation, alter cardiac repolarization in rate-dependent fashion and potentiate triggered electrical activity. This study was designed to assess rate-dependence of clinical surrogates of contractility and repolarization in humans with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods: All participants had a cardiac implantable device capable of atrial pacing. Cases had clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, controls were age-matched. Continuous electrocardiogram and blood pressure...

Prospective Quantification of CSF Biomarkers in Antibody-Mediated Encephalitis

Gregory Day, Melanie L. Yarbrough, Peter Körtvelyessy, Harald Prüss, Robert C. Bucelli, Marvin J. Fritzler, Warren Mason, David F. Tang-Wai, Claude Steriade, Julien Hébert, Rachel L. Henson, Elizabeth M. Herries, Jack H. Ladenson, A. Sebastian Lopez-Chiriboga, Neill R. Graff-Radford, John C. Morris & Anne Fagan
Objective: To determine whether neuronal and neuroaxonal injury, neuroinflammation, and synaptic dysfunction associate with clinical course and outcomes in antibody-mediated encephalitis (AME), we measured biomarkers of these processes in CSF from patients presenting with AME and cognitively normal individuals. Methods: Biomarkers of neuronal (total tau, VILIP-1) and neuroaxonal damage (neurofilament light chain [NfL]), inflammation (YKL-40), and synaptic function (neurogranin, SNAP-25) were measured in CSF obtained from 45 patients at the time of diagnosis of NMDA...

Hematoma expansion shift analysis to assess acute intracerebral hemorrhage treatments

Vignan Yogendrakumar, Tim Ramsay, Bijoy Menon, Adnan Qureshi, Jeffrey Saver & Dar Dowlatshahi
Objective: Hematoma expansion (HE) is commonly analyzed as a dichotomous outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) trials. In this proof-of-concept study, we propose a “HE shift” analysis model as a method to improve the evaluation of candidate ICH therapies. Methods: Using data from the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage II (ATACH-2) trial, we performed HE shift analysis in response to intensive blood pressure lowering by generating polychotomous strata based on a) previously established HE definitions,...

Data for: Non-host species reduce parasite infection in a focal host species within experimental fish communities

Sangwook Ahn & Cam Goater
The dilution effect describes the negative association between host biodiversity and the risk of infectious disease. Tests designed to understand the relative roles of host species richness, host species identity, and rates of exposure within experimental host communities would help resolve ongoing contention regarding the importance and generality of dilution effects. We exposed fathead minnows to infective larvae of the trematode, Ornithodiplostomum ptychocheilus in minnow-only containers and in mixed containers that held 1-3 other species...

Distinct type II opsins in the eye decode light properties for background adaptation and behavioural background preference

Gabriel Bertolesi, Nilakshi Debnath, Karen Atkinson-Leadbeater, Anna Niedzwiecka & Sarah McFarlane
Crypsis increases survival by reducing predator detection. Xenopus laevis tadpoles decode light properties from the substrate to induce two responses: A cryptic coloration response where dorsal skin pigmentation is adjusted to the colour of the substrate (background adaptation) and a behavioural crypsis where organisms move to align with a specific colour surface (background preference). Both processes require organisms to detect reflected light from the substrate. We explored the relationship between background adaptation and preference and...

Genome-wide shifts in climate-related variation underpin responses to selective breeding in a widespread conifer

Ian MacLachlan, Tegan McDonald, Brandon Lind, Loren Rieseberg, Samuel Yeaman & Sally Aitken
Locally adapted temperate tree populations exhibit genetic trade-offs among climate-related traits that can be exacerbated by selective breeding, and are challenging to manage under climate change. To inform climatically adaptive forest management, we investigated the genetic architecture and impacts of selective breeding on four climate-related traits in 105 natural and 20 selectively bred lodgepole pine populations from western Canada. Growth, cold injury and growth initiation and growth cessation phenotypes were tested for associations with 18,600...

Repurposing Domperidone in Secondary Progressive MS - A Simon 2-Stage Phase 2 Futility Trial - Table e1: Results of the binary logistic regression model

Marcus Koch
Objective: To assess whether treatment with the generic drug domperidone can reduce the progression of disability in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), we conducted a phase 2 futility trial following the Simon two-stage design. Methods: We enrolled patients in an open-label, Simon two-stage, single-center, phase 2, single-arm futility trial at the Calgary MS Clinic if they met the following criteria: age 18 to 60 years, SPMS, screening EDSS score of 4.0 to 6.5 and screening...

Temporal trends in case fatality, discharge destination, and admission to long-term care after acute stroke

Raed Joundi
Objective: To determine contemporary trends in case fatality, discharge destination, and admission to long-term care after acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a large, population-based cohort. Methods: We used linked administrative data to identify all emergency department visits and hospital admissions for first-ever ischemic stroke or ICH in Ontario, Canada from 2003-2017. We calculated crude and age/sex-standardized risk of death at 30 days and 1 year from stroke onset. We stratified crude trends...

High-value plant metabolite production in synthetic biosystems

Qiushi Li, Jeremy Morris, Peter Facchini & Sam Yeaman
Ephedra sinica is a high-value medicinal plant that produces important phenylpropylamino alkaloids pseudoephedrine and ephedrine. Few genomics resources exist for E. sinica, which has been characterized as a tetraploid with a monoploid genome size of 8.56 Gb. Here we reported a partial genome assembly of E. sinica (12.8 Gb) based on Illumina short-read sequencing technology at low coverage.

Primordial GATA6 macrophages function as extravascular platelets in sterile injury

Joel Zindel, Moritz Peiseler, Mokarram Hossain, Carsten Deppermann, Woo Yong Lee, Beat Haenni, Bas Surewaard, Daniel Candinas & Paul Kubes
Most multicellular organisms have a major body cavity that harbors immune cells. In primordial species like purple sea urchins, these cells perform phagocytic functions but are also crucial in repairing injuries. In mammals, the peritoneal cavity contains large numbers of resident GATA6+ macrophages, which may play a similar role. It is unclear how cavity macrophages suspended in the fluid phase (peritoneal fluid) identify and migrate towards injuries, however. Here, we show that cavity macrophages in...

Behavioral responses by a bumble bee to competition with a niche-constructing congener

Nick Rosenberger, Marcelo Aizen, Rachel Dickson & Lawrence Harder
While feeding, foragers can alter their environment. Such alteration constitutes ecological niche construction (ENC) if it enables future benefits for the constructor and conspecific individuals. The environmental modification may also affect non-constructing, bystander species, especially if they share resources with constructor species. If so, ENC could confer the constructor species a competitive advantage by both enhancing its foraging returns and reducing those of bystander species. Expectations – (E1) ENC frequency should vary positively with the...

Diet variation driven by color vision phenotype in wild capuchin monkeys

Allegra DePasquale & Amanda Melin
The polymorphic color vision of platyrrhine monkeys is a fascinating example of balancing selection acting on multiple genetic and phenotypic morphs. Yet, the mechanism of natural selection maintaining this variation remains elusive. Past research has demonstrated task-specific foraging advantages to dichromatic (two-opsin vision, red-green colorblind) and trichromatic (three-opsin vision, human “normal”) monkeys, raising the potential for dietary niche differentiation. We ask whether color vision type influences diet variation in a population of wild, white-faced capuchins...

Haploid, diploid, and pooled exome capture recapitulate features of biology and paralogy in two non-model tree species

Brandon Lind, Mengmeng Lu, Dragana Obreht Vidakovic, Pooja Singh, Tom Booker, Sally Aikten & Sam Yeaman
Despite their suitability for studying evolution, many conifer species have large and repetitive giga-genomes (16-31Gbp) that create hurdles to producing high coverage SNP datasets that capture diversity from across the entirety of the genome. Due in part to multiple ancient whole genome duplication events, gene family expansion and subsequent evolution within Pinaceae, false diversity from the misalignment of paralog copies creates further challenges in accurately and reproducibly inferring evolutionary history from sequence data. Here, we...

The energetic basis for smooth human arm movements

Jeremy Wong
The central nervous system plans human reaching movements with stereotypically smooth kinematic trajectories and fairly consistent durations. Smoothness seems to be explained by accuracy as a primary movement objective, whereas duration seems to avoid excess energy expenditure. But energy does not explain smoothness, so that two aspects of the same movement are governed by seemingly incompatible objectives. Here we show that smoothness is actually economical, because humans expend more metabolic energy for jerkier motions. The...

CaMI Field Research Station Geophone Network (CaMI.FRS)

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Surface and borehole geophones installed within a 1 x 1 km area centered on the injection well of the CaMI Field Research Station. The geophone network records continuously to monitor microseismicity and velocity changes due to shallow CO2 injection. More information on the Field Research Station can be found at https://cmcghg.com/cami/field-research-station/

Progressive neurochemical abnormalities in cognitive and motor subgroups of ALS: a prospective multicentre study

Daniel Ta, Abdullah Ishaque, Ojas Srivastava, Chris Hanstock, Peter Seres, Dean Eurich, Collin Luk, Hannah Briemberg, Richard Frayne, Angela Genge, Simon Graham, Lawrence Korngut, Lorne Zinman & Sanjay Kalra
Objective: To evaluate progressive cerebral degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by assessing alterations in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) ratios in the motor and prefrontal cortex within clinical subgroups of ALS. Methods: Seventy-six ALS patients and 59 healthy controls were enrolled a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study in the Canadian ALS Neuroimaging Consortium (CALSNIC). Participants underwent serial clinical evaluations and MRS at baseline, 4 and 8 months using a harmonized protocol across 5 centers. NAA ratios were quantified...

Tropical mammal functional diversity increases with productivity but decreases with anthropogenic disturbance

Daniel Gorczynski, Chia Hsieh, Jadelys Tonos Luciano, Jorge Ahumada, Santiago Espinosa, Steig Johnson, Francesco Rovero, Fernanda Santos, Mahandry Hugues Andrianarisoa, Johanna Hurtado Astaiza, Patrick A. Jansen, Charles Kayijamahe, Marcela Guimarães Moreira Lima, Julia Salvador & Lydia Beaudrot
A variety of factors can affect the biodiversity of tropical mammal communities, but their relative importance and directionality remain uncertain. Previous global investigations of mammal functional diversity have relied on range maps instead of observational data to determine community composition. We test the effects of species pools, habitat heterogeneity, primary productivity and human disturbance on the functional diversity (dispersion and richness) of mammal communities using the largest standardized tropical forest camera trap monitoring system, the...

Association between physical activity and mortality among community-dwelling stroke survivors

Raed Joundi
Objective: To determine the relationship between physical activity and mortality in community-dwelling stroke survivors. Methods: The Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain self-reported physical activity (PA) across four survey years and was linked to administrative databases to obtain prior diagnosis of stroke and subsequent all-cause mortality. PA was measured as metabolic equivalents (METs) per week and meeting minimal PA guidelines was defined as 10 MET-hours/week. Cox proportional hazard regression models and restricted cubic...

3D images of a turtle embryo

Yuzheng Ke, Rui Wu, Darla Zelenitsky, Don Brinkman, Jinfeng Hu, Shukang Zhang, Haishui Jiang & Fenglu Han
Turtle eggs containing embryos are exceedingly rare in the fossil record. Here, we provide the first description and taxonomic identification, to our knowledge, of a fossilized embryonic turtle preserved in an egg, a fossil recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Xiaguan Formation of Henan Province, China. Through Computed Tomography and Three-Dimensional reconstruction, many bones can be clearly displayed, including the maxillae, mandibles, ribs, plastral plates, scapula, forelimbs, and hind limbs. The specimen is attributed to the...

The density of anthropogenic features explains seasonal and behaviour-based functional responses in selection of linear features by a social predator

Karine Pigeon, Doug MacNearney, Mark Hebblewhite, Marco Musiani, Jerome Cranston, Gord Stenhouse, Fiona Schmiegelow & Laura Finnegan
Anthropogenic linear features facilitate access and travel efficiency for predators, and can influence predator distribution and encounter rates with prey. We used GPS collar data from eight wolf packs and characteristics of seismic lines to investigate whether (1) ease-of-travel or (2) access to areas presumed to be preferred by prey best explained seasonal selection patterns of wolves near seismic lines, and whether the density of anthropogenic features led to functional responses in habitat selection. At...

Testing the niche differentiation hypothesis in wild capuchin monkeys with polymorphic color vision

Allegra DePasquale, Shasta Webb, Rachel Williamson, Linda Fedigan & Amanda Melin
The polymorphic color vision system of most North, Central, and South American monkeys is a textbook case of balancing selection, yet the mechanism behind it is poorly understood. Previous work has established task-specific foraging advantages to different color vision phenotypes: dichromats (red-green colorblind) are more efficient foraging for invertebrates, while trichromats (color “normal” relative to humans) are more efficient foraging for “reddish” ripe fruit, suggesting that niche differentiation may underlie the maintenance of color vision...

Microsatellite data for Bull Trout

Steven Vamosi & Emma Carroll
Freshwater ecosystems are negatively impacted by a variety of anthropogenic stressors, with concomitant elevated rates of population decline for freshwater aquatic vertebrates. Because reductions in population size and extent can negatively impact genetic diversity and gene flow, which are vital for sustained local adaptation, it is important to measure these characteristics in threatened species that may yet be rescued from extinction. Across its native range, Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus) extent and abundance are in decline...

The influences of progenitor filtering, domestication selection and the boundaries of nature on the domestication of grain crops

Lucas Alejandro Garibaldi, Marcelo Aizen, Agustin Saez, Gabriela Gleiser, Marina Strelin & Lawrence Harder
1. Domestication generally involves two sequential processes: initial identification of wild species with desirable characteristics (“progenitor filtering”); and subsequent artificial and natural selection that respectively improve features preferred by humans and adapt species to cultivation/captivity (“domestication selection”). Consequently, domesticated species can differ from wild species and may share characteristics owing to convergent evolution (“domestication syndrome”). Baring evolutionary constraints, domestication selection may generate extreme phenotypes that transcend the “boundaries of nature” evident for wild species. Despite...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    32

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    32

Affiliations

  • University of Calgary
    31
  • University of Toronto
    4
  • University of British Columbia
    3
  • University of Montana
    2
  • University of Alberta
    2
  • University of Bern
    2
  • National University of Comahue
    2
  • Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí
    1
  • Charité
    1
  • New York University Langone Medical Center
    1